Anton Wilhelm Amo

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Anton Wilhelm Amo
Denkmal Amo.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Axim (en) Fassara, 1703
ƙasa Ghana
Mutuwa Ghana, 1759
Karatu
Makaranta University of Helmstedt (en) Fassara
University of Halle-Wittenberg (en) Fassara
Harsuna Harshen Latin
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai Falsafa, university teacher (en) Fassara da marubuci
Employers University of Jena (en) Fassara
University of Halle-Wittenberg (en) Fassara
University of Wittenberg (en) Fassara

Anton Wilhelm Amo ko Anthony William Amo (cf. 1703 - c. 1759) ya kasance masanin falsafar Afirka ne daga asalin ƙasar Ghana ta yanzu. Amo ya kasance farfesa a jami'o'in Halle da Jena a Jamus bayan ya yi karatu a can. Kamfanin Dutch West India Company ne suka kawo shi Jamus a shekarar 1707 a matsayin bawa, kuma aka ba su kyauta ga Dukes August Wilhelm da Ludwig Rudolf von Wolfenbüttel, mahaifinsu Anthony Ulrich ne ya ba shi kulawa a matsayin memba na iyali, Duke na Brunswick -Wolfenbüttel. Amo shi ne ɗan asalin Afirka na farko da aka sani ya halarci jami'ar Turai.

Rayuwar farko da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar zuwa Anton Wilhelm Amo, quadrangle, Jami'ar Wittenberg

Amo ya kasance Nzema (mutanen Akan). An haifeshi ne a garin Axim a yankin yamma na kasar Ghana ta yanzu, amma yana da shekaru kusan hudu sai kamfanin Dutch West India suka dauke shi zuwa Amsterdam. Wasu bayanan sun ce an dauke shi a matsayin bawa, wasu kuma cewa wani mai wa'azin da ke aiki a Ghana ne ya tura shi Amsterdam. Gaskiyar magana ita ce an ba shi "kyauta" ga Anthony Ulrich, Duke na Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, wanda aka kai shi fadarsa a Wolfenbüttel.

Amo ya yi baftisma (kuma daga baya aka tabbatar da shi) a cikin ɗakin sujada na fada. An yi masa ɗawainiya a matsayin ɗan gidan Duke, kuma ya sami ilimi a Wolfenbüttel Ritter-Akademie (1717-21) da kuma a Jami'ar Helmstedt (1721-27).

Ya ci gaba zuwa Jami'ar Halle, wacce ya shiga Makarantar Shari'a a 1727. Ya gama karatunsa na share fage a cikin shekaru biyu, ya ba da taken nasa mai suna Dissertatio Inauguralis de Jure Maurorum in Europa (1729). Wannan rubutun a kan The Rights of Moors in Europe ya ɓace, amma an buga taƙaitaccen bayani a cikin Annals na jami'ar sa (1730). Don karatunsa na gaba Amo ya koma Jami'ar Wittenberg, yana karatun dabaru, ilimin lissafi, ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, ilimin taurari, tarihin, doka, ilimin tauhidi, siyasa, da magani, kuma ya ƙware da harsuna shida (Ingilishi, Faransanci, Dutch, Latin, Girkanci, da Jamusanci) . Ilimin likitanci musamman shine ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a yawancin tunaninsa na falsafa daga baya.

Ya sami digirin na uku a falsafa a Wittenberg a 1734; rubutunsa (wanda aka buga kamar yadda On the Absence of Sensation in the Human Mind and its Presence in our Organic and Living Body) yayi jayayya game da tagwayen Cartesian don nuna fifikon zahiri game da mutum. Ya yarda cewa daidai ne a yi magana game da tunani ko ruhi, amma ya yi jayayya cewa jiki ne maimakon hankali wanda ke fahimta da ji.


Duk abin da ya ji, yana rayuwa; duk abin da yake rayuwa, ya dogara da abinci; duk abin da ya rayu kuma ya dogara da abinci ya girma; duk abin da yake wannan dabi'ar a ƙarshe an warware shi zuwa cikin ƙa'idodinsa na asali; duk abin da za a warware a cikin ka'idojinsa na asali hadadden abu ne; kowane hadadden yana da bangarorinsa; duk abin da wannan gaskiyar yake to jiki ne mai rarraba. Idan saboda haka hankalin ɗan adam ya ji, to ya zama jiki ne mai raba.



(A Ἀπάθεια (Apatheia) of the Human Mind 2.1)

Aikin falsafa da rayuwa ta gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amo ya koma Jami'ar Halle don yin karatu a falsafa a karkashin sunan da ya fi so na Antonius Guilelmus Amo Afer. A 1736 ya zama farfesa. Daga karatuttukansa, ya samar da babban aiki na biyu a cikin 1738, Treatise on the Art of Philosophising Soberly and Accurately, wanda a ciki ya kirkiro ilimin kimiya na kusanci sosai amma ya sha bamban da na masana falsafa kamar John Locke da David Hume. A ciki ya kuma bincika kuma ya soki kurakurai kamar rashin gaskiyar ilimi, koyarwar akida, da nuna wariya.

A cikin 1740 Amo ya sami mukamin falsafa a Jami'ar Jena, amma yayin da yake can ya sami canje-canje da yawa don munana. Duke na Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel ya mutu a 1735, ya bar shi ba tare da tsohon mai kula da shi da mai kare shi ba. Hakan ya yi daidai da canje-canje na zamantakewar jama'a a cikin Jamus, wanda ke zama mai ƙarancin fahimta da ɗabi'a kuma mai sassaucin ra'ayi. Wadanda suka yi jayayya game da batun wariyar da ilimi (da kuma 'yancin Afirka a Turai) suna sake dawowa kan wadanda suka yi yakin neman babban ilimi da zamantakewar al'umma, kamar su Christian Wolff.

Amo ya shiga wani kamfen mara dadi daga wasu makiyansa, gami da taron jama'a da aka shirya a gidan wasan kwaikwayo a Halle. A ƙarshe ya yanke shawarar komawa ƙasar haihuwarsa. Ya tashi a cikin jirgin ruwan Kamfanin Yammacin Indiya na Dutch zuwa Ghana ta Guinea, yana isowa kusan 1747; mahaifinsa da 'yar'uwarsa suna zaune a can. Rayuwarsa daga nan ta zama ba ta da duhu. A cewar aƙalla rahoto ɗaya, an kai shi wani sansanin soja na Dutch, Fort San Sebastian a Shama, a cikin 1750s, ƙila don hana shi shuka rashin yarda a tsakanin mutanensa. Ba a san takamaiman kwanan wata, wuri, da yanayin da ya mutu ba, duk da cewa mai yiwuwa ya mutu a kusan 1759 a sansanin soja da ke Shama a Ghana.

Gado[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci Amo a cikin Abbé Grégoire's De(1808).

A watan Agusta na 2020, a cikin 'batun mulkin mallaka' na sunayen wuri bayan mutuwar George Floyd, babban birnin Jamus Berlin ya yanke shawarar sake sunan Mohrenstraße zuwa "Anton-Wilhelm-Amo-Straße" don girmama shi.

A 10 Oktoba 2020, Google ta yi bikin sa da Google Doodle.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dissertatio inauguralis de iure maurorum in Europa, 1729 (rasa).
  • Dissertatio inauguralis de humanae mentis apatheia, Wittenberg, 1734.
  • Disputatio philosophica continens ideam distinctam eorum quae competunt vel menti vel corpori nostro vivo et organico, Wittenberg, 1734(Ph.D. rubutun).
  • Tractatus de arte sobrie et accurate philosophandi, 1738.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Abraham, William E. (1996). "The Life and Times of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first African (black) Philosopher in Europe". In Asante, Molefi Kete; Abarry, Abu S. (eds.). African Intellectual Heritage. A Book of Sources. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. pp. 424–440. ISBN 1-5663-9403-1. Cite uses deprecated parameter |editorlink= (help)
  • Abraham, William E. (2001). "Amo". In Arrington, Robert L. (ed.). A Companion to the Philosophers. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22967-1.
  • Amo, Anton Wilhelm (1968). Antonius Gvilielmus Amo Afer of Axim in Ghana: Translation of his Works. Halle: Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg.
  • Brentjes, Burchhard (1969). "Anton Wilhelm Amo in Halle, Wittenberg, und Jena". Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung (in German). XV: 56–76.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Firla, Monika (2002). "Anton Wilhelm Amo (Nzema, Rep. Ghana) — Kammermohr, Privatdozent für Philosophie, Wahrsager" [Anton Wilhelm Amo... Valet Moor, Private Lecturer of Philosophy, Fortune Teller]. Tribus (in German). 51: 55–90.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Glötzner, Johannes (2002). "Anton Wilhelm Amo. Ein Philosoph aus Afrika im Deutschland des 18. Jahrhunderts" (in German). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Glötzner, Johannes (2003). "Der Mohr. Leben, Lieben und Lehren des ersten afrikanischen Doctors der Weltweisheit Anton Wilhelm Amo" (in German). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Herbjørnsrud, Dag (2017) The African Enlightenment, edited by Sam Dresser, AEON, 13 December 2017
  • King, Peter J. (2004). One Hundred Philosophers. New York: Barron's Educational Books. ISBN 0-7641-2791-8.
  • Kwame, Safro, ed. (1995). "On the Απαθεια of the Human Mind". Readings in African Philosophy: An Akan Collection. University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-9911-7.
  • Martin, Peter (1993). "Der schwarze Philosoph" [The black Philosopher]. In Martin, Peter (ed.). Schwarze Teufel, Edle Mohren [Black Devils, Noble Moors] (in German). Hamburg: Junius. ISBN 3-930908-64-6.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Smith, Justin E. H. (2013). "The Enlightenment’s ‘Race’ Problem, and Ours"