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Dalar Zimbabwe (2019-yanzu)

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Dalar Zimbabwe (2019-yanzu)
kuɗi da dollar (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Zimbabwe
Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara Zimbabwe
Currency symbol description (en) Fassara dollar sign (en) Fassara
Central bank/issuer (en) Fassara Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (en) Fassara
Wanda ya biyo bayanshi Gwal ɗin Zimbabuwe
Lokacin farawa 25 ga Faburairu, 2019
Unit symbol (en) Fassara Z$
Subdivision of this unit (en) Fassara cent (en) Fassara

Dalar Zimbabwe (Alama : Z$ ; lambar : ZWL ), kuma aka sani da Zimdollar ko Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) dala, ɗaya ne daga cikin kuɗin Zimbabwe.[1][2] Ita ce kawai kudin hukuma a Zimbabwe daga Yuni 2019 zuwa Maris 2020, bayan haka an sake halatta kudaden kasashen waje.

A ranar 29 ga Janairu, 2009, gwamnatin Zimbabwe ta halatta amfani da kudaden waje, kamar dalar Amurka da kuma Rand na Afirka ta Kudu : a mayar da martani, 'yan Zimbabwe sun yi watsi da tsohuwar dalar Zimbabwe da sauri, wanda ke faduwa daga abin da yake a lokacin mafi girma na biyu. Yawan hauhawar hauhawar farashin kaya (bayan pengő na Hungarian a 1946). [3][4] A ranar 12 ga Afrilu, 2009, gwamnatin raba madafan iko ta Firayim Minista na lokacin Morgan Tsvangirai ta dakatar da tsohuwar dala, kuma Bankin Reserve na Zimbabwe ya nuna rashin amincewa da takardun banki na karshe na tsohuwar dala, a ranar 30 ga Satumba 2015.

Tsarin kuɗi da yawa daga ƙarshe ya haifar da rikicin kuɗi, saboda Zimbabwe dole ne ta shigo da fiye da abin da za su iya fitarwa, wanda ya haifar da ƙaurawar dalar Amurka: a ƙarshe, Babban Bankin Reserve ya gabatar da jerin tsabar kuɗi a ranar 18 ga Disamba. 2014, da kuma bayanan haɗin gwiwa akan 28 Nuwamba 2016, bayan samun jimlar dalar Amurka 250 miliyan a lamuni daga bankin shigo da kayayyaki na Afirka .

Duk da cewa a hukumance ana iya musanya kuɗaɗen lamuni daidai da dalar Amurka, jama'a cikin sauri suka bijire musu a matsayin wani yunƙuri na sake dawo da dalar Zimbabwe, wanda ya yi mummunan suna saboda hauhawar farashin kayayyaki. Wannan, tare da ci gaba da ƙarancin dalar Amurka a Zimbabwe, ya haifar da haɓakar ƙimar musanya mai kama da juna tsakanin $3.00 da $3.80 a cikin kuɗin jingina zuwa dalar Amurka, a cikin Fabrairu 2019. 

Gabatarwar dala ta biyar

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Adadin da ya dace da kuma ci gaba da karanci dalar Amurka ya haifar da yanayi inda bankin Reserve ba zai iya ci gaba da kula da dalar Amurka ba: Bankin Reserve ya kuma so ya kawo karshen tsarin farashin musaya daban-daban, wanda ya haifar da abokan ciniki suna biyan kuɗi ko žasa. dangane da hanyar biyan kuɗi. A ranar 20 ga Fabrairu, 2019, Gwamnan Babban Bankin Reserve John Mangudya ya ba da sanarwar bullo da dalar Zimbabwe na yanzu, wanda da farko ake kira Real Time Gross Settlement dollar (dala RTGS). Dalar RTGS, wacce ta fara ciniki a ranar 25 ga Fabrairu, ta ƙunshi ma'auni na ainihin lokacin (saboda haka sunan), da kuma bayanan lamuni da tsabar kuɗi (dukansu an rage darajarsu da kashi 60% zuwa Z$2.50 a kowace dalar Amurka).

A ranar 24 ga Yuni 2019, gwamnatin Zimbabwe ta sauya sunan dalar RTGS zuwa dalar Zimbabwe, ta kuma haramta amfani da kudaden waje a wani yunƙuri na kawo ƙarshen tsarin musayar kuɗi: BBC ta ba da rahoton rashin amincewa da dokar, wani ɓangare saboda ci gaba da rashin yarda da jama'a, wani bangare saboda hauhawar farashin kayayyaki, wani bangare kuma saboda 'yan kasuwa har yanzu suna amfani da kudade masu tsauri don shigo da kayayyaki daga ketare. Farkon barkewar cutar sankara ta coronavirus a ƙarshe ya tilasta Bankin Reserve ya maido da tsarin kuɗi da yawa, a ranar 29 ga Maris 2020.

A ranar 29 ga Oktoba, 2019, Bankin Reserve ya yi iƙirarin cewa sabon kuɗi zai maye gurbin dala ta biyar. Wannan iƙirarin ya zama sabon tsabar kuɗi na $2, kuma an sake sabunta $2 da $5 takardun banki ba tare da rubutun "bayanin kuɗi" ba: duka sun shiga wurare dabam dabam a kan 11 Nuwamba 2019.[5][6] Bankin Reserve ya ci gaba da gabatar da takardun banki masu girma, tare da bayanin dala $100 da ke shiga yawo a ranar 5 ga Afrilu 2022.

Ci gaba da hauhawar hauhawar farashin kayayyaki

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Dalar Zimbabwe ta biyar ta ci gaba da fuskantar hauhawar hauhawar farashin kayayyaki, saboda ci gaba da rashin yarda da jama'a, da kuma ci gaba da karancin kudi sakamakon yadda masu shigo da kaya suka kasa yin amfani da dalar Zimbabwe: kusan nan da nan bayan bankin Reserve ya soke peg, farashin hukuma zuwa dalar Amurka ya ragu zuwa Z$2.80 a ranar 22 ga Maris, da Z$6.00 a ranar 12 ga watan Yuni 2019, yayin da daidaiton farashin ya tashi tsakanin Z$7.00 da Z$13.00 ta 3 ga Yuli. Adadin hauhawar farashi na Bankin Reserve na shekara-shekara ya zarce 100% a watan Yuni na 2019, da 500% a cikin Disamba 2019. As of December 2022 , Bankin Reserve na shekara-shekara na hauhawar farashin kayayyaki ya kasance 243.76%: mafi girma (tun Fabrairu 2019) shine 837.53% a cikin Yuli 2020, kuma mafi ƙanƙanta shine 50.25% a cikin Agusta 2021. [7] Amfani da dalar Zimbabwe a Zimbabwe ya ki amincewa da tsadar kudade, a sakamakon haka, a cikin watan Fabrairun 2023, Zimbabwe ta sauya kanun hauhawar farashin kayayyaki zuwa wanda ya hada da dalar Zimbabwe da dalar Amurka, wanda 'yan kasuwa suka soki saboda boye gaskiya. hauhawar farashin kayayyaki a cikin kudin gida, wanda ya ci gaba da wanzuwa duk da yin amfani da "haɗin kai" farashin farashi.

Bayanan banki

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  Bayanan banki na Zimbabwe da suka shiga yaduwa tun 2016 suna da sa hannun John Mangudya, wanda ya gaji Charity Dhliwayo a matsayin gwamnan babban bankin Zimbabwe a ranar 1 ga Mayu 2014.

A cikin 2022, Babban Bankin Reserve ya fara aiwatar da cire $2 da $5 daga takardun banki daga wurare dabam dabam, saboda hauhawar farashin kayayyaki na dogon lokaci: a ranar 5 ga Afrilu 2022, ƙimar musanya na hukuma na waɗannan takardun banki ya kasance 1.4 da 3.5 US cents, bi da bi.

Bayanan kula

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Bayanan haɗin $2 da $5 sun shiga yawo akan 28 Nuwamba 2016 da 3 Fabrairu 2017, bi da bi.

Bayanan kula, 2016 (Sa hannu: John Mangudya, Babban birni: Harare )
Daraja Girma Babban launi Bayani Kwanan watan Ref.
Banda Juya baya Alamar ruwa bugu batun janyewa
$2 155 × 62 mm Kore Domboremari da bishiyoyi Har abada harshen wuta a Heroes na kasa Acre, da Tsohon Majalisa Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2016 28 Nuwamba 2016 Ana kai
$5 155 × 66 mm Purple Domboremari da bishiyoyi Giraffes guda uku da Aloe Zimbabwe ( Aloe excelsa ) Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2016 Fabrairu 3, 2017 Ana kai
For table standards, see the jadawalin ƙayyadaddun bayanan banki .

2019 - jerin yanzu

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A ranar 11 ga Nuwamba, 2019, Babban Bankin Reserve ya ba da takardun banki na yau da kullun a karon farko tun 2009, tare da bankunan kasuwanci suna sakin su ga jama'a a rana mai zuwa: na yau da kullun na $2 da $5 na banki suna daidai da bayanan haɗin gwiwa., amma ba su da rubutun "bond note" a kowane gefe. $10 da $20 bayanin kula sun shiga yaduwa a ranar 19 ga Mayu da 1 ga Yuni 2020, bi da bi.

Dalar Amurka 50 ta shiga yaɗuwa a ranar 6 ga Yuli, 2021, kuma ta zama takardar kuɗi ta farko ta Zimbabwe tun bayan janye fam ɗin Rhodesian a 1970 don nuna wani mutum: hoton Mbuya Nehanda, wani muhimmin adadi na kishin ƙasar Zimbabwe, ya bayyana a baya tare da kabarin sojan da ba a sani ba a Heroes na kasa Acre . Wannan ya biyo bayan dalar Amurka $100 a ranar 5 ga Afrilu 2022, wanda ke nuna rugujewar Babban Zimbabwe .

Jerin takardun kudi na 2019 (Sa hannu: John Mangudya, Babban birni: Harare)
Daraja Girma Babban launi Bayani Kwanan watan Ref.
Banda Juya baya Alamar ruwa bugu batun janyewa
$2 155 × 62 mm Kore Domboremari da bishiyoyi Har abada harshen wuta a Heroes na kasa Acre, da Tsohon Majalisa Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2019 11 Nuwamba 2019 Ana kai
$5 155 × 66 mm Purple Domboremari da bishiyoyi Giraffes guda uku da Aloe Zimbabwe ( Aloe excelsa ) Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2019 11 Nuwamba 2019 Ana kai
$10 155 × 66 mm Ja Domboremari da bishiyoyi Sabuwar Hasumiya ta Bankin Reserve da kuma Baƙin Afirka guda huɗu ( Syncerus caffer ) Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2020 19 ga Mayu 2020 A halin yanzu
$20 155 × 66 mm Blue Domboremari da bishiyoyi Giwa na Afirka da Victoria Falls (Mosi-oa Tunya) Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2020 1 ga Yuni 2020 A halin yanzu [8]
$50 155 × 66 mm Brown Domboremari da bishiyoyi Kabarin sojan da ba a san shi ba a Heroes na kasa Acre, da Mbuya Nehanda Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2020 6 ga Yuli, 2021 A halin yanzu
$100 155 × 66 mm Yellow Domboremari da bishiyoyi Baobab na Afirka ( Adansonia digitata ) da kango na Babban Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Bird da "RBZ" 2020 Afrilu 5, 2022 A halin yanzu
For table standards, see the jadawalin ƙayyadaddun bayanan banki .

Alakar da kudaden kasashen waje

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Lokacin da aka fara amfani da dalar RTGS a watan Fabrairun 2019, 'yan Zimbabwe sun yi amfani da nau'ikan kudaden waje da suka hada da dalar Amurka, Rand na Afirka ta Kudu, da Yuan na kasar Sin . A ranar 24 ga Yuni, 2019, gwamnatin Zimbabwe ta haramta amfani da kudaden waje wajen hada-hadar kasuwanci a cikin gida. Koyaya, hauhawar hauhawar farashin kayayyaki, ci gaba da juriyar jama'a ga dalar Zimbabwe, da kuma mummunan cutar sankarau ya tilastawa gwamnati barin Zimbabwe sake amfani da kudaden waje, a cikin Maris 2020. Gwamnati ta ce izinin yin amfani da dalar Amurka wajen hada-hadar kasuwancin cikin gida na wucin gadi ne kawai, amma zuwa watan Yunin 2020, wasu ma'aikatan gwamnati na Zimbabwe sun riga sun nemi a biya su albashinsu a dalar Amurka, saboda hauhawar farashin Zimdollar.

Farashin musayar

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A watan Maris na 2020, an yi ƙoƙarin yin pega abin da ake kira Zimdollar akan US$1 = 25 RTGS$, amma hauhawar farashin kaya ya ci gaba kuma an yi watsi da wannan ƙoƙarin.

Haɓakar hauhawar farashin kayayyaki na shekara-shekara a cikin lokacin da ya ƙare Yuli 2020 ya kasance 837.53% kamar yadda ZIMSTAT ta ruwaito.

Ƙididdiga masu ƙarfi da buƙatu a kasuwar gwanjo Bankin Reserve na Zimbabwe ya kafa tare da sanar da dalar RTGS ne ke ƙayyade ƙimar musanya. Ana kiran kasuwar Interbank Foreign Currency Exchange Market kuma ta ƙunshi bankuna da bureaux de change .

Babban bankin kasar Zimbabwe ya kafa sabon gwanjon kudaden kasashen waje na mako-mako a karshen watan Yunin 2020 domin kokarin dakile hauhawar farashin kayayyaki wanda ya yi sanadiyar saukar Zimdollar zuwa US$1 = Zimdollars 80. An ci gaba da hauhawan farashin Zimdollar, kuma ya zuwa watan Mayun 2022, an “nakalto shi a hukumance a kan dalar Amurka 165.94 yayin da yake ci gaba da zamewa a kasuwar bakar fata, inda a halin yanzu ake ciniki tsakanin 330 da 400 zuwa dalar Amurka.” A yunƙurin dakatar da ƙarin hasashe a cikin Zimdollar, a cikin Mayu 2022, Baitul mali ta umarci bankunan da su daina ba da lamuni, don yin tasiri nan da nan.

A watan Yuli 2022 Bankin Reserve na Zimbabwe ya ba da sanarwar gabatar da tsabar zinare a hukumance a cikin kasuwa "a matsayin kantin sayar da kima". Ana kiran tsabar zinaren " Mosi-oa-Tunya ", kuma ana sa ran za a sayar da su akan Zimdollars ko dalar Amurka akan farashi bisa farashin zinare na duniya da ake ci da kuma farashin samarwa.[9]

Bayanan kula

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  1. Muronzi, Chris (3 July 2019). "Hyperinflation trauma: Zimbabweans' uneasy new dollar". Al Jazeera.
  2. "Zimbabwe struggles to keep its fledgling currency alive". The Economist. 23 May 2019.
  3. Biles, Peter (29 January 2009). "Zimbabwe abandons its currency". BBC News (in Turanci). London: BBC. Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  4. Hanke, Steve; Kwok, Alex (2009). "On the measurement of Zimbabwe's hyperinflation" (PDF). Cato Journal (in Turanci). Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute. 29 (2): 353–364. ISSN 0273-3072. Retrieved 18 January 2023.
  5. Mangudya, John Panonetsa (4 November 2019). "Public notice on issue and circulation of two-dollar bond coin" (PDF). Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. Harare. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2022. Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  6. Marawanyika, Godfrey (12 November 2019). "Zimbabwe Distributes New Banknotes but Keeps Curb on Withdrawals". New York City: Bloomberg. Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named inflation-table
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named rbz-poster10-20
  9. Ndlovu, Ray (22 July 2022). "Zimbabwe Gives Images of Gold Coins Meant to Tackle Inflation". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022. Retrieved 24 July 2022.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

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