Bera

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beraye
Linzamin gida ( Musculus )

Ɓera ƙananan rodent ne . A dabi'ance, an san beraye suna da hakori mai kaifi, kananan kunnuwa zagaye, wutsiyar su mai tsawo ne, suna da gashi a jiki, da yawan kiwo. mafi sanannen nau'in bera shine linzamin gida na kowa ( Mus musculus ). Beraye kuma sanannu ne kamar sauran dabbobi. A wasu wurare, wasu nau'ikan ɓerayen filaye suna da suna gama gari. An san su da mamaye gidaje don abinci da wurin kwanciya.[1]

An rarraba beraye a ƙarƙashin umarnin Rodentia.



A wasu yanayi, ana iya ɗaukar beraye larura . Vermin babban tushe ne na lalacewar amfanin gona kamar yadda aka san su da haifar da lalacewar tsarin da yada cuta . Beraye suna yada cuta ta hanjinsu kuma galibi masu ɗauke da ƙwayoyin cuta . A Arewacin Amurka, ƙura mai numfashi wanda ya sadu da ƙwayar linzamin kwamfuta yana da alaƙa da hantavirus, wanda zai iya haifar da cututtukan huhu na hantavirus (HPS).

Ainihin maras motsi, beraye na biyan raunin gani da ƙwarewar ji. Sun dogara ne da ƙanshin ƙanshin su don nemo abinci da kuma gujewa masu lalata su.

A cikin daji, an san beraye don gina ramuka masu wuyar fahimta. Waɗannan burbushin suna da ƙofofi masu tsayi kuma suna sanye da ramuka masu tserewa. A cikin aƙalla nau'ikan guda ɗaya, tsarin gine-ginen burrow halaye ne na gado.

Ire-iren dabbobin da aka sani da beraye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Beraye da suka fi na yau da kullun su ne murus, a cikin tsari ɗaya da berayen gama gari . Su kisan kai ne, tare da ƙwayoyin cuta da sauran dangi na kusa.

  • oda Dasyuromorphia
    • marsupial beraye, ƙananan jinsunan Dasyuridae
  • oda Rodentia
    • suborder Castorimorpha
      • iyali Heteromyidae
        • Linzamin Kangaroo, jinsin Microdipodops
        • Aljihun aljihu, ƙabilar Perognathinae
        • Spin linzamin aljihu, jinsi Heteromys
    • subomar Anomaluromorpha
      • iyali Anomaluridae
        • linzamin linzamin kwamfuta
    • yankin Myomorpha
      • iyali Cricetidae
        • Fushin linzamin kwamfuta, Peromyscus boylii
        • Berayen Florida
        • Linzamin gwal
        • Beran girbin Ba'amurke, jinsi Reithrodontomys
      • dangin Muridae
        • hankulan beraye, jinsin Mus
        • Berayen filaye, jinsi Apodemus
          • Linzamin katako, Apodemus sylvaticus
          • Bera mai wuyan rawaya, Apodemus flavicollis
        • Babban linzamin Mindoro
        • Babban bera mai fatar kunne
        • Luzon montane daji linzamin kwamfuta
        • Linzamin Forrest
        • Mousearƙashin dutsen baƙi
        • Molamar Bolam
        • Beran girbin Eurasia, halittar Micromys
Beraye masu ƙwanƙwasawa

Mice ne na kowa gwaji dabbobi a dakin gwaje-gwaje da bincike na ilmin halitta da kuma tunani filayen musamman domin su ne dabbobi masu shayarwa, da kuma saboda su raba wani babban mataki na homology tare da mutane. Su ne tsarin halittar dabbobi masu amfani da dabbobi, wanda aka fi sani da beraye . A linzamin kwamfuta genome an jerin, da kuma kusan dukkan linzamin kwamfuta genes da mutum homologs. Linzamin kwamfuta yana da kimanin nau'i-nau'i tushe biliyan 2.7 da 20 na chromosomes. Hakanan ana iya sarrafa su ta hanyoyin da suka saba wa doka da mutane, kodayake masu rajin kare haƙƙin dabbobi sukan ƙi. Mousewayar ƙwanƙwasa ƙwanƙwasa linzami ne wanda aka canza ɗaya wanda ya sa ɗaya ko fiye da ƙwayoyinta suka zama marasa aiki ta hanyar ƙwanƙwasa ƙwayoyin halitta .

Dalilan zabin beraye sune kanana kuma basu da tsada, suna da abinci iri-iri, ana kiyaye su cikin sauki, kuma suna iya hayayyafa da sauri. Yawancin ƙarnuka na ɓeraye za a iya kiyaye su a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci. Beraye suna da nutsuwa sosai idan aka tashe su daga haihuwa kuma aka basu isasshen saduwa da mutane. Koyaya, wasu sanannu an san su da saurin yanayi.

Halaiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu bincike a Cibiyar Nazarin Neurobiology ta Max Planck sun tabbatar da cewa beraye suna da yanayin fuska iri-iri. Sunyi amfani da hangen nesa don hango motsin zuciyar mutum kamar jin daɗi, ƙyama, tashin zuciya, ciwo, da tsoro.

Kamar yadda dabbobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Berayen dabbobi

Mutane da yawa suna siyan beraye a matsayin abokan gida. Za su iya zama masu wasa, masu ƙauna kuma suna iya yin amfani da abubuwan da ake gudanarwa. Kamar berayen dabbobin bera, bai kamata a bar berayen dabbobin ba tare da kulawa ba a waje saboda suna da masu farauta da yawa, gami da (amma ba'a iyakance shi ba) tsuntsaye, macizai, ƙadangare, kuliyoyi, da karnuka. Beraye mata suna da warin da ya fi na mata. Koyaya, beraye sune masu kula da kyau kuma a matsayin su na dabbobin gida basa buƙatar wanka. Beraye masu lura da kyau na iya yin dabbobin gida masu kyau. Wasu samfuran kulawa da linzamin kwamfuta sune:

  • Keji - Galibi keɓaɓɓen hamster ko keɓaɓɓen shinge, amma ana samun keɓaɓɓun keɓaɓɓu na musamman a yanzu. Yawancinsu zasu sami amintacciyar ƙofa.
  • Abinci - Akwai wadataccen abinci mai narkewa da iri iri. Beraye na iya cin yawancin abincin beraye (na beraye, beraye, hamster, ƙwaya, da dai sauransu. )
  • Kwanciya - Yawancin lokaci ana yin katako ne na katako, kamar su aspen, wani lokacin daga yankakke, takarda mara inki ko ɓangaren litattafan itace na budurwa. Yin amfani da shimfidar masarar masara ana kiyaye shi saboda yana inganta naman gwari Aspergillus, kuma yana iya girma da zarar ya jike, wanda yake da lahani a ƙafafunsu.

Abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yanayi, ɓeraye suna yawan cin ciyawa, suna cin kowane irin 'ya'yan itace ko hatsi daga tsire-tsire. Koyaya, ɓera suna dacewa da biranen birni kuma an san su da cin kusan nau'ikan tarkacen abinci. A cikin kamewa, ana ciyar da beraye cin abincin bera mai ƙyalƙyali. Wadannan kayan abinci sun kammala cikakke, amma har yanzu suna bukatar kayan lambu iri-iri.

Beraye ba su da abinci na musamman don cuku. Za su ci cuku ne kawai saboda rashin ingantattun zabi.

Kamar abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Beraye "Pinkie" don siyarwa azaman abinci mai rarrafe

Beraye sune kayan abinci a cikin yawancin ƙananan dabbobi masu cin nama . Mutane sun taɓa cin beraye tun zamanin da . A Burtaniya ta Biritaniya, har yanzu ana ba da soyayyun beraye ga yara a matsayin maganin jama'a don yin jika-gado ; [2] yayin da Jared Diamond ya ba da rahoton ƙirƙirar beraye da ake amfani da su a Ingila a matsayin ƙarin abincin abinci a lokacin rabon WW II. [3] Beraye abinci ne na abinci a duk gabashin Zambiya da arewacin Malawi, inda suka kasance tushen tushen furotin na lokaci-lokaci. Berayen gona sanannen abinci ne a Vietnam da ƙasashe maƙwabta. A cikin ƙasashe da yawa, kodayake, bera ba abu ne na abinci ba.

Magunguna waɗanda aka tsara a cikin tsohuwar Masar sun haɗa da beraye a matsayin magani. A tsohuwar Masar, lokacin da jarirai ba su da lafiya, uwaye suna cin bera a matsayin magani. An yi imani da cewa cin naman bera da uwa za ta taimaka wajen warkar da jaririn da ba shi da lafiya.

A cikin kasashe daban-daban ana amfani da beraye a matsayin abinci na dabbobin gida kamar macizai, kadangaru, kwadi, tarantula, da tsuntsayen ganima, kuma shagunan dabbobi da yawa suna ɗaukar beraye don wannan dalilin.

Kalmomin gama gari waɗanda ake amfani dasu don magana zuwa shekaru daban-daban / girma na ɓera idan aka siyar don abincin dabbobi sune "pinkies", "fuzzies", "crawlers", "hoppers", da "manya". Pinkies sabbin beraye ne waɗanda basu riga sun yi fur ba; fuzzies suna da wasu fur amma basu da motsi sosai; kuma masu tsalle suna da cikakkun gashin gashi kuma suna da cikakken motsi amma sun fi ƙananan beraye girma. Beraye ba tare da Jawo ba sun fi sauƙi ga dabba ya cinye; duk da haka, beraye tare da Jawo na iya zama mai gamsarwa azaman abincin dabbobi.[ana buƙatar hujja] Ana amfani da waɗannan sharuɗɗan don nuni zuwa matakan girma na beraye (duba ratwa mai zato ).

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin almara da beraye
  • Mousetrap
  • Musophobia (tsoron beraye)
  • Mouse lokacin ci gaban kwakwalwa
  • Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, da Phooey, ɓeraye waɗanda suka zagaya Wata sau 75 a 1972 akan Apollo 17

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Bera. (2021, ga Yuli, 25). Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta. Retrieved 17:05, Oktoba 22, 2021 from https://ha.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bera&oldid=101335.
  2. Flora Thompson, Lark Rise to Candleford (Oxford 1949) p. 504
  3. J Diamond, The World until Yesterday (Penguin 2012) p. 314