Basmala

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Wikidata.svgBasmala
saying (en) Fassara
Bismillah-hir-Rahman-ir-Raheem.jpg
Bayanai
Suna a harshen gida بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ da بسملة‎‎
Harshen aiki ko suna Larabci
Facet of (en) Fassara Musulunci
Kira na Basmala
Calligraphic rendition of the Bismillah
Fassarar kiraigraphic na Basmala
Kira na Mughal-era

Basmala (Larabci: بَسْمَلَة, basmalah; wanda kuma aka sani ta hanyar Bi-smi llāh; بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ, "Da sunan Allah",[1] ko Tasmiyah, تَسْمِيَّة) shine jumlar musulunci bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi ( بِسْمِ ٱللَّٰهِ ٱلرَّحْمَٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ), "Da sunan Allah, Mai rahama, Mai jin ƙai." Yana ɗaya daga cikin mafi mahimmancin jumla a cikin Islama kuma musulmai suna amfani da shi a fannoni daban -daban galibi kafin fara "ayyukan ƙwarai" (alal misali, yayin sallar yau da kullun) da kuma yawancin ayyukan yau da kullun.

Ana amfani da shi a cikin fiye da rabin kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasashe inda Musulunci shine addinin hukuma ko fiye da rabin yawan jama'a suna bin addinin Islama, galibi jumla ta farko a cikin farkon gabatarwa, gami da na Afghanistan,[2] Bahrain,[3] Bangladesh,[4] Brunei,[5] Masar,[6] Iran,[7] Iraki,[8] Kuwait,[9] Libya,[10] Maldives,[11] Pakistan,[12] Tunisia[13] da Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa.[14]

Ita ce jumlar da ake karantawa kafin kowace sura (surar) Alkur'ani - ban da ta tara.[15] Sabanin musulmi kan ko zai hada da Basmala a cikin rubutun Alqur'ani, ya cimma matsaya bayan bugun Alkahira na 1924, wanda ya hada da shi a matsayin aya ta farko (āyah) na sura ta 1 ta Qur'ani amma in ba haka ba an hada shi a matsayin layin rubutu mara adadi wanda ya gabaci sauran 112 masu dacewa. surori.[16]

Alamar Basmala ta Musulunci tana da alaƙa da bambance -bambancen baya na jumlar da ke bayyana a cikin rubutun Larabawa daga ƙarni na 5 da na 6.[17] A cikin rubutun larabci, Basmala shine jigon da ya fi yawa, har ma fiye da Shahada.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunan gargajiya na jimla a Larabci na gargajiya shine Tasmiyah (تَسْمِيَّة). Sauran jumlolin da aka saba da su a cikin Islama kuma an ba da nasu sunayen bisa ga fi'ilin sigar fi'ili na 2, gami da Tasbih (تَسْبِيح) don "Subhan Allah", Tahmid (تَحْمِيد) don "Alhamdulillah", Takbir (تَكْبِير) don "Allahu Akbar", Tahlil (تَهْلِيل) don "la ilaha illa Allah", da "Ta'awwudh" (تَعَوُّذ) don kalmar "Ina neman tsari da Allah daga Shaiɗan da aka jefe" (أَعُوذُ بِٱللَّٰهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَانِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ, ʾaʿūḏu bi-llāhi mina š-šayṭāni r-rajīmi).

Kalmar basmala ta samo asali ne daga hanyar da ba a saba ganin irinta ba, inda aka yi amfani da huɗu na farkon furcin kalmomin bismi-llāhi ... don ƙirƙirar sabon tushe mai kusurwa huɗu:[18] b-s-m-l (ب-س-م-ل) An yi amfani da wannan tushen mai kusurwa huɗu don samo sunan basmala da siffofin fi'ili masu alaƙa, ma'ana "don karanta basmala".Hakanan ana amfani da hanyar ƙirƙirar sunan quadriliteral daga baƙaƙe na kalmomi da yawa a cikin jumla don ƙirƙirar sunan ''Hamdala'' ga Alhamdulillah, maimakon sunan Tahmid na gargajiya.[18] Hakanan ana amfani da wannan hanyar don ƙirƙirar kalmar Hawqala.

Amfani da mahimmanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rubutun mai sauƙi na Thuluth

A cewar Lane, ar-raḥmān yana da mahimmancin ma'ana, wanda aka ɗauka don haɗawa azaman abubuwan "tausayawa" ga mai bi da kafiri, don haka ana iya sanya shi a matsayin "Mai tausayi"; ar-raḥīm, a gefe guda, ana ɗauka don haɗawa azaman abubuwa masu bi musamman, ana iya sanya su a matsayin "Mai jin ƙai" (ana ɗaukarsa azaman sifa ce ta dindindin).

A cikin Alkur'ani, yawanci ana ƙidaya Basmala azaman farkon farkon sura ta farko, amma, bisa ga ra'ayin da Al-Tabari ya ɗauka, ta riga aya ta farko. Baya ga sura ta tara ("At-Tawba"), Al-Qurtubi ya ruwaito cewa madaidaicin ra'ayi shi ne Basmala ta yi banza da farkon At-Tawba saboda Jibrilu bai yi nuni da Basmala ba a cikin wannan surar, wani ra'ayi, yana cewa Muhammadu ya mutu kafin yayi bayani idan At-Tawba yana cikin Kur'ani 8 (al-ʾanfāl) ko a'a.[19] Yana faruwa ne a farkon kowace surar Alƙur'ani mai zuwa kuma galibi ba a ƙidaya shi azaman aya sai dai a farkon bayyanarsa a farkon surar farko. Basmala tana faruwa a matsayin wani ɓangare na rubutun sura a cikin aya ta 30 na sura ta 27 ("An-Naml"), inda ta fara gabatar da wasiƙa daga Sulayman zuwa Bilqis, Sarauniyar Sheba.

Ana amfani da Basmala sosai a rayuwar Musulmi ta yau da kullun, in ji shi azaman buɗe kowane aiki don samun albarka daga Allah.[20] Karatun Basmala shine abin da ake buƙata a cikin shirya abincin halal.

A yankin Indiya, ana gudanar da bikin Bismillah don shigar yaro cikin addinin Musulunci.

Tabbatattun sunaye guda uku na Basmala—Allah, ar-Rahman da ar-Rahim—sun yi daidai da ukun farko na sunayen Allah guda 99 na gargajiya a Musulunci. Dukansu ar-Rahman da ar-Rahim sun fito ne daga tushe guda uku R-Ḥ-M, "don jin tausayi, ko tausayi".

Basmala tana da mahimmanci na musamman ga musulmai, waɗanda zasu fara kowane aiki bayan karanta ayar. Ta'awwudh ne ya gabace ta.

Kusan 1980, IRIB tayi amfani da ita kafin fara watsa labarai.

Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rubutun Thuluth

Akwai hadisai da dama da ke kwadaitar da Musulmai su karanta shi kafin su ci da sha. Misali:

Jabir ya ruwaito: Na ji Manzon Allah (sawa) yana cewa, "Idan mutum ya ambaci Sunan Allah yayin shiga gidansa ko cin abinci, Shaidan ya ce, yana yi wa mabiyansa magana: 'Ba za ku sami inda za ku kwana ba kuma babu abincin dare.' Amma idan ya shiga ba tare da ambaton Sunan Allah ba, Shaiɗan ya ce (ga mabiyansa); 'Kun sami (wurin) da za ku kwana a ciki, kuma idan bai ambaci Sunan Allah a lokacin cin abinci ba, Shaiɗan yana cewa: 'Kun sami (wuri) don kwana da abinci.''

— Daga Muslim

Nana A'isha ta ruwaito cewa: "Manzon Allah ya ce," Idan dayanku yana son cin abinci, to ya fara ambaton Sunan Allah (Bismillah). Idan ya manta yin ta da farko, sai ya yi Bismillah awwalahu wa akhirahu (Na fara da Sunan Allah a farko da karshensa) ".

— Daga Tirmizi da Abu Dawud

Umaiyyah bin Makshi ya ruwaito cewa: "Annabi yana zaune yayin da wani mutum yake cin abinci. Wannan mutumin bai ambaci Sunan Allah ba har sai da ɗan abinci kaɗan ya rage. Da ya ɗaga shi zuwa bakinsa, ya ce, Bismillah awwalahu wa akhirahu. Manzon Allah yayi murmushi akan wannan ya ce, "Shaidan ya kasance yana cin abinci tare da shi amma lokacin da ya ambaci Sunan Allah, Shaidan ya tofa duk abin da ke cikin cikinsa".

— Daga Abu Dawud da Al-Nasai

Wahshi bin Harb ya ruwaito cewa: "Wasu Sahabban Annabi sun ce, 'Muna ci amma ba mu koshi'. Ya ce, 'Wataƙila kuna cin abinci daban.' Sahabbai suka amsa da tabbatacce, sannan ya ce, 'Ku ci tare ku ambaci sunan Allah a kan abincinku. Zai yi muku albarka.

— Daga Abu Dawud

Dangane da Hadisi, Muhammad yace:[21]

Duk abin da ke cikin littattafan da aka saukar za a same shi a cikin Alkur'ani kuma duk abin da ke cikin Alƙur'ani an taƙaita shi a cikin suratul fatihah ("Mai buɗewa") yayin da ita ma tana kunshe a cikin dabara Bismillahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim ("Da sunan Allah, Mai rahama, Mai jin kai").

Hadisin da aka yiwa Imam Ali yana cewa:[21]

Basmalah yana da asali a cikin wasiƙar farko, Ba, kuma wannan kuma a cikin maƙallan sa, wanda hakan ke nuna babban haɗin kai.

Tafsiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kira na Basmala

A cikin sharhin Basmala a cikin Tafsirin al-Tabari, al-Tabari ya rubuta:

“Manzon Allah (tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce Yesu mahaifiyarsa Maryamu ta mika shi makaranta domin a koyar da shi. [Malamin] ya ce masa: 'Rubuta "Bism (A cikin sunan)".' Kuma Yesu ya ce masa: 'Menene' Bism '?' Malamin ya ce: 'Ban sani ba.' Yesu ya ce: ' "Ba" shine Baha'u'llah (ɗaukakar Allah), "Zunubi" shine Sana'arsa (annuri), "Mim" shine Mamlakah (sarauta)."[22]

Kimiyyar lissafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jimlar darajar haruffan Basmala na Musulunci, watau jimlar-

Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim
"Da sunan Allah, Mai rahama, Mai jin kail

".]]

Dangane da tsarin Abjadi na lissafin adadi, shine 786.[23] Saboda haka wannan lambar ta sami mahimmanci a cikin Islama na mutane da sihirin Gabas ta Tsakiya kuma tana bayyana a lokuta da yawa na al'adun gargajiya, kamar bayyanarsa a cikin waƙar 2006 '786 All is War 'by the band Fun^Da^Mental.[23] An ba da shawarar yin karatun basmala sau 786 a jere a cikin Al-Buni. Sündermann (2006) ya ba da rahoton cewa wani "mai warkarwa na ruhaniya" na zamani daga Siriya ya ba da shawarar karatun basmala sau 786 a kan kopin ruwa, wanda daga nan za a sha shi a matsayin magani.[24]

Hakanan ya zama ruwan dare a taƙaice kalmar ta hanyar buga "786", musamman a sadarwar yanar gizo, musamman tsakanin Musulman Kudancin Asiya.

Unicode[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Unicode, an sanya Basmala azaman ligature ɗaya a lambar lamba U+FDFD ﷽ a cikin Siffofin Gabatarwa na Larabci-A toshe.

Unicode
rikodin utf-8 alama sunan unicode kwafi larabci turanci
﷽ Alamar larabci Basmala Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Da sunan Allah, Mai rahama, Mai jin ƙai

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Shelquist, Richard (2008-01-03). "Bismillah al rahman al rahim". Living from the Heart. Wahiduddin. Retrieved 2009-06-21.
  2. "Afghanistan Constitution". International Constitutional Law Project. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  3. "Constitution of the State of Bahrain" (PDF). Constitution Finder. University of Richmond. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  4. "The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh". Laws of Bangladesh. Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  5. "Constitution of Brunei Darussalam (as revised 1984)" (PDF). Constitution Finder. University of Richmond. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  6. "Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014" (PDF). Egypt State Information Service. Egypt State Information Service. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  7. "Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran". International Constitutional Law Project. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  8. "Iraqi Constitution" (PDF). Republic of Iran - Ministry of Interior - General Directorate of Nationality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  9. "Kuwait Constitution". International Constitutional Law Project. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  10. "Libya's Constitution of 2011" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  11. "Constitution of the Republic of Maldives 2008" (PDF). Republic of Maldives Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  12. "The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan" (PDF). National Assembly of Pakistan. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  13. "The Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia" (PDF). Venice Commission. Council of Europe. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  14. "Constitution of the United Arab Emirates" (PDF). Refworld The Leader in Refugee Decision Support. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  15. Ali, Kecia; Leaman, Oliver (2008). Islam: the key concepts (Repr. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-39638-7.
  16. William A. Graham "Basmala" Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Vol. 1
  17. Ahmad al-Jallad (2020). "The Linguistic Landscape of pre-Islamic Arabia: Context for the Qur’an", in Mustafa Shah & Muhammad Abdel Haleem (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Quranic Studies. Oxford University Press, p. 123. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199698646.013.44.
  18. 18.0 18.1 A New Arabic Grammar of the Written Language by J.A. Haywood and H.M. Nahmad (London: Lund Humphries, 1965), 08033994793.ABA, p. 263.
  19. "The reason behind that At-Tawbah is the only Surah without Basmala". quranonline.net. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
  20. "Islamic-Dictionary.com Definition". Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Titus Burckhardt (2008) [1959]. An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. World Wisdom Inc., Bloomington IN, USA. 08033994793.ABA. p. 36.
  22. Momen, M. (2000). Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 242. ISBN 0-85398-446-8. In note 330 on page 274 of the same book Dr. Momen states the following: "At-Tabarí, Jámi’-al-Bayán, vol. 1, p.40. Some of the abbreviated editions of this work (such as the Mu’assasah ar-Risálah, Beirut, 1994 edition) omit this passage as does the translation by J. Cooper (Oxford University Press, 1987). Ibn Kathír records this tradition, Tafsír, vol. 1, p. 17. As-Suyútí in ad-Durr al-Manthúr, vol. 1, p. 8, also records this tradition and gives a list of other scholars who have cited it including Abú Na’ím al-Isfahání in Hilyat al-Awliya’ and Ibn ‘Asákir in Taríkh Dimashq."
  23. 23.0 23.1 Shah & Haleem (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Qur'anic Studies, Oxford University Press, 2020, pp581, 587-88
  24. Katja Sündermann, Spirituelle Heiler im modernen Syrien: Berufsbild und Selbstverständnis - Wissen und Praxis, Hans Schiler, 2006, p. 371.