Filin shakatawa na Virunga

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Wikidata.svgFilin shakatawa na Virunga
national park (en) Fassara
Virunga 01.jpg
Bayanai
Farawa 1925
IUCN protected areas category (en) Fassara IUCN category II: National Park (en) Fassara
Suna a harshen gida Parc national des Virunga
Ƙasa Jamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango
Authority (en) Fassara Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (en) Fassara
Maƙirƙiri Albert I of Belgium (en) Fassara
Significant event (en) Fassara list of World Heritage in Danger (en) Fassara
Heritage designation (en) Fassara UNESCO World Heritage Site (en) Fassara da Ramsar site (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo virunga.org
World Heritage criteria (en) Fassara World Heritage selection criterion (vii) (en) Fassara, World Heritage selection criterion (viii) (en) Fassara da World Heritage selection criterion (x) (en) Fassara
Significant place (en) Fassara Goma (birni)
Wuri
 0°30′S 29°30′E / 0.5°S 29.5°E / -0.5; 29.5
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaJamhuriyar dimokuradiyya Kwango
Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (en) FassaraNorth Kivu (en) Fassara

Filin shakatawa na Virunga shi ne wurin shakatawa na kasa a cikin kwarin Rbert na Albertine a gabashin Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo. An ƙirƙira shi a cikin 1925 kuma yana cikin farkon yankunan kariya a Afirka.[1] A cikin tsawa, ya fara daga 680 m (2,230 ft) a kwarin Semliki zuwa 5,109 m (16,762 ft) a tsaunukan Rwenzori. Daga arewa zuwa kudu ya fadada kimanin kilomita 300 (mil mi 190), galibi kan iyakokin duniya da Uganda da Rwanda a gabas.[2] Ya mamaye yanki na 8,090 km2 (3,120 sq mi).

Akwai duwatsu masu aiki da duwatsu biyu a cikin wurin shakatawa, Dutsen Nyiragongo da Nyamuragira.[3] Sun fasalta fasalin mahalli da namun daji da yawa. Fiye da nau'ikan faunal da na fure guda dubu 3 aka rubuta, wanda sama da 300 suna da alaƙa da Albertine Rift gami da gabashin gorilla (Gorilla beringei) da biri na zinariya (Cercopithecus kandti).[4]

A shekara ta 1979, an sanya gandun dajin a matsayin Wurin Tarihi na UNESCO saboda yawan wadatattun wuraren zama, kebantattun nau'o'in halittu da endemism, da kuma kariya daga mazaunin gorilla mai tsafta.[5] An sanya shi a cikin Lissafin al'adun duniya a cikin Haɗari tun daga 1994 saboda rikice-rikicen jama'a da ƙaruwar kasancewar ɗan adam a yankin.[6]

An samu munanan hare-hare da dama daga kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye, kuma an kashe masu gadin wurin da yawa.[7][8]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A farkon 1920s, da yawa daga masu goyon bayan kungiyar kiyayewa ta Turai sun goyi bayan shawarar kirkirar wani yanki mai kariya a arewa maso gabashin Kongo ta Kongo, daga cikinsu akwai Victor van Straelen, Jean Massart da Jean-Marie Derscheid. Lokacin da aka kafa Filin shakatawa na Albert a watan Afrilu 1925 a matsayin filin shakatawa na farko a Afirka, an dauke shi a matsayin wurin da ya dace da kimiya da nufin yin nazari da kiyaye namun daji da kuma abin da ake kira da 'dadadden' mafarautan masu tara Afirka. A cikin 1926, Derscheid ya jagoranci aikin farko na Belgium zuwa zane-zane na Filin shakatawa na Albert, wanda ya kewaye yanki na 500 km2 (190 sq mi) a kusa da tsaunukan Dutsen Karisimbi da Dutsen Mikeno. Yankin da aka kiyaye ya faɗaɗa a cikin 1929 ta Filin shakatawa na Virunga, wanda ya ƙunshi tsaunukan Virunga, ɓangarorin yankin Rutshuru da filayen kudu na tafkin Edward. Girman sa na farko na 2,920.98 km2 (1,127.80 sq mi) an fadada shi mataki zuwa mataki a cikin shekaru masu zuwa.[9][10][11][12] 'Yan asalin ƙasar sun rasa haƙƙin mallakar ƙasa na gargajiya a cikin wannan aikin, kuma an kore su daga yankin da aka kiyaye.[11][13] Tsakanin ƙarshen 1930s da 1955, an tura kimanin mutane Rwandophone 85,000 zuwa Masisi da ke kusa da Arewacin Kivu.[14]

A cikin 1934, an kafa Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo Belge a matsayin hukumar kula da wuraren shakatawa na ƙasa a Kongo ta Beljiyam.[9] Tsakanin farkon shekarun 1930s da 1961, masana kimiyya ne na ƙasar Belgium sun gudanar da balaguro da yawa zuwa Albert National Park, na biyu wanda Gaston-François de Witte ya jagoranta. Sun yi karatu kuma sun tattara samfurin dabbobin daji na Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique;[15][16] bincika ƙabilun da ke wannan yankin;[17] yayi nazarin ayyukan aman wuta,[18] da burbushin halittu.[19]

A ƙarshen 1950s, makiyayan Tutsi da shanunsu suka shiga wurin shakatawar, suna lalata mahalli na halitta har zuwa tsawan 3,000 m (9,800 ft), wanda ake tunanin zai iya yi wa gorillas ɗin dajin barazana.[20]

An sake fasalin dokokin ƙasa a cikin shekarun 1960 bayan Kongo ta Beljiyam ta sami yancin kai kamar Jamhuriyar Kongo, kuma ƙasar ta bayyana mallakar ƙasa, abin da ya cutar da mutanen yankin sosai. Farauta ba bisa doka ba a cikin yankunan kariya sun ƙaru.[13] A shekarar 1969, aka hade wuraren shakatawa biyu karkashin sunan Filin shakatawa na Virunga, wanda aka ayyana shi a matsayin Tarihin Duniya na UNESCO a shekarar 1979.[2]

A cikin 1996, an sanya gandun dajin a matsayin rukunin Ramsar mai matukar muhimmanci ga kasashen duniya.[2]

A shekara ta 2011, an bai wa kamfanin Soco International na Burtaniya wani sassauci na hako ɗanyen mai a kewayensa da kuma manyan sassan filin shakatawa na ƙasar. Jami'an gwamnati sun goyi bayan ayyukan bincike na membobin kungiyar soco na kasa da kasa, yayin da gandun dajin ke adawa. A yayin da ake ci gaba da samun tashin hankali, an kaiwa babban mai gadin wurin, Emmanuel de Mérode, hari a watan Afrilu na 2014.[21] Bayan zanga-zangar kasa da kasa, kamfanin ya daina binciko ayyukan kuma ya yarda ya daina fara irin wannan aiki a yankin da wuraren tarihi na Duniya.[22][23][24][25]

Ya zuwa shekarar 2016, an gina madatsun ruwa masu amfani da wutar lantarki guda hudu wadanda ke samar da wutar lantarki ga kananan kamfanoni kuma wadanda ke amfana da mutanen karkara sama da 200,000.[26]

Rikicin mai ɗauke da makamai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun farkon 1990s, hargitsin siyasa ya mamaye yankin mai kariya a yankin Manyan Tabkuna na Afirka. Bayan kisan kiyashin Ruwanda, dubban 'yan gudun hijira sun tsere zuwa yankin Kivu, kuma kasancewar sojoji sun karu. Yaƙe-yaƙe na Kongo na Farko da na biyu sun ƙara dagula yankin. Masu sintiri na hana farauta a cikin wurin shakatawar, kuma an kashe ma’aikatan gandun dajin da namun daji.[6] Kimanin 'yan gudun hijira 850,000 ne suka zauna a kewayen gandun dajin na kasar a shekarar 1994. Har zuwa kusan mutane 40,000 ke shiga wurin shakatawar a kowace rana domin neman itacen girki da abinci, kuma sun yi dazuka manyan wurare.[27] A cikin 1994, Virunga National Park ya shiga cikin Jerin abubuwan tarihi na Duniya cikin Hadari.[6]

Bayan yakin Congo na biyu, an ci gaba da arangama tsakanin ma’aikatan shakatawa da kungiyoyin ‘yan tawaye; An kashe ma'aikatan shakatawa 80 tsakanin 1996 da 2003.[27] Kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye da dama dauke da makamai suna aiki a wurin shakatawar, ciki har da Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda da National Congress for Defence of People (FDLR).[2] Latter ya mallaki sashen Mikeno na Gandun dajin na Virunga tsakanin Disamba 2006 da Janairun 2009.[28]

A shekarar 2005, Hukumar Tarayyar Turai (EC) ta ba da shawarar hadin gwiwar jama'a da masu zaman kansu tsakanin gwamnatin kasar da kungiyar Burtaniya da ba ta gwamnati ba da Asusun Kula da Afirka. Organizationungiyar ta ƙarshe tana da alhakin kula da shakatawa tun 2010; kimanin kashi 80% na farashin gudanarwa EC ke tallafawa. Yunkurin kare wurin shakatawa ya kasance mai karfin soja a cikin shekaru masu zuwa don hana kungiyoyin 'yan tawaye masu dauke da makamai da mafarauta aiki daga cikin wurin shakatawar.[21] An bai wa ma'aikatan Park horo da kayan aiki masu inganci, kuma suna aiki tare da sojoji da jami'an tsaro na jihar.[29]

Wadannan dabarun, wadanda aka soki a matsayin "sanya karfin soji na kiyayewa", ana zargin sa da kara tashin hankali da fatarar da 'yan asalin yankin ke fuskanta. An tilasta wa al'ummomi, kamar Mbuti, wadanda a baya suka dogara da filayen da aka hada su a wurin shakatawa don abinci da matsuguni, ko kuma fuskantar barazanar kamawa ko kashe su daga masu gadin wurin da ke dauke da makamai.[30]

Ana zargin ƙara yawan militan ta'addancin kiyaye muhalli da rura wutar tattara makamai na mayaƙan. Mazauna a cikin gandun dajin, walau 'yan ƙasa ko' yan gudun hijira, sun dogara ga noma, farauta, kamun kifi, sare bishiyoyi da samar da gawayi don rayuwarsu, duk ayyukan da aka hana. Al’umar yankin ba su da inda za su juya don tsaro, kuma sun dogara ne da kariya ga kungiyoyi masu dauke da makamai, wadanda ake karbar kudaden daga ayyukan da aka hana. Dangane da rahoton 2010 na Kwamitin Tsaro na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, kashi 80% na gawayin da garin Goma ya cinye an samo shi ne daga wurin shakatawar, wanda ke wakiltar darajar dalar Amurka miliyan 28-30 a shekara. Dukkanin jami'an tsaron Jiha da irin wadannan kungiyoyin suma suna zuwa fashi da makami da kuma satar mutane don samun kudin shiga.[29]

Oƙarin kiyaye muhalli ya sami sakamako masu saɓani, misali lokacin da gonaki suka lalace a cikin Kibirizi, kuma aka tura sojoji da masu gadin wurin yin sintiri, mutane sun yi ƙaura sosai a cikin wurin shakatawar zuwa ƙasar da FDLR ke sarrafawa, inda za su iya yin hayar ƙananan filaye na ƙasar. Al'ummomin yankin sun inganta mummunan ra'ayi game da ma'aikatan gandun daji da sojoji. Rikici ya faru ne a shekarar 2015 lokacin da wata kungiyar Mai-Mai ta yankin Binza (arewacin Bwisha) ta yi yunƙurin dawo da ikon yankin, da nufin sake shigar da ayyukan kamun kifi tare da barin jama'a su koma, inda suka kashe wani mai gadin dajin da sojoji 11-15.[29]

An kashe masu gadi 5 a cikin watan Agustan 2017 a kusa da Lake Edward a wani harin 'yan bindiga. An kashe masu gadi 5 da direba a watan Afrilu 2018.[31] Tun daga farkon rikicin, kungiyoyin masu dauke da makamai sun kashe masu gadin shakatawa 175 har zuwa watan Afrilun 2018.[32] A watan Mayun 2018, an kashe wani mai gadi a lokacin da yake kare 'yan yawon bude ido biyu da aka sace.[7] Daga baya aka sake su ba tare da cutarwa ba. Sakamakon haka, wurin shakatawa ya kasance a rufe ga baƙi daga Yuni 2018[33] har zuwa Fabrairu 2019.[34]

A cikin watan Afrilu na 2020 aƙalla masu gadin shakatawa 12 ne wasu mayaƙa suka kashe wani ayarin fararen hula.[35] Bugu da kari a cikin watan Janairun 2021, wasu mutane dauke da makamai sun kashe akalla masu gadi shida tare da jikkata wasu da dama a wani kwanton bauna a gandun dajin.[36][37]

A ranar 22 ga Fabrairu 2021 jakadan Italiya a DRC wanda ke tafiya tare da shirin Abincin na Duniya kimanin kilomita 15 daga arewacin Goma, Luca Attanasio, da kuma jami'in 'yan sanda na sojan Italiya Vittorio Iacovacci da direban Kwango Moustapha Milambo, sun mutu a cikin harbe-harben lokacin da wata kungiyar mayaka wacce sun sace ayarin motocinsu, kuma sun kawo su cikin dajin, masu gadin wurin sun gamu da su inda suka yi nasarar 'yantar da mutane hudu.[38]

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rwenzori Mountains
Hills around Lake Edward
Landscapes in Virunga National Park

Filin shakatawa na Virunga yana cikin Congo - yankin kogin Nilu. Yankinsa na arewa ya mamaye wani yanki na tafkin Semliki, da kuma savanna da kuma gandun daji na Kyautar Albertine.[1] A tsayi, wannan sashin ya fito ne daga 680 m (2,230 ft) a kwarin Puemba zuwa mafi ƙwanƙolin Dutsen Stanley a 5,109 m (16,762 ft) a tsakanin kilomita 30 (19 mi). Babban filin shakatawa na ƙasa ya ƙunshi kusan kashi biyu bisa uku na tafkin Edward har zuwa iyakar duniya da Uganda ta gabas. Kunkuntar corridor mai tsawon kilomita 3-5 (1.9-3.1 mi) daga gefen yamma da tabkin ya hada bangarorin arewaci da kudanci na filin shakatawa na kasa. Yankin kudu ya fadada zuwa gabar Tafkin Kivu kuma ya hada da tsaunukan Nyamulagira, Nyiragongo da Mikeno tare da gandun dajin tsaunuka a kan gangarensu.[2]

Yankin arewacin na Filin shakatawa na Virunga ya haɗu da Semuliki na Uganda da Filin shakatawa na Duwatsun Rwenzori, da ɓangaren tsakiya tare da Filin shakatawa na Sarauniya Elizabeth. Bangaren kudu ya yi iyaka da Filin shakatawa na Volcanoes na Ruwanda.[39]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin da ke cikin Albertine Rift ya rinjayi motsi na Yankin Haɓakawa Tsakanin Tsakiya da El Niño - Kudancin Oscillation. Maris zuwa tsakiyar Mayu da Satumba zuwa Nuwamba sune manyan damuna.[40] Ruwan sama na kusan wata-wata a cikin savanna a kewayen Tafkin Edward shine 30-40 mm (1.2-1.6 a cikin); wannan shine yanki mafi bushewa na shimfidar wuri. Yankin arewa yana karɓar ruwan sama na wata-wata wanda yakai 220 mm (8.7 in), kuma yankin kudu yakai 160 mm (6.3 in).[39] Matsakaicin yanayin zafi a tsawan ƙasa ya bambanta daga 23-28°C (73-82°F), kuma a tsawan tsawa daga 16-24°C (61-75°F), da wuya ya sauka ƙasa da 14°C (57°F).[10]

Bambancin halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Riverine forest
Primary tropical forest
Habitats in Virunga National Park

Shuke-shuke[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Furen Filin shakatawa na Virunga ya kunshi nau'ikan shuka 2,077, gami da nau'ikan bishiyoyi 264 da kuma shuke-shuke 230 wadanda ke dauke da Kyautar Albertine.[4] Filayen Filin shakatawa na Virunga sun mamaye yankunan dausayi da filaye tare da papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus), hadadden flatsedge (C. articulatus), reed gama gari (Phragmites mauritanica), sacaton ciyawa (Sporobolus consimilis), ambatch (Aeschynomene elaphroxylon), conkerberry ( Carissa spinarum), ƙaya mai ƙaiƙayi (Vachellia sieberiana) da 'ya'yan itace kowai (Coccinia grandis).[41] An sami ragowar dicots kamar su caper na Afirka (Capparis tomentosa), jinsunan Maerua, cucurbits na daji da dare a cikin ƙwallan dusar ƙafa na giwayen Afirka (Loxodonta) waɗanda ke taka muhimmiyar rawa ga watsa iri a cikin ciyawar.[42]

Gandun dajin da ke tsakanin 1,800 da 2,800 m (5,900 da 9,200 ft) a yankin kudanci ya mamaye Ficalhoa laurifolia da Podocarpus milanjianus tare da har zuwa 25 m (82 ft) manyan bishiyoyi. Bamboo mai tsayi na Afirka (Yushania alpina) yana girma a tsawan 2,300-2,600 m (7,500-8,500 ft). Ciyawar da ke sama da mita 2,600 (kafa 8,500) ta kasance tare da babban itacen Afirka (Hagenia abyssinica) wanda ya kai har 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Bishiyar bishiyoyi (Erica arborea), heather da mosses sun rufe gangaren danshi har zuwa 3,700 m (12,100 ft) tsawo. Jinsunan Senecio da Lobelia suna girma a sararin samaniya kuma suna samun tsayi har zuwa 8 m (26 ft).[10]

Dabbobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mammals photographed in Virunga National Park
Mountain gorilla
African bush elephant and African buffaloes
Ugandan kob
Lions

Dabbobin Filin shakatawa na Virunga sun hada da dabbobi masu shayarwa guda 196, nau'in tsuntsaye 706, dabbobi masu rarrafe 109 da kuma 65 amphibians daga shekarar 2012.[4]

Dabbobi masu shayarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Primates da ke cikin gandun dajin sun hada da gorilla (G. b. Beringei), chimpanzee na kowa (Pan troglodytes), biri mai zinare, biri mai wutsiya (Cercopithecus ascanius), biri biri na Dent (C. denti), biri mai shudi (C. mitis), biri na Hamlyn (C. hamlyni), biri na De Brazza (C. neglectus), redbus colobus na tsakiyar Afirka (Procolobus foai), mantled guereza (Colobus guereza), dabbar zaitun (Papio anubis) da mangabey mai kunshi mai ruwan toka (Lophocebus albigena).[4][16][43][44]

Giwar daji ta Afirka (Loxodonta africana), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) da baffa na Afirka (Syncerus caffer) suna zaune a tsakiyar filin shakatawa na ƙasar.[41] Okapi (Okapia johnstoni), blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis), Weyns's duiker (C. weynsi), duiker mai goyon bayan rawaya (C. silvicultor), chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus), jan kogin hog (Potamocer porcus), aardvark (Orycteropus afer) da bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) an rubuta su a yankin arewa a shekarar 2008.[44] Harnessed bushbuck (T. scriptus) da katuwar hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) suna cikin yankin kudu.[43] Dukkanin saman (Damaliscus lunatus jimela) zuwa kudu na tafkin Edward a yankin Ishasha Flats, kuma suna tsallaka kan iyaka zuwa Uganda.[45][46][47] Sauran wadanda basu gabatar ba sun hada da kobub na kasar Uganda (Kobus kob thomasi), bututun ruwa (K. ellipsiprymnus), da kuma guguwar da aka saba (Phacochoerus africanus).[39][48]

Filin shakatawa na Virunga tare da kusa da Filin shakatawa na Sarauniya Elizabeth sun kafa ''ungiyar Kula da Zaki'.[49] Ana ɗaukar yankin a matsayin zaki mai ƙarfi (Panthera leo) matattara, idan aka hana farauta kuma nau'ikan dabbobi suka farfaɗo.[48] A bangaren arewacin filin shakatawa na kasar, damisa ta Afirka (P. pardus pardus), marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus), katuwar pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), pangolin bishiya (Phataginus tricuspis), porcupine da aka kafa (Hystrix cristata), Lord Derby's scaly-tailed (Anomalurus derbianus), Boehm's squirrel bush (Paraxerus boehmi), bishiyar yamma hyrax (Dendrohyrax dorsalis), Emin's pouched rat (Cricetomys emini) da kuma giwa giwa shrew (Rhynchocyon cirnei) an rubuta su yayin binciken a cikin 2008.[44]

Dabbobi masu rarrafe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kogin Semliki yana ba da mazauni don kada na Nile (Crocodylus niloticus). Da yawa an lura da su a arewacin tafkin Edwards a cikin 1988 a karon farko.[50]

Tsuntsaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga cikin tsuntsayen Kyautar Albertine, Rwenzori turaco, Rwenzori batis, Arbin ta ƙasa robin, ja-aledhe alethe, Kivu ƙasa thrush, collared apalis, dutse masked apalis, dusky crimson-reshe, Shelley ta crimsonwing, ja-fuskantar woodland warbler, stripe-breasted tit, tsuntsu mai shuɗi, shuɗar rana, Rwenzori mai ɗaukar hoto mai ruɓi biyu, kyakkyawan spurfowl da masaka mai saƙo a cikin yankin kudanci na Virunga National Park a yayin binciken a 2004. Tsuntsayen da ba su da wata cuta sun hada da gaggafa ta Wahlberg, goshawk na Afirka, shaƙatawa na Afirka, dakar dawa, da ungulu, da ungulu, da hadeda ibis, da farar hula mai launin toka, da fararen fata da fari da fari, da turaco mai baƙar fata, da tattabara zaitun na Afirka, kurciya da tattaba, kurciya mai launin shuɗi, ja mai ido, launin akuya mai ruwan goro, cukoo mai jan kirji, zaitun mai doguwar wutsiya, ƙwanƙolin doya mai ƙoshin lafiya, Klaas's cuckoo, Diederik cuckoo, coucal mai shuɗi, Narina trogon, farar hular itace mai farin kai, hankaka mai tsananin wuya, mai fararen wutsi mai farin ciki, mai farautar aljanna na Afirka, mai fararen ido mai fararen fata, mai farauta mai dusar kankara ta Afirka, mai farin fari mai launin shudi, mai tsaunin dutse, mai linzami mai yalwar fari, mai cin kirfa-mai cin kirji, launin toka mai ruwan toka, gidan cinikayya mai launin rawaya, tinkerbird ta yamma, tinkerbird mai tsamiya mai launin rawaya, katako mai kaduna, bishiyar bishiyar zaitun, fika-fikan baƙar fata, haɗiyar Angolan, Alpine swift, dutsen korebul, mai launin rawaya mai raɗaɗi, bulbul na gama-gari, robin mai farin-gani, ƙasan Archer, farin-browed robin-chat, dutse dutse, rufous thrush, African thrush, zaitun thrush, grassland pipit, kirfa bracken warbler, baki-fuska rufous warbler, dutse rawaya warbler, ruwan kasa woodland warbler, kore sandpiper, Chubb's cisticola, banded bandia, chestnut- apalis mai kumburi, camaroptera mai tallafi mai launin toka, crombec mai farin fari, ido mai duhu mai duhu, chinspot batis, tsaunin illadopsis, illadopsis mai ruwan toka, sunfara kan zaitun, sunbird na ruwan tagulla, kantunan malachite sunnantare, hadewar rana mai hade, kanwar fari mai canzawa, mai launin fari-fari , Mackinnon's shrike, Doherty's bushshrike, Lühder's bushshrike, arewa puffback, dutsen sooty boubou, wurare masu zafi boubou, kunkuntar-wutsiya tauraruwa, Sharpe's starling, baglafecht weaver, black bishop, fur-head negrofinch, c ommon waxbill, man shafawa mai kai mai duhu, mannikin tagulla, fari da fari mannikin, me ya sa pin-tailed me ya sa, citril na Afirka, mai ruwa mai kwararar ruwa da kuma ruwan sanyi mai yawa.[51]

Kungiyoyin kabilu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Children around a health care centre
Settlements at the edge of the Nyiragongo crater
Ethnic groups in and around Virunga National Park

Kungiyoyin kabilu da ke zaune a kewayen Filin shakatawa na Virunga sun hada da:

Yada labarai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Takaddun fim ɗin Virunga ya ba da rahoton aikin masu gadin gandun dajin na Virunga da ayyukan kamfanin mai na Burtaniya Soco International a cikin dajin.[52][53]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mubalama, L. & Mushenzi, N. (2004). "Monitoring law enforcement and illegal activities in the northern sector of the Parc National des Virunga, Democratic Republic of Congo". Pachyderm (36): 16–29.
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Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]