Babban cocin Bitrus

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Babban cocin Bitrus
Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano September 2015-1a.jpg
major basilica, papal basilica, tourist attraction, landmark, parish church
bangare naSeven Pilgrim Churches of Rome Gyara
farawa18 ga Afirilu, 1506 Gyara
sunan hukumaBasilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano, Basilica Sancti Petri Gyara
native labelBasilica Sancti Petri, Basilica di San Pietro Gyara
named after1 Bitrus Gyara
founded byJulius II Gyara
cultureRenaissance Gyara
ƙasaVatican Gyara
located in the administrative territorial entityVatican Gyara
dioceseRoman Catholic Diocese of Rome Gyara
coordinate location41°54′8″N 12°27′12″E Gyara
addiniCocin katolika Gyara
significant eventdedication, start of manufacturing or construction Gyara
dedicated to1 Bitrus Gyara
material usedcement, marble Gyara
award receivedGolden Rose Gyara
architectural styleRenaissance architecture, baroque architecture Gyara
structure replacesOld St. Peter's Basilica Gyara
heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site Gyara
located on streetSaint Peter's Square Gyara
official websitehttp://www.vatican.va/various/basiliche/san_pietro/index_it.htm Gyara
patron saint1 Bitrus Gyara
World Heritage criteriamasterpiece of human creative genius, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design, object illustrates significant stage in human history, cultural object with outstanding universal significance Gyara
category for the interior of the itemCategory:Interior of Saint Peter's Basilica Gyara
Cocin Bitrus

Bazilikar Bitrus ko Babban cocin Bitrus, (Turanci Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican), ginin Coci ne dake a birnin Vatican wanda yake cikin birnin Rome. An gina Cocin cikin salon gini na Renaissance.

Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno da Gian Lorenzo Bernini ne suka tsara ginin Cocin.[1] ginin na daga cikin jerin manya manyan gine gine a duniya.[2] Ana kiran Cocin da Uwar Cocinan Katolika, sannan tana daya daga majami'u masu tsarki a duniyar Kiristoci.[3] [1][4]

Babbar Cocin Saint Peter's Basilica ita ce coci mafi girma a duniya, wanda kuma take a kasar Vatican- kasa mafi kankanta a duniya- wadda take a cikin birnin Rum.

Bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birnin Vatican shi ne hedikwatar Cocin Katolika kuma mazaunar Fafaroma. Mabiya addinin Kirista musamman ma 'yan darikar Katolika, na matukar girmama majami'ar St. Peter's kuma sun amince cewa an gina cocin ne a kan kabarin Peter, shugaban sahabban Annabi Isa 12 kuma Fafaroma na farko, wanda kuma ake tunanin cewa shi ne jagoran addinin kirista na farko. Mabiya Katolika sun amince kabarin na dai-dai karkashin mumbari mafi tsawo a majami'ar. A dalilin haka, an sha binne fafaromomi a cocin tun farkon kafuwar addinin Kirista.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihi ya nuna cewa an gina majami'ar Saint Peter a karni na 4 lokacin mulkin Sarki Constantine - sarkin Rum na farko kirista- tsakanin shekarun 319 zuwa 333 bayan mutuwar Annabi Isa. Daga baya ginin cocin ya fara lalacewa, sai Fafaroma Julius II ya dauki matakin rushe shi ya gina sabo. Wannan ya jawo lalacewar kayan tarihi da gumaka masu dumbin muhimmanci. An kwashe tsawon shekaru 219 ana sake gina cocin daga shekara ta 1506 zuwa ta 1626. Majami'ar Saint Peter ta mamaye fili mai girman mita 220 a fadi kuma mita 150 a tsawo. Tana da hasumiyoyi da gumaka da manyan kofofi masu kyawun gaske. Ana ganin Majami'ar Saint Peter's a matsayin wuri mafi tsarki a darikar Katolika. An bayyana shi a matsayin wuri mai muhimmanci kuma majami'a mafi tasiri a addinin kirista.

Zama wajen ibada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majami'ar Saint Peter wuri ne na ibada kuma Fafaroma ya kan jagoranci jam'in ibadu a cikinta ko a dandalin Saint Peter wanda shi ne farfajiyar gaban majami'ar. Dubban mutane kama daga 15,000 zuwa sama da 80,000 kan taru duk shekara don yin ibada a cikin cocin. Majami'ar na daya daga cikin manyan majami'u hudu a duniya da ake musu inkiya da 'Basilica' kuma dukansu a birnin Rum suke.

Hasumiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hasumiyar Saint Peter na daya daga cikin manyan husumiyoyi a duniya, kuma ta kawatar da gaba daya birnin Vatican. Hasumiyar na dai-dai karkashin babban mumbarin cocin ne, kuma an yi mata ado da kananan gilasai da wani irin siminti mai sumul-sumul. Ginshikai hudu ne suka tallafe hasumiyar kuma akwai wata fitila mai haske a dai-dai tsakiyarta. A jikinta, an yi rubutu da manyan haruffa wanda aka kewaye da fenti mai ruwan zinare. Abin da aka rubuta- "Daga nan, addini daya ya haska gaba daya duniya"; da kuma "Daga nan aka haifi hadin kan limancin coci."

Kofofi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai kofofi da dama a cikin majami'ar Saint Peter, kuma ko wacce na nuni ga wani abu mai muhimmanci da ya faru a tarihi.

  • Kofar Mutuwa- Wannan kofar ta samu sunanta ne saboda a zamanin da ta nan ake fitar da gawa idan za a binne ta.
  • Kofar abin kirki da na tsiya- Ita wannan kofar an bai wa Fafaroma Paul na 6 ne ranar zagayowar ranar haihuwarsa ta 80. Bangaren dama na kofar na nuna abin kirki yayin da gefen hagu ke nuna abin tsiya.
  • Kofar Filarete- Wannan ita ce kofar tsakiya kuma wadda ta fi ko wacce tsufa a majami'ar. Fafaroma Antonio Averulino ne ya kaddamar 1445. Kofar na da bangarori 6.
  • Kofar Al'adun darikar katolika- Ta wannan kofar ake shiga majami'ar.
  • Kofa mai tsarki- Ba a bude wannan kofar sai bayan shekaru 25, wato sai a shekara mai tsarki (Jubilee).

An kera wadannan kofofin wannan majami'a da tagulla kuma an yi masu zane-zane masu daukar hankali. Kofar shiga cocin, wadda ake kira Holy Door, babbar kofa ce da aka kera da tagulla. Ba a bude kofar wadda ake wa lakabi da 'Porta Sancta' sai bayan shekaru 25, wato sai a shekara mai tsarki (Jubilee). A ranar farko ta shekara mai tsarki, Fafaroma na bugun bangon da kofar ke jiki da wata gudumar azurfa, sannan ya bude kofar ga masu ibada. Wannan na nuni ne ga cewa rahamar Ubangiji za ta iske dan Adam.

Gumaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majami'ar Saint Peter na dauke da gumaka masu dimbin yawa wanda masu kere-kere da sassaka suka yi tun karni na 8. Daya daga cikin irin wadannan masu sassaka sun hada da shahararren mai sassaka gumaka kuma mai zane Michelangelo wanda ya yi suna a tarihinItaliya Da yawa daga cikin gumakan da ke cikin wannan majami'a shi ya sassaka su haka nan kuma shi ya yi wasu zane-zane a cikinta.


Kaburbura[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai kaburbura sama da 100 a cikin majami'ar St. Peter's kuma da yawansu a karkashin majami'ar suke. Cikinsu akwai kaburburan Fafaroma 91. Ko wane Fafaroma, a lokacin da yake da rai, kan shirya yadda yake so a yi jana'izarsa. Zai bayyana wasiyyarsa da kuma sakonsa na karshe ga mabiyansa. A kan yi zaman makoki na kwana tara a duk lokacin da Fafaroma ya mutu, kuma a wannan lokaci majami'ar kan kasance ba ta da shugaba. A kan binne Fafaroman ne kwanaki hudu zuwa shidda bayan rasuwarsa, kuma a cikin majami'ar Saint Peter's ake gudanar da jana'izar wacce take samun halarta manyan malaman addinin Kirista da shugabannin kasashe da masu fada-a-ji a duniya. Jana'iza ta baya-bayan nan da aka yi a majami'ar ita ce ta Fafaroma John Paul II ran 8 ga watan Afrilun 2005.

Fafaroma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin mukamin Fafaroma ya samo asali ne tun lokacin Saint Peter, saboda tarihi ya nuna cewa shi ne Fafaroma na farko a duniya. Kawo yanzu, an yi Fafaroma 266 tun daga wancan lokacin. Fafaroma Francis shi ne mai ci yanzu kuma ya karba ne daga hannun Fafaroma Benedict XVI a shekarar 2013. Fafaroma Benedict ya yi murabus ne ran 28 ga watan Fabrairun 2013 bisa dalilin rashin lafiya da tsufa. Shi ne Fafaroma na farko da ya yi murabus tun Fafaroma Gregory XII a shekarar 1415. Matakin Fafaroma Benedict ya bayar da mamaki saboda ba a saba ganin haka ba. An fara zaman tantance wanda zai gaje shi ran 12 ga watan Maris a shekarar 2013 kuma kwamitin ya zabi Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop na Buenos Aires a Argentina wanda ya sauya sunansa zuwa Francis.

Yadda ake zaben fafaroma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The exterior of the basilica on a sunny day. In the foreground, hundreds of robed priests look towards a podium where there is an altar, and a group of white robed figures attends the Pope.
Rantsuwar Pope Francis a 2013

Akwai kwamitin manyan malaman coci, wato College of Cardinals, da ke taruwa don zaben Fafaroma a duk lokacin da bukatar hakan ta taso. Ana zaben Fafaroma ne a yanayi na sirri, inda ake kulle manyan malaman a wani wuri da babu wanda ya san shi da makulli a cikin Vatican har sai sun cimma matsaya. A kan dauki tsawon lokaci wani lokjaci kwanaki da yawa kafin su zabi Fafaroman. A zamanin da, a kan kwashi tsawon makwanni ko watanni. Kuma wasu manyan malaman coci sun sha mutuwa a lokacin da suke a kulle wajen zaben Fafaroma. A kan bi wannan tsari ne don a hana duk wani bayani kan zaben fita waje. Da zarar an rufe malaman, ba za su sake fitowa ba har sai sun amince a kan sabon Fafaroma kuma a na za su ci abinci su yi bacci. Ba su da wata alaka da waje, babu radiyo babu talabijin kuma babu jaridu da wayoyin hannu. A kan bar likitoci biyu su shiga don tsaron lafiyar malaman, sai kuma masu shara da kula da wajen da malaman suke. Amma fa sai likitocin da masu gyara wajen sun yi rantsuwar matse bakunansu. A baya, idan daya daga cikin wadanda ake fatan ya zama Fafaroma ya samu kuri'u biyu cikin uku daga malaman majami'ar ya yi nasara kuma za a nada shi fafaroma. Da Fafaroma John Paul II ya hau, sai ya sauya dokokin, kuma ya ce idan aka kwashe kwanaki 12 ana zabe amma aka kasa cimma matsaya, sai a zabi wanda ke da rinjayen kuri'u da kashi 50 cikin 100. Amma Fafaroma Benedict ya soke wannan mayaki na Fafaroma John Paul II ya mayar da dokar da ake da ita a baya. A karshen zaben, ana rubuta sakamakon a kan wata takadda sannan a bai wa sabon Fafaroman. Sai a sa ta a wata ambulan a like sannan ajiye ta a wani waje na sirri, kuma ba za a fito da ita ba sai idan Fafaroma ya ba umarnin yin hakan. Alama daya kan abin da ke faruwa a cikin dakin shi ne hayaki da ke fitowa daga wani dan bututu a saman Sistine Chapel wanda ke nuna cewa ana kona takaddun kada kuri'a. Bakin hayaki na nuna cewa an gaza cimma matsaya, yayin da farin hayaki ke nuna cewa an zabi fafaroma.

Dandalin Saint Peter[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dandalin Saint Peter

Gagarumin Cocin Saint Peter na fuskantar Dandalin Saint Peter a birnin Vatican, dandali mai girman gaske kuma mai daukar hankali saboda fadinsa da yadda aka tsara shi. Sai an ratsa ta dandalin sannan ake shiga majami'ar. A daidai tsakiyar dandalin, akwai wani dogo kuma siririn gini mai tsini daga samansa wanda aka gina a shekarar 1586. Tarihi ya nuna cewa wannan siririn ginin dai na nuna ban girma ne ga abubuwan bauta na da, kuma ana iya ganin irinsa a kasashe masu tarihi kamar Masar da Burtaniya da Faransa da Italiya da dai sauransu. Shahararren mai sassaka gumakan nan Gian Lorenzo Bernini ne ya zana tsarin dandalin. Dandalin na da muhimmanci a tarihin addinin Kirista saboda mabiya addinin sun yi imani cewa Kiristoci da yawa ciki har da Saint Peter sun yi mutu a dandalin.

Babu shakka, Majami'ar Saint Peter na daga cikin wurare masu daukar hankali a duniya, saboda tasirinta da tsarin yadda aka ginata da kuma muhimmancinta ga mabiya addinin Kirista da sauran mutane ma'abota tarihi da masu sha'awar kayatattun gine-gine.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Banister Fletcher, the renowned architectural historian calls it "the greatest creation of the Renaissance" and "... the greatest of all churches of Christendom" in Template:Harvnb.Template:Clarify
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named size
  3. James Lees-Milne describes St. Peter's Basilica as "a church with a unique position in the Christian world" in Template:Harvnb.
  4. "St. Peter's Basilica (Basilica di San Pietro) in Rome, Italy". reidsitaly.com. 
  5. "The Seminarian GuidesNorth American College, Rome". saintpetersbasilica.org. Retrieved 29 July 2009.