Dokar teku

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Wikidata.svgDokar teku
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na admiralty law (en) Fassara
Mare Liberum (1609) na Hugo Grotius na ɗaya daga cikin ayyukan farko kan dokar teku.

Dokar teku wata hukuma ce ta dokokin kasa da kasa da ke kula da hakkoki da ayyukan jihohi a cikin yanayin teku . [1] Ya shafi batutuwa kamar haƙƙin kewayawa, da'awar ma'adinan teku, da ikon ruwan teku.

Yayin da aka zabo daga wasu al'adu, yarjejeniyoyin, da yarjejeniyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa, dokar zamani ta teku ta samo asali ne daga Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku (UNCLOS), wacce ta fara aiki tun 1994, wacce gabaɗaya an yarda da ita azaman ƙa'idar al'ada ta ƙasa da ƙasa . dokar teku, kuma a wasu lokuta ana daukarta a matsayin "tsarin mulkin teku".

Dokar teku ita ce takwararta ta doka ta jama'a zuwa dokar admiralty (kuma aka sani da dokar maritime), wacce ta shafi batutuwan teku masu zaman kansu, kamar jigilar kayayyaki ta teku, haƙƙin ceto, karon jirgi, da inshorar ruwa .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga cikin misalan farko na ƙa'idodin doka game da al'amuran teku akwai Byzantine Lex Rhodia , wanda aka ƙaddamar tsakanin 600 zuwa 800 AZ don gudanar da kasuwanci da kewayawa a cikin Bahar Rum. Hakanan an ƙirƙiri lambobin dokokin teku a lokacin tsakiyar zamanai na Turai, kamar Rolls of Oléron, waɗanda aka zana daga <i id="mwKg">Lex Rhodia</i>, da Dokokin Wisby, waɗanda aka kafa tsakanin manyan biranen birni na Hanseatic League .

Duk da haka, farkon sanannen tsarin dokokin kasa da kasa na jama'a na teku shine a karni na 17 na Turai, wanda ya ga kewayawa, bincike, da kasuwanci wanda ba a taba ganin irinsa ba a cikin tekunan duniya. Portugal da Spain sun jagoranci wannan yanayin, suna da'awar duka hanyoyin kasa da na teku da suka gano. Spain ta ɗauki Tekun Fasifik a matsayin mare clausum - a zahiri "teku mai rufe" iyaka ga sauran sojojin ruwa - a wani bangare don kare dukiyarta a Asiya . Hakazalika, a matsayin hanyar da aka sani kawai daga Tekun Atlantika, Mashigin Magellan na yin sintiri a lokaci-lokaci da jiragen ruwa na Spain don hana shigowar jiragen ruwa na kasashen waje. Paparoma Romanus Pontifex (1455) ya amince da keɓantaccen haƙƙin Portugal na kewayawa, kasuwanci, da kamun kifi a cikin tekuna kusa da ƙasar da aka gano, kuma a kan haka ne Portuguese ɗin suka yi iƙirarin keɓe kan cinikin Gabashin Indiya, wanda ya haifar da adawa da rikici daga sauran sojojin ruwa na Turai.

Yayin da ake ci gaba da fafatawa a kan cinikin teku, masanin shari’a kuma masanin falsafa dan kasar Holland Hugo Grotius —wanda ya dauki uban dokokin kasa da kasa gabaki daya—ya rubuta Mare Liberum ( The Freedom of the Seas ), wanda aka buga a shekara ta 1609, wanda ya ba da ka’idar cewa tekun yanki ne na kasa da kasa kuma cewa Don haka duk al'ummomi sun sami 'yanci don amfani da shi don kasuwanci. Ya kafa hujja da cewa "kowace al'umma tana da 'yancin tafiya zuwa kowace al'umma, da yin ciniki da ita." Don haka, akwai haƙƙin da ba shi da laifi akan ƙasa da kuma irin wannan madaidaiciyar nassi a teku. Grotius ya lura cewa ba kamar ƙasa ba, wanda masu mulki za su iya ƙayyade ikonsu, tekun ya kasance daidai da iska, dukiya na kowa:

Da yake rubuta martani ga Grotius, masanin shari'a na Ingila John Selden yayi gardama a Mare Clausum cewa teku tana da ikon mallakar ikon mallakar ƙasa kamar yanki na ƙasa. Da yake watsi da ra'ayin Grotius, Selden ya yi iƙirarin cewa babu wani tushe na tarihi na tekun da za a yi mu'amala da shi daban-daban fiye da ƙasa, kuma babu wani abu da ke tattare da yanayin tekun da ya hana jihohi yin mulki a kan sassansa. [2] A taƙaice, dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa na iya ɓullowa don daidaita tsarin da ke tasowa na ikon ƙasa akan teku.

"Mare clausum" a cikin Turai Age of Discovery.

Yayin da yawan al'ummomi suka fara faɗaɗa aikin sojojin ruwa a duniya, iƙirari masu cin karo da juna kan buɗaɗɗen tekun ya hauhawa. Wannan ya sa kasashen tekun suka daidaita matsayarsu tare da takaita iyakacin ikonsu kan teku daga kasa. An taimaka wannan ta hanyar sulhuntawa wanda masanin shari'a na Holland Cornelius Bynkershoek ya gabatar, wanda a cikin De dominio maris (1702), ya kafa ka'idar cewa mulkin maritime yana iyakance ga nisa wanda cannons zai iya kare shi sosai.

Ra'ayin Grotius na " 'yancin teku " ya zama kusan gamayya a cikin karni na 20, biyo bayan mamayar sojojin ruwa na Turai. Haƙƙoƙin ƙasa da ikon ikon teku an iyakance su ne ga ƙayyadadden bel na ruwa wanda ya fito daga bakin tekun ƙasar, yawanci mil uku na ruwa (5.6) km), bisa ga ka'idar " harbin bindiga" ta Bynkershoek. A karkashin ka'idar mare liberum, duk ruwan da ya wuce iyakokin kasa an dauke shi ruwan kasa da kasa : Kyauta ga dukan al'ummomi, amma ba na kowa ba.

A farkon ƙarni na 20, wasu ƙasashe sun bayyana muradin su na tsawaita da'awar ruwa na ƙasa, wato yin amfani da albarkatun ma'adinai, kare kifin kifaye, da tilasta hana gurɓacewar yanayi . Don haka, a cikin 1930, Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasashen Duniya ta kira taro a Hague, amma babu wata yarjejeniya da ta haifar. A tsakiyar karni na 20, ingantuwar fasahar kamun kifi da hako man fetur ya fadada iyakokin ruwa da kasashe za su iya ganowa da kuma amfani da albarkatun kasa. Wannan ya sa shugaban Amurka Harry S. Truman a shekara ta 1945 ya mika ikon Amurka ga duk albarkatun kasa na shiyyoyin nahiyoyi, da ke bayan yankin ruwan kasar. Sanarwar da Truman ya yi ta yi nuni da ka'idar dokokin kasa da kasa ta al'ada ta 'yancin al'umma na kare albarkatun kasa. Sauran ƙasashe sun bi sahu da sauri: Tsakanin 1946 zuwa 1950, Chile, Peru, da Ecuador sun ba da haƙƙinsu zuwa nisan mil 200 na ruwa (370). km) don rufe wuraren kamun kifi na Humboldt na yanzu .

gamammiyar Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Dokar Teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankunan Maritime su ne ginshiƙi na dokar zamani na teku.
Islands and rocks UNCLOS CN.svg

Ƙoƙari na farko na ƙaddamarwa da ƙirƙira wata cikakkiyar doka ta teku ta kasance a cikin 1950s, jim kaɗan bayan sanarwar Truman akan shiryayye na nahiyar. A cikin 1956, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta gudanar da taronta na farko kan Dokar Teku (UNCLOS I) a Geneva, Switzerland, wanda ya haifar da yarjejeniyoyin da aka kulla a 1958: [3]

  • Yarjejeniya kan Tekun Teku da Yanki mai Mahimmanci, shigowar aiki: 10 Satumba 1964
  • Yarjejeniyar Kan Tsarin Nahiyar, Shigarwa: 10 Yuni 1964
  • Yarjejeniyar kan manyan Tekuna, shiga aiki: 30 Satumba 1962
  • Yarjejeniyar Kan Kamun Kifi da Kula da Albarkatun Rayuwa na Manyan Tekuna, Shigarwa: 20 Maris 1966

Yarjejeniyar kan Shelf na Nahiyar da kyau ta tsara sanarwar Truman a matsayin dokar kasa da kasa ta al'ada. Yayin da ake ganin UNCLOS I a matsayin mai nasara, ya bar mahimmin batu game da girman yankunan ruwa. A cikin 1960, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta gudanar da taro na biyu kan dokar teku ("UNCLOS II"), amma hakan bai haifar da wata sabuwar yarjejeniya ba. Batun da'awar mabambantan da'awar ruwa ya taso ne a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a shekara ta 1967 ta Malta, wanda ya sa a cikin 1973 babban taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na uku kan dokar teku a birnin New York. A wani yunƙuri na rage yuwuwar ƙungiyoyin ƙasashe su mamaye tattaunawar, taron ya yi amfani da tsarin bai ɗaya maimakon kuri'u mafi rinjaye. Tare da halartar kasashe fiye da 160, taron ya ci gaba har zuwa shekara ta 1982, wanda ya haifar da Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta Dokokin Teku, wadda aka fi sani da Yarjejeniyar Teku, wadda ta bayyana hakkoki da nauyin da ke wuyan kasashe wajen amfani da tekuna na duniya. .

UNCLOS ya gabatar da tanadi da yawa, waɗanda suka fi dacewa da kewaya kewayawa, matsayin tsibiri da tsarin tafiyar da zirga-zirga, yankunan tattalin arziki na musamman (EEZs), ikon shiryayye na continental, ma'adinai mai zurfi, tsarin amfani, kariya ga yanayin ruwa, binciken kimiyya, da sasanta rigingimu. Hakanan ya saita iyakar yankuna daban-daban, wanda aka auna daga ma'anar ma'anar teku a hankali .

Yarjejeniyar ta kuma tsara 'yancin teku, tare da samar da sarari cewa tekunan a bude suke ga dukkan jihohi, ba tare da wata kasa da za ta iya mika wani bangare ga ikonta ba. Saboda haka, jam'iyyun jihohi ba za su iya mika mulkinsu ba tare da izini ba fiye da EEZ, mil 200 na ruwa wanda wannan jihar ke da haƙƙin keɓantaccen haƙƙin kamun kifi, ma'adanai, da ajiyar bene na teku. Ana ba da izinin "Innocent Pass" ta cikin yankunan ruwa da EEZ, ko da ta jiragen ruwa na soja, idan ba su cutar da kasar ba ko kuma sun karya wata doka.

Ƙungiyoyin Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku (tun watan Yuni 2019).

Taron ya fara aiki ne a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1994, shekara guda bayan da Jiha ta 60, Guyana ta amince da shi; Yarjejeniyoyi hudu da aka kammala a taron farko na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a 1956 an maye gurbinsu da su. Tun daga watan Yuni 2019, jihohi 168 ne suka amince da UNCLOS. Yawancin kasashen da ba su amince da yarjejeniyar ba, kamar Amurka, duk da haka sun amince da tanade-tanaden ta a matsayin wanda ke nuni da dokar al'ada ta kasa da kasa. Don haka, ya kasance tushen da aka fi sani da kuma bin tushen dokokin duniya game da teku.

Tsakanin 2018 da 2020, akwai taro kan yiwuwar sauyi ga dokar teku game da kiyayewa da dorewar amfani da bambancin halittun ruwa na yankunan da suka wuce ikon kasa (Matsalar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya 72/249). [4]

Amincewa da aiwatar da dokar teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa an kirkiro UNCLOS ne a karkashin inuwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, kungiyar ba ta da wata rawar aiki kai tsaye wajen aiwatar da ita. Koyaya, wata hukuma ta musamman ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Hukumar Kula da Maritime ta Duniya, tana taka rawa wajen sa ido da aiwatar da wasu tanade-tanaden yarjejeniyar, tare da Hukumar Kula da Ruwa ta Duniya (ISA), wanda yarjejeniyar ta kafa. don tsarawa, tsarawa da sarrafa duk ayyukan da suka shafi ma'adinai a cikin tekun tekun na duniya fiye da iyakokin yanki.

UNCLOS ta kafa kotun kasa da kasa kan ka'idar teku (ITLOS), mai hedkwata a Hamburg, Jamus, don yanke hukunci game da duk wata takaddama game da fassarar ko aikace-aikacen yarjejeniyar (bisa ga tanadi na Mataki na 297 da kuma sanarwar da aka yi daidai da labarin). 298 na al'ada). [5] [6] An zabo alkalan ta 21 daga kasashe daban-daban. [7] Saboda EEZ yana da yawa, yawancin shari'o'in ITLOS sun shafi da'awar gasa a kan iyakokin teku tsakanin jihohi [8] Tun daga 2017, ITLOS ya daidaita shari'o'i 25. [9] [10]

Dokar Maritime[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ya kamata a bambanta dokar teku daga dokar teku, wadda ta shafi al'amurran da suka shafi teku da kuma jayayya tsakanin masu zaman kansu, kamar mutane, ƙungiyoyin duniya, ko kamfanoni. Sai dai hukumar kula da harkokin jiragen ruwa ta kasa da kasa, hukumar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen aiwatar da dokokin teku, ita ma tana taimakawa wajen tsarawa, tsarawa, da daidaita wasu ka'idoji da ka'idojin dokokin teku.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. James Harrison, Making the Law of the Sea: A Study in the Development of International Law (2011), p. 1.
  2. Marchamont Nedham translation of 1652, Of the Dominion, or, Ownership of the Sea pp. 3-5, 8-11, 168-179.
  3. UNCLOS I
  4. Intergovernmental Conference on an international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (General Assembly resolution 72/249)
  5. "ITLOS jurisdiction". Archived from the original on 2020-02-24. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  6. ITLOS
  7. "ITLOS judges". Archived from the original on 2019-05-26. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  8. "Case 16". Archived from the original on 2018-09-17. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  9. "ITLOS cases". Archived from the original on 2019-10-17. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  10. List of cases
  1. ^ James Harrison, Making the Law of the Sea: A Study in the Development of International Law (2011),
  2. ^ Marchamont Nedham translation of 1652, Of the Dominion, or, Ownership of the Sea pp. 3-5, 8-11, 168-179.
  3. ^ Intergovernmental Conference on an international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (General Assembly resolution 72/249)

Mahada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]