Caspian Sea

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Caspian Sea
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara −28 m
Tsawo 1,200 km
Fadi 435 km
Yawan fili 386,400 km²
Vertical depth (en) Fassara 1,025 m
211 m
Volume (en) Fassara 78,700 km³
Suna bayan Kassites (en) Fassara
Labarin ƙasa
Tsarin Daidaiton Labarin Kasa 42°00′N 50°30′E / 42°N 50.5°E / 42; 50.5
Bangare na Mediterranean Sea Area (en) Fassara
Kasa Iran, Rasha, Kazakystan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Russian Empire (en) Fassara da Kungiyar Sobiyet
Ƙasantuwa a yanayin ƙasa Aral–Caspian Depression (en) Fassara
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Inflow (en) Fassara
Lake outflow (en) Fassara no value
Watershed area (en) Fassara 3,500,000 km²
Ruwan ruwa Caspian Sea Basin (en) Fassara
(description page) Caspian sea from orbit

Tekun Caspian shine ruwa mafi girma a cikin ƙasa a duniya, wanda galibi ana kwatanta shi a matsayin tafkin mafi girma a duniya ko kuma cikakken teku. [1] Basin endorheic, yana tsakanin Turai da Asiya; gabas da Caucasus, yamma da faffadan tazara ta Tsakiyar Asiya, kudu da filayen albarkatu na Kudancin Rasha a Gabashin Turai, da arewacin Dutsen Iran na Yammacin Asiya. Yana rufe fili mai girman 143,550 sq mi (372,000 km (ban da babban tafkin ruwan saline na Garabogazköl zuwa gabas) da girma na 78,200 km3 Yana da salinity na kusan 1.2% (12 g/L), kusan kashi uku na salinity na matsakaicin ruwan teku. Tana iyaka da Kazakhstan zuwa arewa maso gabas, Rasha a arewa maso yamma, Azerbaijan a kudu maso yamma, Iran a kudu, da Turkmenistan a kudu maso gabas.

Caspian Sea

Tekun ya kai kusan 1,200 km (750 mi) daga arewa zuwa kudu, tare da matsakaicin faɗin 320 km (200 mi). Babban ɗaukar hoto shine 386,400 km2 kuma saman yana kusan 27 m (89 ft) kasa matakin teku. Babban ruwa mai shiga ruwa, kogin Turai mafi tsayi, Volga, yana shiga a ƙarshen arewa mara zurfi. Ruwan ruwa mai zurfi guda biyu sun zama yankunan tsakiya da na kudu. Waɗannan suna haifar da bambance-bambance a kwance a yanayin zafi, salinity, da muhalli. Yankin teku a kudu ya kai 1,023 m (3,356 ft) ƙasa da matakin teku, wanda shine na biyu mafi ƙasƙanci na yanayin rashin ruwa a duniya bayan tafkin Baikal (−1,180 m ko -3,870 ft ). Rubuce-rubucen da aka rubuta daga tsoffin mazaunan bakin tekun sun fahimci Tekun Caspian a matsayin teku, mai yiwuwa saboda salinity da girmansa. Tare da fili mai 371,000 square kilometres (143,000 sq mi), Tekun Caspian ya kusan ninki biyar girman tafkin Superior ( 82,000 square kilometres (32,000 sq mi) ). [2] Tekun Caspian gida ne ga nau'ikan da Tekun Caspian da Tekun Kaspian sun san Tekun Caspian kuma ana san su da masana'antar caviar da masana'antar mai). Gurbacewar masana'antar mai da kuma madatsun ruwa da ke kwarara a cikinta sun yi illa ga muhallinta.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan tafkin ya samo asali ne daga Caspi, mutanen da suka rayu a kudu maso yammacin teku a Transcaucasia. Strabo (ya mutu kimanin AD 24) ya rubuta cewa "ga ƙasar Albaniya (Caucasus Albania kada a ruɗe da ƙasar Albaniya) tana kuma da yankin da ake kira Caspiane, wanda ake kiransa da sunan kabilar Caspian, kamar yadda kuma teku; amma yanzu kabilar ta bace". Haka kuma, Ƙofar Caspian, wani yanki na lardin Teheran na Iran, na iya sa irin waɗannan mutanen sun yi ƙaura zuwa kudanci. Birnin Qazvin na Iran yana da tushen sunan da wannan sunan na teku na kowa. Sunan Larabci na gargajiya da na daɗaɗɗen teku shine Bahr (teku) Xazar amma a cikin ƙarni na baya-bayan nan sunan gama gari kuma daidaitaccen suna a cikin harshen Larabci shine Baḥr Qazvin Larabci daga Caspian. A cikin Russian: Каспи́йское мо́ре na zamani, Kaspiyskoye more.

Wasu ƙabilun Turkawa suna magana da shi tare da bayanin Caspi(an); a Kazakh ana kiranta Каспий теңізі, Kaspiy teñizi, Kyrgyz: Каспий деңизи, romanized: Kaspiy deñizi, Uzbek: Kaspiy dengizi. Wasu kuma suna kiransa da Tekun Khazar: Turkmen; Azerbaijani , Turkish: Hazar denizi. A cikin waɗannan duka kalmar farko tana nufin Khazars na tarihi waɗanda ke da babban daula mai tushe a arewacin Tekun Caspian tsakanin ƙarni na 7 zuwa na 10.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A Iran, ana kiran tafkin da Tekun Mazandaran (Persian), bayan lardin Mazandaran mai tarihi a gabar tekun kudancinta.

Tsohuwar tushen Rasha suna amfani da Khvalyn ko Tekun Khvalis ( Хвалынское море / Хвалисское море ) bayan sunan Khwarezmia. [3]

Daga cikin Helenawa da Farisa a zamanin da na gargajiya shine tekun Hyrcanian.

Taswirorin Renaissance na Turai sun lakafta shi da Tekun Abbacuch (Taswirar Duniya ta Oronce Fine ta 1531), Mar de Bachu (Taswirar Ortellius' 1570), ko Mar de Sala (taswirar Mercator's 1569).

Caspian Sea

Har ila yau, wani lokaci ana kiranta Tekun Kumyk [4] da Tekun Tarki [5] (wanda aka samo daga sunan Kumyk da babban birninsu na tarihi Tarki).

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea". President Of Russia. Archived from the original on 2022-03-12. Retrieved 2022-01-22.Empty citation (help)
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20101029215637/http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/physfacts.html, Retrieved 2023-01-01.
  3. Max Vasmer, Etimologicheskii slovar' russkogo yazyka, Vol. IV (Moscow: Progress, 1973), p. 229.
  4. Абдулгаффар Кырыми. Умдет ал-ахбар. Книга 2: Перевод. Серия «Язма Мирас. Письменное Наследие. (tr. "Abdulgaffar Crimea. Umdet al-ahbar. Book 2: Translation. Series "Written Heritage. Written Heritage.") Textual Heritage». Вып. 5 / Пер. с османского Ю. Н. Каримовой, И. М. Миргалеева; общая и научная редакция, предисловие и комментарии И. М. Миргалеева. — Казань: Институт истории им. Ш. Марджани АН РТ, 2018. — 200 с
  5. Гусейнов Г.-Р., "Султан-Мут и западные пределы кумыкского государства", материалы научной конференции, (tr. " "Sultan-Mut and the western limits of the Kumyk state", materials of the scientific conference") journal Средневековые тюрко-татарские государства, 2009