Dutsen Nyiragongo

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Dutsen Nyiragongo
An aerial view of the towering volcanic peak of Mt. Nyiragongo.jpg
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 3,470 m
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 1°31′S 29°15′E / 1.52°S 29.25°E / -1.52; 29.25
Mountain range (en) Fassara Tsaunukan Virunga
Kasa Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango
Territory Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango
Protected area (en) Fassara Filin shakatawa na Virunga
Mountaineering (en) Fassara
Geology
Material (en) Fassara feldspathoid (en) Fassara

Dutsen Nyiragongo wani salo ne mai ɗauke da tsawa wanda ya kai tsawan 3,470 m (11,385 ft)[1] a tsaunukan Virunga da ke hade da Rift Albertine yana cikin Filin shakatawa na Virunga, a Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo, kimanin kilomita 12 (mil 7.5) arewa da garin Goma da Tafkin Kivu da yamma da iyaka da Rwanda. Babbar kogin tana da nisan kilomita biyu (mil 1) kuma yawanci tana ƙunshe da tabkin ruwa. A yanzu haka ramin yana da kujeru biyu masu sanyin ruwa masu kyau a bango - ɗayan yana da kusan mita 3,175 (ƙafa 10,417) kuma ƙarami a kusan 2,975 m (9,760 ft).

Kogin Nyiragongo a wasu lokuta ya kasance mafi shahararren sanannen lava a cikin tarihin kwanan nan. Zurfin tafkin ruwan ya banbanta sosai. An rubuta mafi tsayi na tafkin ruwa a kusan m 3,250 m (10,660 ft) kafin fashewar Janairu 1977 - zurfin tafki na kusan 600 m (2,000 ft). Bayan fashewar Janairu na 2002, an rubuta tafkin lava a ƙasa da kusan 2,600 m (8,500 ft), ko 900 m (3,000 ft) ƙasa da baki.[2] Matakin ya tashi a hankali tun daga lokacin.[3] Nyiragongo da Nyamuragira da ke kusa suna tare da alhakin kashi 40 cikin 100 na dutsen dutsen na tarihi na Afirka.[4]

Ilimin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nyamuragira (hagu) da Nyiragongo (daga dama). Exarfafa a tsaye (1.5 ×).

Wani dutsen da ke wani bangare ya hadu da tsofaffin dutsen tsaunuka biyu, Baratu da Shaheru, kuma wasu daruruwan kananan dutsen da ke kunshe da dutsen da ke kewaye da dutsen suna kewaye da shi.

Nyiragongo mazugi ya ƙunshi pyroclastics da lava suna gudana.[5] Nesaragongo's lavas ƙananan silica ne, masu wadatar alkali, maɗaukakiyar duwatsu masu ƙarancin gaske ba tare da feldspars ba. Sun kasance daga melilitites masu wadatar olivine ta hanyar leucites zuwa nephelinites, dauke da, a cikin nau'uka daban-daban musamman ma'adanai nepheline, leucite, melilite, kalsilite, da clinopyroxene.[5][6][7] Wannan ƙaramin haɓakar silica yana haifar da fashewa tare da kwararar ruwa mai ƙaranci. Ganin cewa yawancin kwararar ruwa suna motsawa a hankali kuma ba safai suke haifar da haɗari ga rayuwar ɗan adam ba, kwararar ruwan Nyiragongo na iya yin tsere zuwa ƙasa har zuwa kilomita 100 / h (60 mph).[8]

Tarihi mai aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba a san da yawa game da tsawon lokacin da dutsen mai fitar da dutse yake aman wuta ba, amma tun daga 1882, ya fashe aƙalla sau 34, gami da lokuta da yawa inda ake cigaba da aiki tsawon shekaru a wani lokaci, galibi a cikin hanyar tafkin lava mai gurnani a cikin ramin. An jima ana zargin wanzuwar tafkin lava amma ba a tabbatar da shi ba a kimiyance har zuwa 1948.[9] A wancan lokacin, an auna shi kusan kusan muraba'in mita 120,000 (1.3 × 106 sq ft).[9] Balaguro da suka biyo baya sun nuna cewa tabkin ya sauya cikin girma, zurfin, da yanayin zafi a kan lokaci.[9]

Aikin tafkin lava yana gudana.[10][3][11] Ya zuwa shekarar 2020, galibin tabkin an killace shi a cikin babban kwanon ruɓaɓɓen gwangwani (kusan 18 m (60 ft) mai tsawo ta 180 m (600 ƙafa) mai faɗi) a cikin kwarin.[11][12]

Fashewar ya fara a ranar 22 Mayu 2021; ya zuwa ranar 27 ga Mayu 2021, mutane 37 sun bata kuma ana zaton sun mutu, bayan kwararar ruwa da ta isa wajen garin Goma.[13]

Fashewar 1977[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsakanin 1894 da 1977 bakin ramin ya ƙunshi tafkin lava mai aiki. A ranar 10 ga Janairun 1977, katangar ganuwar ta karye, kuma tafkin lava ya malale a ƙasa da awa ɗaya.[1] Lava ta gangaro zuwa gefen bangayen dutsen mai tsananin gudu har zuwa kilomita 60 a awa daya (37 mph) a kan gangaren sama, kwararar lava mafi sauri da aka rubuta zuwa yau,[14] ta mamaye kauyuka tare da kashe akalla mutane 600.[15] A tsakanin minti 30, tabkin lava ya wofintar, yana kwarara arewa, kudu, da yamma dutsen tsawa. Babu wani wuri a cikin duniya da irin wannan madaidaiciyar hanya ta ɗauke da tafkin irin wannan ruwan lava. Kusancin Nyiragongo zuwa yankunan da ke da cunkoson jama'a yana ƙaruwa da yiwuwar haifar da bala'i. Fashewa daga 1977 ya wayar da kan mutane game da irin hatsarin da Nyiragongo ke da shi, kuma saboda wannan, a cikin 1991 aka sanya shi tsaunin Dutsen Shekaru, wanda ya cancanci nazari na musamman.[16]

Shekarar 1977 ta gabaci kirkirar sabon karamin iska mai karfin gaske, Murara, dan nesa kadan da gangaren Nyamuragira.[17]

Dutsen Nyiragongo tafkin lawa, wanda ake gani daga bakin kogin, da daddare. [18]

Fashewar 2002[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Lava sun sake gyarawa a cikin rami a cikin fashewa a cikin 1982-1983 da 1994. Wani babban fashewar dutsen mai fitar da wuta ya fara ne a ranar 17 ga Janairun 2002, bayan watanni da yawa na karuwar girgizar kasa da kuma aikin fumarolic. Fississ mai nisan kilomita 13 (8.1 mi) ya bude a gefen kudu na dutsen mai fitar da wuta, yana yaduwa cikin 'yan awanni daga tsawan mita 2,800 zuwa 1,550 (9,190 zuwa 5,090 ft) kuma ya isa gefen garin Goma, babban birnin lardin a arewacin gabar Tafkin Kivu. Lava ya gudana daga kwallaye uku a ƙarshen fissure kuma ya gudana a cikin rafi 200 zuwa 1,000 mita (660 zuwa 3,280 ft) fadi kuma zuwa mita 2 (6 da 7 a cikin) zurfin Goma. An bayar da gargadi kuma an kwashe mutane 400,000 daga garin zuwa iyakar Rwandan zuwa makwabciyar Gisenyi yayin fashewar. Lava ta rufe ƙarshen arewacin titin sauka da tashin jiragen sama a Filin jirgin saman Goma, ya bar kudancin kashi biyu cikin uku, kuma ya isa Tafkin Kivu.[19] Wannan ya haifar da fargabar cewa lava na iya haifar da iskar gas mai zurfin gaske a cikin tafkin don tashi ba zato ba tsammani, tare da fitar da adadi mai yawa na carbon dioxide da methane[20] - kwatankwacin bala'in da ya faru a Tafkin Nyos na Kamaru a 1986. Wannan bai faru ba, amma masana ilimin dutsen mai fitar da wuta sun cigaba da lura da yankin sosai.[21]

Kimanin mutane 245 ne suka mutu a sakamakon fashewar iska daga iskar shaka da gine-ginen da suka rushe saboda lava da girgizar ƙasa.[22] Lava ta rufe kashi 13 cikin 100 na Goma, kusan kilomita murabba'in 1.8 (4.7 km2),[23] kuma kusan mutane 120,000 sun rasa matsuguni.[2]

Nan da nan bayan fashewar, an ji yawan girgizar kasa a kusa da Goma da Gisenyi. Wannan aikin yawo ya ci gaba har kimanin watanni uku kuma ya haifar da rushewar ƙarin gine-gine.[19]

Watanni shida bayan fara fashewar dutse a 2002, dutsen Nyiragongo ya sake barkewa.

Barazana mai ci gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gurbataccen iskar carbon dioxide, wanda aka fi sani da 'mazuku' a cikin gida, ya kashe yara har ma kwanan nan. A wuraren da iskar gas ke zubewa daga ƙasa a wasu matakai masu ƙima, ba tare da tarwatsa tasirin iska ba, tasirinsa na iya zama na kisa.[24] A ranar 8 ga Maris din 2016, Goma Volcano Observatory ta gano wani sabon rami da aka bude a gefen arewa maso gabas na ramin, biyo bayan rahotannin cikin gida na ruri da ke fitowa daga dutsen. Wasu na fargabar cewa wannan na iya haifar da fashewar flank.[25] Masu sa ido a cikin 2020 sun shaida tashin a cikin tafkin lawa da sauran alamun fashewar dutse mai zuwa.[11]

Fashewar 2021[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 22 ga Mayu 2021, an ba da rahoton cewa dutsen ya sake yin aman wuta.[26] Lava ta kusanci tashar jirgin saman Goma kuma ta koma tsakiyar garin gabashin Goma.[27] Daga baya gwamnan soja na lardin Kivu ta Arewa ya tabbatar da cewa fashewar ta auku ne da misalin karfe 17:00 agogon GMT.[28] Lava ta datse wata babbar hanya zuwa Beni, kuma hukumomi sun bukaci mazauna garin na Goma da su yi kaura, lamarin da ya sa dubban mutane barin gidajensu.[29][30] Hakanan an yanke wutar lantarki a fadin manyan yankuna biyo bayan fashewar.[31] Fashewar ta haifar da aƙalla mutuwar mutane 32, galibi sanadiyyar haɗarin mota a cikin fitowar da ta biyo baya.[32][33]

Kulawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton tauraron dan adam na tabkin Nyiragongo a watan Yulin 2018

Kungiyar masana kimiyya ce ke sa ido kan dutsen mai fitar da wuta a Goma Volcanic Observatory (GVO). Ana cigaba da kulawa, tare da bayanan girgizar ƙasa da ke afkuwa kowane minti huɗu kuma bayanan zafin jiki ana samarwa kowane minti goma.[21] Cigaba da bayar da tallafi ga GVO yana cikin shakku, kamar yadda Bankin Duniya ya yanke shawara a cikin 2020 don dakatar da gudummawar da yake bayarwa.[11]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Template:Cite gvp
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  3. 3.0 3.1 Burgi, P.‐Y.; Darrah, T. H.; Tedesco, Dario; Eymold, W. K. (2014). "Dynamics of the Mount Nyiragongo lava lake". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 119 (5): 4106–4122. Bibcode:2014JGRB..119.4106B. doi:10.1002/2013JB010895.
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  8. Baxter, Peter J (February 18, 2002). "ERUPTION AT NYIRAGONGO VOLCANO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO 17-18 JANUARY 2002". Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. pp. 272–273. ISBN 978-0-89577-087-5.
  10. Global Volcanism Program (2020). Bennis, K. L.; Venzke, E. (eds.). "Report on Nyiragongo (DR Congo)". Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. Smithsonian Institution. 45 (6). doi:10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN202006-223030. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Pease, Roland (13 October 2020). "Lava lake rises at dangerous African volcano". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 370 (6514): 270–271. Bibcode:2020Sci...370..270P. doi:10.1126/science.370.6514.270. PMID 33060337. Archived from the original on 14 October 2020.
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  16. "IAVCEI NEWS 1/2 1996" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-13. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
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  30. "DR Congo orders Goma evacuation after Mount Nyiragongo erupts". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera. May 22, 2021.
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Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]