Carl Friedrich Gauss

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Carl Friedrich Gauss
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß
Haihuwa Braunschweig, 30 ga Afirilu, 1777
ƙasa Confederation of the Rhine (en) Fassara
Kingdom of Hanover (en) Fassara
Mazauni Kingdom of Hanover (en) Fassara
Braunschweig
Mutuwa Göttingen (en) Fassara, 23 ga Faburairu, 1855
Makwanci Albanifriedhof (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Gebhard Dietrich Gauss
Mahaifiya Dorthea Benze
Abokiyar zama Friederica Wilhelmine Waldeck (en) Fassara
Johanna Osthoff (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta University of Helmstedt (en) Fassara
Technical University of Braunschweig (en) Fassara
University of Göttingen (en) Fassara
(1795 - 1798)
Matakin karatu Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara
Thesis Demonstratio nova theorematis omnem functionem algebraicam rationalem integram unius variabilis in factores reales primi vel secundi gradus resolvi posse
Thesis director Johann Friedrich Pfaff (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci Friedrich Bessel (en) Fassara
Richard Dedekind (en) Fassara
Bernhard Riemann (en) Fassara
Heinrich Christian Schumacher (en) Fassara
Christian Ludwig Gerling (en) Fassara
Johann Benedict Listing (en) Fassara
Karl Georg Christian von Staudt (en) Fassara
Moritz Ludwig George Wichmann (en) Fassara
Sophie Germain (en) Fassara
Moritz Abraham Stern (en) Fassara
Friedrich Wilhelm Spehr (en) Fassara
Karl Heinrich Gräffe (en) Fassara
Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues (en) Fassara
Johann Franz Encke (en) Fassara
Harsuna Harshen Latin
Jamusanci
Turanci
Faransanci
Malamai Johann Christian Martin Bartels (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a masanin lissafi, geophysicist (en) Fassara, Ilimin Taurari, science writer (en) Fassara, physicist (en) Fassara, surveyor (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara da statistician (en) Fassara
Employers University of Göttingen (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Gauss–Seidel method (en) Fassara
Gauss's law (en) Fassara
Gauss's law for magnetism (en) Fassara
Gauss's law for gravity (en) Fassara
gauss (en) Fassara
normal distribution (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Leonhard Euler da Adrien-Marie Legendre (en) Fassara
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Göttingen Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Hungarian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of Turin (en) Fassara
Wannan Muƙalar guntuwa ce: tana buƙatar a inganta ta, kuna iya gyara ta.

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/ɡaʊs/; German:  [kaʁl ˈfʁiːdʁɪçˈɡaʊs] Latin; Afrilu 30, 1777 – 23 Fabrairu 1855) ɗan ƙasar Jamus masanin lissafi ne kuma masanin kimiyyar lissafi wanda ya ba da gudummawa sosai ga fage da yawa a fannin lissafi da kimiyya. Wani lokaci ana kiransa da Princeps mathematicorum (Latin ) da "mafi girman mathematician tun zamanin da", Gauss yana da tasiri na musamman a fannonin lissafi da kimiyya da dama; yana cikin manyan masanan lissafi na tarihi.

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton Gauss a wurin haihuwarsa, Brunswick.

An haifi Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss a ranar 30 ga watan Afrilu 1777 a Brunswick (Braunschweig), a cikin Duchy na Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (yanzu wani yanki na Lower Saxony, Jamus), matalauta, ne iyayensa masu aiki. [1] Mahaifiyarsa ba ta da rubutu kuma ba ta taɓa rubuta ranar haihuwarsa ba, yana tunawa kawai an haife shi ne a ranar Laraba, kwanaki takwas kafin idin hawan hawan Yesu sama (wanda ke faruwa kwanaki 39 bayan Ista). Daga baya Gauss ya warware wannan wuyar warwarewa game da ranar haihuwarsa a cikin mahallin gano ranar Ista, inda ya samo hanyoyin ƙididdige kwanan watan a cikin shekaru da suka gabata da na gaba. An yi masa baftisma kuma aka tabbatar da shi a wata coci kusa da makarantar da yake yaro.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Gauss yaro ne mai bajinta. A cikin tarihin tunawa da Gauss, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen ya rubuta cewa lokacin da Gauss ke da shekaru uku kawai ya gyara kuskuren lissafi da mahaifinsa ya yi; da kuma cewa lokacin da yake ɗan shekara bakwai, ya warware matsalar lissafin lissafi cikin sauri fiye da kowa a cikin aji na ɗalibai 100. Akwai nau'ikan wannan labari da yawa, tare da cikakkun bayanai game da yanayin silsilar- mafi yawanci shine matsalar al'ada ta haɗa dukkan lambobi daga 1 zuwa 100. (Duba kuma a ƙarƙashin "Ƙarancin Labarai" a ƙasa.) [2] [3] Akwai wasu labarai da yawa game da kasancewarsa tun yana ƙarami, kuma ya fara binciken ilimin lissafi na farko tun yana matashi. Ya kammala magnum opus, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, a cikin 1798, yana da shekaru 21, kuma an buga shi a cikin 1801. [2] Wannan aikin yana da mahimmanci wajen ƙarfafa ka'idar lamba a matsayin horo kuma ya tsara filin har zuwa yau.

Ƙwararrun basirar Gauss ya jawo hankalin Duke na Brunswick, [2] wanda ya aika shi zuwa Collegium Carolinum (yanzu Jami'ar Fasaha ta Braunschweig ), [2] wanda ya halarta daga 1792 zuwa 1795, [2] da kuma zuwa ga Jami'ar Göttingen daga 1795 zuwa 1798. [2] Yayin da yake jami'a, Gauss da kansa ya sake gano wasu mahimman ka'idoji. Ci gabansa ya faru ne a cikin 1796 lokacin da ya nuna cewa ana iya gina polygon na yau da kullun ta hanyar kamfas da madaidaiciya idan adadin bangarorinsa samfurin Fermat primes ne da kuma ikon 2. [lower-alpha 1] Wannan babban bincike ne a cikin wani muhimmin fanni na lissafi; Matsalolin gine-gine sun shagaltar da masana ilimin lissafi tun zamanin Girkawa na dā, kuma binciken ya jagoranci Gauss ya zaɓi ilimin lissafi maimakon ilimin falsafa a matsayin aiki. Gauss ya ji daɗin wannan sakamakon har ya nemi a rubuta wani cagon heptade na yau da kullun akan dutsen kabarinsa. Masan dutse ya ƙi, yana mai cewa aikin mai wahala zai yi kama da da'irar. [4]

Shekarar 1796 ta kasance mai amfani ga duka Gauss da ka'idar lamba. Ya gano ginin heptadecagon a ranar 30 ga watan Maris. [2] [5] Ya ƙara haɓaka ilimin lissafi na zamani, yana sauƙaƙa manipulations a ka'idar lamba. A ranar 8 ga watan Afrilu ya zama na farko da ya tabbatar da dokar musanyawa ta quadratic. Wannan babbar doka ta gama gari ta baiwa masu lissafin lissafi damar tantance iyawar kowane ma'auni huɗu a cikin lissafi na zamani. Babban ka'idar lambar, wanda aka zayyana a ranar 31 ga watan Mayu, yana ba da kyakkyawar fahimtar yadda ake rarraba manyan lambobi a tsakanin lambobi.

Shigar diary na Gauss mai alaƙa da jimlar lambobi uku (1796)

Gauss ya kuma gano cewa kowane intiger mai kyau yana iya wakiltar a matsayin jimlar aƙalla lambobi uku na uku a ranar 10 ga watan Yuli sannan ya rubuta a cikin littafin tarihinsa bayanin kula: " ΕΥΡΗΚΑ ! num = Δ + Δ + Δ ". A ranar 1 ga watan Oktoba ya buga sakamako akan adadin mafita na polynomials tare da ƙididdiga a cikin filayen iyaka, wanda bayan shekaru 150 ya haifar da zato na Weil.

Bayan shekaru da mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A 1807, Gauss ya zama farfesa a fannin lissafi a jami'ar Göttingen. Gauss ya kasance mai fa'ida a hankali tun lokacin da ya tsufa, har ma yayin da yake fama da gout da rashin jin daɗi. [2] Alal misali, yana ɗan shekara 62, ya koya wa kansa Rashanci. [2]

A cikin 1840, Gauss ya buga tasirinsa Dioptrische Untersukungen, [6] a cikin abin da ya ba da bincike na farko na tsari game da samuwar hotuna a ƙarƙashin ƙayyadaddun ƙima (Gaussian optics). Daga cikin sakamakon nasa, Gauss ya nuna cewa a ƙarƙashin ƙayyadaddun tsarin gani za a iya siffanta shi da mahimman maki kuma ya samo dabarar ruwan tabarau na Gaussian.

A cikin 1845, ya zama memba mai alaƙa na Cibiyar Royal na Netherlands; lokacin da ya zama Kwalejin Kimiyya da Kimiyya ta Royal Netherlands a 1851, ya shiga a matsayin memba na kasashen waje.

A cikin 1854, Gauss ya zaɓi batu don lacca na farko na Bernhard Riemann "Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde ligen" (Game da hasashe da ke ƙarƙashin Geometry). A hanyar gida daga laccar Riemann, Weber ya ruwaito cewa Gauss yana cike da yabo da farin ciki. [6]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gauss a kan gadonsa (1855)
  1. Cayley 1911.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Bruno 2003.
  3. "Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1777–1855)." (2014). In The Hutchinson Dictionary of scientific biography. Abington, United Kingdom: Helicon.
  4. Pappas, Theoni, Mathematical Snippets, 2008, p. 42.
  5. Carl Friedrich Gauss §§365–366 in Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. Leipzig, Germany, 1801. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Bühler 1981.


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