|Monarquía universal española(Monarquía hispánica /Monarquía de España /Monarquía española) (es)|
|Take||Marcha Real (en)|
|Babban birni||Madrid, Toledo (en) da Valladolid (en)|
|• Yawan mutane||3 mazaunan/km²|
|Harshen gwamnati||Yaren Sifen|
|Addini||Latin Church (en)|
|Yawan fili||20,000,000 km²|
|Mabiyi||Crown of Aragon (en) , Crown of Castile (en) da Kingdom of Navarre (en)|
|Wanda ya samar||Catholic Monarchs (en)|
|Rushewa||2 ga Yuni, 1899|
|Ta biyo baya||Ispaniya|
|Patron saint (en)||Immaculate Conception of Mary (en)|
|Tsarin gwamnati||polysynodal monarchy (en) , personal union (en) da absolute monarchy (en)|
|Kuɗi||Spanish real (en)|
Daular Sipaniya (Spanish:), wanda kuma akafi sani da Masarautar Hispaniya (Spanish:) ko Masarautar Katolika (Spanish:)   daular mulkin mallaka ce da kasar Spain da jihohin da suka gabace ta ke mulki a tsakanin 1492 da 1976.  Ɗaya daga cikin dauloli mafi girma a tarihi, ta kasance, tare da haɗin gwiwar daular Portuguese, na farko da acikin kasashen Turai da suka cimma ma'auni na duniya,  suna mulkar sassa masu da dama a Amurka, Afirka, tsibirai daban-daban a Asiya da kuma Oceania, da kuma yankunan sassan Turai. Ta kasance daya daga cikin daulolin da suka fi karfi a farkon zamani, ta zama daula ta farko da aka fi sani da "the empire on which the sun never sets" wato daular da rana ba ta fadi.  Daular ta kai kolouwar ikonta a karni na 18.
Wani muhimmin abu a cikin samuwar daular Sipaniya ita ce haɗin kai tsakanin Isabella I na Castile da Ferdinand II na Aragon a shekarar 1469, wanda akafi sani da Sarakunan Katolika, wanda ya ƙaddamar da haɗin kai na siyasa, addini da zamantakewa amma ba haɗin kai na siyasa ba.  Castile (wanda aka kafa a shekarar 1230 daga Masarautar Leon da Masarautar Asturia) ta zama babbar masarauta a Iberia saboda ikon ta akan daular ketare a Amurka.  An ƙara bayyana tsarin daular a ƙarƙashin Sipaniya ta Habsburgs (1516-1700), kuma a ƙarƙashin sarakunan Bourbon na Sipaniya, daular ta ƙara ƙarfin iko kuma ta ƙara yawan kudaden shiga daga Indis. 
A farkon al'amari, Portugal ita ce kadai babbar barazana ga mulkin Sipaniya a wannan Sabuwar Duniya. Don kawo ƙarshen barazanar ta faɗaɗa Portuguese, Sipaniya ta kai hari ga maƙwabtanta na Iberian a cikin shekarar 1580, ta ci nasara akan sojojin Fotugal, Faransa, da Ingila. Bayan nasarar da Mutanen Espanya suka samu a Yaƙin Mulkin Fotigal, Philip II na Sipaniya ya mallake sarautar kasar Fotugal a 1581, kuma Fotugal da yankunanta na ketare sun zo ƙarƙashin mulkinsa tare da ƙungiyar Iberian Union, wanda masana tarihi da yawa suka dauka a matsayin mallakar Espaniya. Phillip ya mutunta ka'idoji da dama na yankunan Iberian kuma, tare da sauran majalissar dokoki, sun kafa Majalisar Portugal, wadda ta kula da Fotugal da daularta da kuma "kyautata dokokinta, cibiyoyinta, da tsarin kuɗi, da sun haɗe kai kawai don mulkin adalci."  A 1640, yayin da Sipaniya ke yaƙi a Kataloniya, Italiya, Jamus, da Netherlands, Portugal ta yi tawaye tare da sake kafa 'yancin kai a ƙarƙashin gidan Braganza. Masarautar Iberian sun koma zuwa asalinsu na kasashe, tare da gudanarwa da tsarin shari'a na asali. Ko da yake ikon mulkin Sipaniya a matsayin sarki ya bambanta daga wannan yanki zuwa wancan, sarkin ya yi haka ne ta hanyar haɗin kai  a kan dukkan yankunan masarautun ta hanyar tsarin majalisa: haɗin kai ba ya nufin an zama daya ba. 
Har ila yau, daular Sipaniya ta haɗa har da yankunan Turai, yayinda Netherlands ta Sipaniya ta kasance mafi arziki. Bayan Yaƙin Italiya da Faransa, wanda ya ƙare a shekarar 1559, Sipaniya ta sami iko akan rabin kasar Italiya (Masarautar Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Duchy na Milan) tare da yarjejeniyar Cateau-Cambresis. Waɗannan yankuna sun kasance ƙarƙashin mulkin Espaniya har zuwa Yakin mallakar mulkin Spaniya.
Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
- ↑ Schneider, Reinhold, 'El Rey de Dios', Belacqva (2002)
- ↑ Hugh Thomas, 'World Without End: The Global Empire of Philip II', Penguin; first edition (2015)
- ↑ (Kenya C. ed.). Missing or empty
- ↑ (John G. ed.). Missing or empty
- ↑ (Emily ed.). Missing or empty
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 Gibson 1966. sfn error: no target: CITEREFGibson1966 (help)
- ↑ Lynch 1989. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLynch1989 (help)
- ↑ Parker, Geoffrey. Philip II. The definitive biography. Planet. 2010. ISBN 978-8408094845: "However, the rapid and complete conquest of all of Portugal is listed as one of the most impressive military feats of the 16th century." Page 728. "Ten days after learning of Enrique's death, Felipe took off his mask and signed orders for the mobilization of troops throughout Castile for the" Jornada de Portugal ". Page 721. "In May, Felipe traveled to Mérida (...) to review an impressive army of 20,000 Italian, German and Spanish infantrymen, 1,500 cavalrymen and 136 artillery pieces." Page 725. "The seventy-three-year-old Duke (of Alba) then fought one of the most successful campaigns of the sixteenth century." Page 726. «The viceroy of India proclaimed him king (Philip II) in Goa in September 1581, followed by other outposts of the Portuguese empire, creating the first global empire in history: from Madrid and through Lisbon, Madeira, Mexico, Manila, Macao and Malacca, to India, Mozambique, Angola, Guinea, Tangier, and again to Madrid. The fifteen triumphal arches erected for the king's entry into Lisbon in June 1581 reflected this unprecedented concentration of power. ' Page 730.
- ↑ Thomas, Hugh. The lord of the world. Felipe II and his empire, 2013, Planeta, ISBN 978-8408118497: «On June 13, Felipe realized that some military action might be necessary to win the Lisbon crown and mobilized an army of 20,000 infantrymen and 1,500 cavalry under the command of the now loaded but always ready Duke of Alba. In two weeks he ordered this force to enter Portugal. Despite his defeat in the Azores, Antonio de Crato had proclaimed himself king and, had Philip not intervened, he would certainly have ruled. The main cities of Setúbal, Santarém and even Lisbon had taken sides for him. He followed a military campaign of some importance. (...) The fight was greater than expected, but anyway it ended with the victory of the Duke of Alba. The battle of Alcántara culminated the rapid and triumphant military campaign. Then all Portugal passed to the dominion of Felipe, who was declared king on September 12, 1580. Don Antonio fled but was defeated again in Terceira, in the Azores ». Page 297.
- ↑ Schneider, Reinhold. The King of God, 2002, page 148, Edit. Figure. ISBN 8495894041: «There was never a peak moment of any nation as brilliant as the conquest of Portugal by Felipe (...) When Felipe had realized, both through diplomatic means and through war, his claims, that they were, at least, as well founded as those of the other claimants and that, in addition, they represented the right, regardless of documents, of the most capable, the circle of Spanish power around the earth was in fact closed.», Manuel Fernández Álvarez, "Felipe II and his time" Edit. Espasa Calpe, 1998, p. 537, ISBN 8423997367: "Definitely, under the reign of Felipe II, Portugal became a province.", John Lynch, Los Austrias (1516–1598) (1993), Edit. CRITICA, ISBN 8474235650, p. 370: «In the first months of 1580, and encouraged by the government, the Castilian nobles began to recruit forces at their own expense, while the cities contributed troops, ships and money in a national effort that further highlighted the inaction Portuguese. (...) Felipe II boasted saying: "I inherited it, I bought it, I conquered it" »
- ↑ Braudel, Fernand. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the time of Felipe II, Volume II, Edit. Fondo de Cultura Económica, second edition in Spanish, 1976, ISBN 8437500974, pp. 713–716: «The war in Portugal, which was no more than a simple military walk, was developed according to plans. (...) It was the speed with which the Spaniards acted, and not the weakness attributed by some to the prior, that led to the failure of the suitor. For Portugal to be entirely occupied by the Spaniards, then, four months were enough. Upon receiving the news, the Portuguese Indies submitted in turn, without combat. The only serious difficulties arose in the Azores. (...) the Azores affair in the years 1582 and 1583, where the archipelago was saved and where, at the same time, with the Strozzi disaster, the dream of a French Brazil was dispelled; (...) ». The resistance in the Azores was put down by Álvaro de Bazán and his fleet.
- ↑ Elliott 1977. sfn error: no target: CITEREFElliott1977 (help)
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Ruiz Martín 1996. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRuiz_Martín1996 (help)