Takbir

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Wikidata.svgTakbir
saying (en) Fassara
Allahoakbar.svg
Bayanai
Suna a harshen gida تَكْبِير da اللّٰهُ أَكْبَر‏
Harshen aiki ko suna Larabci
IPA transcription (en) Fassara tak.biːr da ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hu ʔak.baru

Takbir (تَكْبِير, laƙabi [tak.biːr], "ɗaukaka [Allah]") shine jumlar larabci ʾAllāhu ʾakbaru (ٱللَّٰهُ أَكْبَرُ, furta [ʔaɫ.ɫaː.hu ʔak.baru], ma'ana "Allah shine mafi girma".[1][2]

Magana ce ta Larabci gama -gari, wanda Musulmai da Larabawa suka yi amfani da shi a fannoni daban -daban: a cikin Sallah (addu’a),[2] a cikin Adhan (kiran Musulunci zuwa sallah),[3] azaman bayanin bangaskiya na yau da kullun, a lokutan wahala ko farin ciki, ko don bayyana ƙuduri ko ƙeta.

Kiristocin Larabawa ma suna amfani da jumlar.

Tafsiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar Larabci كَبِير (kabīr) tana nufin mai girma daga tushen Semitic k-b-r. Kalmar Larabci أَكْبَر (ʾakbar) ita ce sifar sifa (mafi girma) na sifar kabīr. Lokacin amfani dashi a cikin Takbīr galibi ana fassara shi mafi girma, amma wasu marubutan suna fassara shi mafi girma.[4][5][6] Kalmar Takbīr da kanta ita ce jigon kalma na II na tushen triliteral k-b-r, ma'ana "babba", daga abin da aka samo akbar "babba". Siffar Allāhu shine zababben Allah, ma'ana 'Allah'.[7][8]

Amfani a cikin ayyukan addinin Musulunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Takubur cikin nastaʿlīq
Musulmi yana ɗaga hannuwansa biyu don karanta Takbari cikin sallah

Musulmai suna karanta wannan jumlar a yanayi daban -daban. Misali, lokacin da suke farin ciki sosai, don bayyana yarda, don hana Musulmi yin girman kai ta hanyar tunatar da su cewa Allah shine tushen nasarar su, a matsayin kukan yaƙi, ko lokacin matsanancin damuwa. Ba a samun jumlar a cikin Alƙur'ani, wanda ba ya nufin Allah a matsayin akbar, amma yana amfani da sunan al-Kabīr "Babban" ko Kabīr "Babban", wanda aka saba fassara shi da "Mafi Girma" (13: 9, 31:30) , 22:62, 34:23, 40:12, 4:34).

Cikin sallah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An faɗi jumlar a kowane matakin sallar biyu (sallolin farilla, ana yin su sau biyar a rana), da nafila (sallolin nafila, ana yin su yadda ake so). Kiran da musulmi yayi zuwa sallah (adhan) ta muezzin da fara sallah (iqama) shima yana dauke da jumlar.[3]

Duk da cewa akwai gajerun addu'o'i kamarsa, yin amfani da takbi ya fi kowacce gajeriyar sallah.[9]

Bayan haihuwa da mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da jumlar bayan haihuwar yaro a matsayin hanyar yabon Allah.[10] Hakanan wani bangare ne na jana'izar Musulunci da al'adun jana'iza.[11]

Yayin Bukukuwan Idi da Aikin Hajji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin bukukuwan Eid al-Adha da kwanakin da ke gabanta, Musulmai suna karanta Takbīr. Musamman abin da ya faru a ranar Arafah.[12]

A lokacin yanka dabbobi na halal[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin furta sunan Allah yayin yin Dhabihah dole ne mutum yace "Bismillah Allahu Akbar".[13]

Sauran amfanin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Allāhu akbar a cikin abin tunawa, Desouk, Misira
"Allāhu akbar" a cikin rubutun larabci da aka gani akan ginin Masallacin Imam Ali (tsakiyar Iwan), 1994

Ana iya amfani da kalmar "Allahu Akbar" a yanayi daban -daban, daga bukukuwa zuwa lokutan baƙin ciki.

A cikin tarihin wani wanda ya kasance a wurin haihuwar Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr da kuma jana'izarsa, marubucin ya lura cewa an faɗi "Allahu Akbar" a lokuta biyu.[14]

A lokutan wahala[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A wasu lokuta ana amfani da kalmar a lokacin wahala.

Kafin Garuda Indonesia Flight 152 ya faɗa cikin daji kusa da Medan, Indonesia, matukin jirgin ya yi kururuwa "Aaaaaaah! Allāhu akbar" a cikin rediyonsa. Dangane da rubutacciyar hanyar sadarwa ta rediyo, tattaunawar matukin jirgin tare da mai sarrafa iska ya kasance cikin Ingilishi, amma kalmominsa na ƙarshe sune takbir yayin da jirgin ya faɗi a ranar 26 ga Satumba, 1997, inda ya kashe mutane 234 da ke cikin hatsarin mafi muni a Indonesia. An yi zargin cewa wataƙila hatsarin ya faru ne saboda rashin daidaituwa ko gazawar injin injin turbin da hayaƙin da ke cikin gida ya haifar sakamakon gobarar daji.[15][16]

A lokutan farin ciki da godiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya amfani da Takbir don nuna farin ciki ko mamaki. Hakanan ana amfani dashi azaman tafi a cikin abubuwan addini, kamar bayan karatun Al -Qur'ani, kamar yadda ake ganin sauran nau'ikan tafi ba su dace ba.[17]

Lokacin da aka gano Reshma Begum da rai kwanaki 17 bayan rushewar ginin Savar na 2013 a Bangladesh wanda ya kashe mutane 1129, taron jama'a sun yi kukan murna tare da fadin "Allāhu akbar" don nuna farin cikin su da godiya cewa ta tsira.[18][19]

A matsayin jumla mai ma'ana iri-iri, wani lokaci masu sharhin kwallon kafa na Larabawa kan yi amfani da ita azaman abin mamaki, ko ma a matsayin waƙar ƙwallon ƙafa.[20]

A cikin fadace -fadace[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi amfani da shi a tarihi azaman kukan yaƙi yayin yaƙi.[21] Tarihin Ibn Ishaq na Mohammed ya ba da labarin aƙalla abubuwa biyu da aka yi amfani da jumlar a ciki.

"Lokacin da manzon ya kai hari kan mutane sai ya jira har gari ya waye. Idan ya ji kiran sallah 'sai ya ja da baya; idan bai ji ba ya kai hari. Mun zo Khaybar da dare, kuma manzon ya kwana a can; kuma lokacin da gari ya waye bai ji kiran sallah ba, 'don haka ya hau muka hau tare da shi, ni kuma na hau bayan Abii Talba da kafafuna na taba kafafar manzo. Mun sadu da ma'aikatan Khaybar suna fitowa da safe da kwandunansu da kwanduna. Lokacin da suka ga manzon da runduna sai suka yi kira, `` Muhammadu da ƙarfinsa, '' suka juya wutsiya suka gudu. Manzon ya ce, 'Allahu akbar! An lalata Khaybar. Lokacin da muka isa dandalin mutane mugun safiya ne ga waɗanda aka yi wa gargaɗi. '"(Shafi na 511)" Don haka sai ya sauka daga kan dokinsa ya zo wurinsa sannan Ali ya ci gaba da garkuwarsa. `` Amr ya yi nufin busa wanda ya yanke cikin garkuwar sosai har takuba ta makale a ciki ta buga kansa. Amma Ali ya yi masa rauni a jijiya a gindin wuyansa sai ya fadi kasa. Ƙura ta tashi sai manzon ya ji kukan, 'Allahu Akbar' kuma ya san cewa Ali ya kashe shi. "(Shafi na 456)[22]

Zanga -zanga[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin Juyin Juya Halin Iran na 1979, an yi ihu daga saman bene a Iran a cikin maraice a matsayin wani nau'in zanga -zanga. Wannan al'ada ta dawo a cikin zanga -zangar zaben shugaban kasar Iran na 2009,[23][24] wanda ya nuna rashin amincewa da sakamakon zaben.[25]

Amfani da masu tsattsauran ra'ayi da 'yan ta'adda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A wasu lokutan ana amfani da jumlar azaman kukan yaƙi na masu tsattsauran ra'ayin Musulmi.[26] Sauran Musulmai sun yi tir da wannan amfani.[14][20]

Farfesa Khaled A. Beydoun ya rubuta cewa danganta kalmar da "Allah Akbar" tare da ta'addanci ta ƙara kazancewa ta kafofin yaɗa labarai da talabijin. Ya yi nuni da cewa fina -finan almara da wasan kwaikwayon suma suna amfani da shi azaman wasan kwaikwayo na fim wanda ke ƙara haɓaka ƙungiyar.[1]

Amfani da Kiristoci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Har ila yau kalmar tana amfani da Kiristocin da ke magana da Larabci; Ana fassara “Allah” da “Allah” da Larabci. Hakanan ana amfani da wannan jumlar a cikin yanayin liturgical tsakanin Kiristocin Orthodox na Falasdinawa, kuma Archbishop na Sebastia, Theodosios ya kare shi.[27]

A tutoci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rubuta jimlar Allāhu akbar a tsakiyar tutar Iraki, sau 22 a kan iyakokin farar fata ta tsakiya akan tutar Iran.

Iraq[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin yakin Gulf a watan Janairun 1991, Saddam Hussein ya gudanar da taro tare da manyan kwamandojin soji, inda aka yanke shawarar ƙara kalmomin Allāhu akbar (wanda aka bayyana a matsayin kukan yaƙin Musulunci)[28] a cikin tutar Iraki don haɓaka martabar addininsa na mulkinsa, yana jefa kansa a matsayin shugaban sojojin musulunci.[29][30] Hussein ya bayyana tutar a matsayin "tutar jihadi da tauhidi".[31]

A cikin 2004, Majalisar Mulkin Iraki da Amurka ta zaɓa ta amince da sabon tutar Iraki wanda ya watsar da alamomin mulkin Husaini, kamar kalmomin Allāhu akbar.[29][32] Amma a cikin watan Janairun 2008, majalisar dokokin Iraki ta zartar da dokar sauya tutar ta hanyar barin cikin jumla, amma canza kiran rubutun kalmomin Allāhu akbar, wanda ya kasance kwafin rubutun Hussein, zuwa rubutun Kufic.[33][34] Tutar Iraqi karkashin Husain tana da kowanne daga cikin kalmomin biyu na jumlar da aka rubuta a ɗaya daga cikin sarari tsakanin taurari akan ƙungiya ta tsakiya; tutar 2008, yayin barin kalmar a ciki, tana cire taurari.

Sauran ƙasashe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An rubuta jumlar Allāhu akbar a kan tutar Iran, kamar yadda doka ta 18 ta kundin tsarin mulkin Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Iran ta buƙata.[35] Wannan jimlar ta bayyana sau 22 a tutar.[36]

Tsarin mulkin Afghanistan wanda ya fara aiki a ranar 4 ga Janairu, 2004, ya buƙaci a rubuta Allāhu akbar a kan tutar Afghanistan.[37]

Yunƙurin gwagwarmaya da yaƙi mulkin Biritaniya a Waziristan, Pakistan, wanda Riv ke jagoranta a cikin 1930s, ya yi amfani da jan tutar da ke ɗauke da Allāhu akbar cikin fararen haruffa.[38]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Khaled Beydoun. "The perils of saying 'Allahu Akbar' in public". Washington Post.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Times of the Five Daily Prayers". Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-253-21627-3.
  4. E. W. Lane, Arabic English Lexicon, 1893, gives for kabir: "greater, and greatest, in body, or corporeal substance, and in estimation or rank or dignity, and more, or most, advanced in age, older, and oldest" (p. 2587) Archived Oktoba 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. A.O.Green (1887). A Practical Arabic Grammar. Clarendon Press. p. 66.
  6. "The formula, as the briefest expression of the absolute superiority of the One God, is used in Muslim life in different circumstances, in which the idea of God, His greatness and goodness is suggested." Wensinck, A. J. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition. Brill, 2000. Volume 10, T-U, p. 119, Takbir.
  7. Böwering, Gerhard, God and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007.
  8. Macdonald, D. B. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd edition. Brill, 1971. Volume 3, H-Iram, p. 1093, Ilah.
  9. Patrick J. Ryan, S.J. "What I learned from Muslims about God". America.
  10. "On Birth & School". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  11. el-Hibri, Tayeb (19 October 2010). Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History: The Rashidun Caliphs. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231521659.
  12. Rabbani, Faraz. "The Day of 'Arafah: The 9th of Dhu'l Hijjah". Qibla.com. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  13. "Arabic Definitions". USA Halal Chamber of Commerce, Inc. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Omar Suleiman. "What 'Allahu Akbar' really means". CNN.
  15. "Left-right confusion led to smog air crash". The Independent. London. September 30, 1997. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  16. "Business - Indonesian Pilot Was Confused Before Crash - Seattle Times Newspaper". nwsource.com.
  17. "Allahu akbar: What is the Takbir?". The Week.
  18. Andrea, Crossan. "Survivor Found in Collapsed Bangladesh Building After 17 Days". PRI's The World. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  19. "Survivor pulled from Bangladesh ruins after 17 days". Global Post. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Eric Nagourney. "'Allahu Akbar': An Everyday Phrase, Tarnished by Attacks". New York Times.
  21. Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Islam, Scarecrow Press, 2nd ed. 2009, pg. 32
  22. Life of Mohammed [سيرة رسول الله] by Ibn Ishaq, translated by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, 17th printing, Karachi, 2004 https://archive.org/details/TheLifeOfMohammedGuillaume
  23. Yahoo News Archived ga Yuni, 17, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  24. "YouTube". YouTube. June 9, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  25. "How Iran's opposition inverts old slogans". BBC News. December 7, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  26. "'We Have Some Planes'". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  27. ""We Palestinian Christians say Allahu Akbar" – Thoughts Theological" (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  28. "New Straits Times". January 15, 1991. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  29. 29.0 29.1 "U.S.-picked Iraq leaders approve new flag". USA Today. April 26, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  30. Deroy Murdock. "Murdock, Deroy, "The 9/11 Connection," April 3, 2003". The National Review. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  31. Long, Jerry M. (April 2004). Saddam's war of words: politics, religion, and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Jerry Mark Long, University of Texas Press, 2004, ISBN 0-292-70264-7. ISBN 9780292702646. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
  32. "Rosen, Nir, "Iraq's religious tide cannot be turned back,"". Asia Times. May 26, 2004. Archived from the original on May 28, 2004. Retrieved May 8, 2011.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  33. Abdul-Zahra, Qassim, "Iraqi Lawmakers Vote to Change Flag," USA Today, January 22, 2008, accessed February 9, 2010 Archived ga Maris, 5, 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  34. Abdul, Qassim (February 5, 2008). "Abdul-Zahra, Qassim, "Iraq unveils flag without Saddam's stars"". USA Today. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  35. Iran (1980). Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Mizan Press. ISBN 978-0-933782-02-0.
  36. Jacoby, Jeff, "Is Israel a Jewish State?", The Boston Globe, November 14, 2007, accessed February 11, 2010 Archived ga Augusta, 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  37. [ McCarthy, Andrew C., "Cold Comfort on Islam and Apostasy; No one who’s actually read the Afghan constitution should be surprised by the Abdul Rahman case", National Review, March 27, 2006, accessed February 11, 2010]
  38. "Analysis: A ride on the wild side". UPI. September 19, 2005. Retrieved May 8, 2011.

Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Rohi Baalbaki (1995). Al-Mawrid (7th ed.). Beirut: Dar El-Ilm Lilmalayin. ISBN 9953-9023-1-3.
  • F. Steingass Ph.D., University of Munich (1870). Persian-English Dictionary, Including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in literature. Beirut: Librairie Du Liban.