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Filin shakatawa na Comoé

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Filin shakatawa na Comoé
national park (en) Fassara, biosphere reserve (en) Fassara da mashaƙata
Bayanai
Farawa 1 ga Janairu, 1968
IUCN protected areas category (en) Fassara IUCN category II: National Park (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Ivory Coast
Mamba na Man and the Biosphere Programme (en) Fassara
Gagarumin taron list of World Heritage in Danger (en) Fassara
Heritage designation (en) Fassara Muhimman Guraren Tarihi na Duniya
World Heritage criteria (en) Fassara World Heritage selection criterion (ix) (en) Fassara da World Heritage selection criterion (x) (en) Fassara
Significant place (en) Fassara Bouna (en) Fassara
UNESCO Biosphere Reserve URL (en) Fassara http://www.unesco.org/mabdb/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?code=IVC+02&mode=all
Wuri
Map
 9°09′49″N 3°46′21″W / 9.1636°N 3.7725°W / 9.1636; -3.7725
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaIvory Coast
District of Ivory Coast (en) FassaraSavanes District (en) Fassara

Filin shakatawa na Comoé shi ne Wuraren Halitta da kuma UNESCO a Duniyar Gado a cikin Zanzan da Savanes da ke arewa maso gabashin Ivory Coast. Yankin shine mafi girman yanki mai kariya a Afirka ta Yamma, wanda ke da yanki na kilomita 11,500, kuma ya fito ne daga dutsen Guinea savanna zuwa yankin Sudanian mai bushe.[1] Wannan hawan dutsen mai tsayi arewa-kudu ya ba dajin shakatawa damar wadatar wurare da dama tare da bambancin rayuwa. Wasu dabbobin da nau'ikan tsire-tsire har ma suna samun mafaka ta ƙarshe a cikin wasu nau'ikan savanna daban-daban, gandun dajin hotuna, filayen ciyawar ruwa, tsaunukan dutse ko tsibirin kurmi.

Da farko an kara wurin shakatawa a matsayin Wurin Tarihi na Duniya saboda bambancin rayuwar shuke-shuke da ke gudana a kusa da Kogin Comoé, gami da kuma kyawawan wuraren da ke dazuzzuka na gandun daji na wurare masu zafi waɗanda yawanci ana samun su ne kawai a kudu.[2] A matsayin fili mai lalacewa tsakanin manyan koguna guda biyu, ƙasar da ke yankin tana da ƙasa mai ƙarancin haihuwa da tsarin danshi wanda ya dace da wadataccen ɗumbin albarkatu fiye da yankunan da ke kewaye. A shekara ta 2003 an saka shi cikin jerin wuraren tarihi na Duniya a cikin Hadari saboda farauta, rashin kulawa, rashin shanu a wurin shakatawar, matsalolin da suka ta'azzara bayan barkewar yakin basasar farko na Ivory Coast. Taron Kwamitin Kayan Tarihi na Duniya na 41 (Krakow, 2-12 Yuli 2017) ya yanke shawarar cire Parkasar ta Kasa ta Comoe daga cikin jerin abubuwan Tarihi na Duniya a cikin Haɗari biyo bayan ci gaban da aka samu na kiyaye lafiyar dabbobi da mazauninta.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankin da ke kusa da Filin shakatawa na Comoé ya kasance koyaushe ba shi da yawan jama'a. Wataƙila saboda ƙarancin ƙarancin ƙasa, kasancewar cutar makanta ta kogi a kusa da kogin Comoé da haɓakar ƙwarin Tsetse, wanda shine ƙarancin cutar rashin bacci.[3][4] A cikin 1926 an ayyana yanki tsakanin Kogin Comoé da Bouna a matsayin "'Yan Gudun Hijira Nord de la Côte d'Ivoire", wanda aka faɗaɗa shi daga baya a cikin 1942 da 53 zuwa "Réserve de Faune de Bouna", yana ba shi wata kariya ta rashin hankali.[4] Yankin yamma da kogin Comoé an kara shi zuwa dukiyar a ranar 9 ga Fabrairu 1968 haɗe da haɓaka zuwa Matsayin Gandun Kasa tare da yanki na murabba'in kilomita 11,500 (4,400 sq mi), yana mai da shi ɗayan manyan wuraren shakatawa na Nationalasa na 15 a Duniya da mafi girma a Afirka ta Yamma.[3] A shekara ta 1983 an ayyana wurin shakatawa a matsayin wurin ajiyar halittu da kuma wurin tarihi na UNESCO, saboda kebantattun halittu.[5]

Bayan barkewar yakin basasa na farko a Ivory Coast an sanya wurin shakatawar a matsayin Wurin Tarihi na Duniya a Hadari a 2003, saboda rashin kulawar da ke haifar da farauta da wuce gona da iri ta wurin shanu.[5] A lokacin tsakanin yakin basasa guda biyu wurin shakatawar ya sha wahala sosai a karkashin tsananin farauta.[6] Bayan karshen yakin basasa na biyu na kasar Ivory Coast filin ya sami damar sake murmurewa tare da kasancewar OIPR (kula da shakatawa) da sake bude tashar bincike.[7][8]

Tsarin fili[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin Comoe da ke gudana ta wurin shakatawa
Savannah a cikin Filin shakatawa na Comoé

Yankin arewa mai kudu mai kudu da kudu ya kunshi wurare da dama wadanda suka kunshi abubuwa masu ban mamaki na rayuwa, wanda hakan yasa ya zama mafi yawan savanna a duniya, kuma ya fara ne daga yankin Sudani mai bushewa zuwa yankin Guinea Savanna mai danshi.[1] Wadannan wuraren sun hada da mafi yawan bangarori daban-daban, tsibirai na gandun daji, gandun daji masu zane da kuma filayen ciyayi, don haka suna ba da misali mafi kyau na matsugunnin rikon kwarya a duk yankuna daban-daban na yanayi. Kogin Comoé, wanda ke gudana a cikin Cote d'Ivoire duka an ba shi izinin wurare daban-daban da ƙungiyoyin shuke-shuke waɗanda aka saba samu a kudu don wanzuwa a wurin shakatawar, kamar facin gandun daji masu tarin yawa a kewayen kogin.[9] Wannan nau'ikan matsugunai daban-daban a cikin yankuna daban-daban da kuma yankin da aka keɓe don kiyaye albarkatun ƙasa ya mai da shi yanki na muhalli mai mahimmanci da kuma wurin tarihi na UNESCO na Duniya.[1]

A geomorphologlogically wurin shakatawar ya kunshi manyan filaye wanda ta hanyar Kogin Comoé da raƙuman ruwa suke gudana (Iringou, Bavé, Kongo). Kogin Comoé da raƙuman ruwa sune suka samar da babban magudanar ruwa kuma Comoé ya ratsa ta wurin shakatawa har tsawon kilomita 230 (mil mi 140), tare da magudanar ruwa kuma yana kwarara zuwa Volta a gabas. Hakanan akwai tafkuna daban-daban na dindindin da na dindindin waɗanda aka rarraba a ko'ina cikin wurin shakatawa, galibi waɗanda suka bushe a lokacin rani. Ilsasa yawancin galibi ba su dace ba kuma ba su dace da namowa ba. Granite inselbergs kuma suna tashi zuwa mita 600 (2,000 ft) a cikin yankin wurin shakatawa.[1]

Fauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bushbuck yana cin abinci kusa da Comoé Research Station
Raptor yana hutawa a cikin wani daji a lokacin rani

Filin shakatawa na Comoé yana da mafi yawan tsiron halittu a duniya kuma ya kafa iyakar arewa ga yawancin nau'in dabbobi, kamar duiker mai goyan baya da bongo.[2] Akwai jimlar nau'in dabbobi masu shayarwa 135 a wurin shakatawa.[1] Wannan ya hada da nau'ikan birai guda 11 irin su bawon zaitun, biri mai kore, karamin biri mai hanci-hanci, Mona biri, baki da fari colobus, zaitun colobus, mangabey mai hade da fari da chimpanzee. Jimillar nau'ikan halittu masu cin nama 17 ne suka yi rijista, amma aƙalla nau'ikan halittu guda 3 an yi amannar sun ɓace a wurin shakatawar - cheetah, karen daji (tun daga 1993) da kuma kwanan nan zaki (ba a sami alamun zakoki ba tun shekara ta 2008). Hakanan akwai nau'ikan artiodactyl guda 21 wadanda suke cikin wurin shakatawa gami da hippopotamus, bushpig, bongo, warthog, bauna, kob, duiker mai ja-ja, dajibuck, ruwa-ruwa, roan antelope da oribi.[10] Dabbobi masu shayarwa masu haɗari sun haɗa da chimpanzee (EN), mangabey mai haɗarin fari (EN), ursine colobus (VU), giwar Afirka (VU), hippopotamus (VU), katuwar pangolin (VU), pangolin mai dogon lokaci (VU), damisa (VU), kifin zinare na Afirka (VU), Buffon kob (VU), bongo (NT), hartebeest na yamma (NT), Defassa waterbuck (NT), bay duiker (NT), duiker mai goyan baya (NT), colobus zaitun (NT).

Akwai sama da nau'in tsuntsaye sama da 500, wanda kusan 20% sune tsuntsayen masu yin hijira daga Afirka da kuma wasu 5% tsuntsayen masu ƙaura. Wasu fitattun jinsunan tsuntsaye sun hada da gandun daji na Denham, kaho mai launin rawaya, kaho mai launin ruwan kasa, hammerkop, reshen fuka-fukai masu fata, masu fyade daban-daban, hudu daga cikin jinsunan stork shida na Afirka ta yamma da nau'ikan ungulu biyar. Gidan shakatawar kuma ya ƙunshi 36 daga cikin 38 na shahararrun jinsunan tsuntsaye da aka samo a cikin savannas na Sudo-Guinea.[2]

Kogin Comoé da raƙumansa suna ɗauke da aƙalla nau'ikan kifaye 60 daban-daban kuma suna ba da izini ga yawan nau'ikan nau'ikan amphibian na mazaunin savannah tare da nau'ikan 35 da aka bayyana. Hakanan akwai jimillar nau'ikan halittu masu rarrafe guda 71 da aka bayyana, wanda uku daga cikinsu kadoji ne: dwarf crocodile (Raunana), kada da Nile da siririn-da-da-da-da-da-da-kafi-mai-cutarwa ((Hatsari mai Hadi).[1] Wuraren kogin da ke kewaye da kogin suna kirkirar filayen ciyayi na zamani wadanda sune filayen ciyar da dattin ciki da tsuntsayen masu ƙaura.[11]

Flora[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Filayen ambaliyar kogin Comoé

Dukiyar ta ƙunshi nau'ikan shuke-shuke 620, wanda ya ƙunshi nau'ikan nau'in ligneous na 191 (bishiyoyi 62, shuke-shuken 129 da inabai) da kuma 429 na ganyayyaki, gami da ciyawa 104.[1] Gidan shakatawa ya ƙunshi mazauni daban-daban na canjin yanayi, daga gandun daji zuwa savannah, tare da ƙungiyoyi iri daban-daban na tsire-tsire iri-iri na yawancin yankuna na kudanci. Manyan gandun daji, dazuzzuka da filayen shuke shuke suna faruwa tare da kowane irin savannah, wanda yakai kusan kashi 90% na wurin shakatawa.[10] Gandun daji ya ƙunshi bishiyoyi masu ban sha'awa da yawa. A cikin gandun daji na galibi Cynometra shine mafi rinjaye a cikin almara yayin da yawancin mazaunan keɓaɓɓun gandun daji ke zaune Anogeissus leiocarpus, Antiaris africana, Isoberlinia doka, Cola cordifolia, wadanda ke barazanar Chlorophora excelsa da Blighia unijugata. A cikin filayen ambaliyar Hyparrhenia rufa ita ce jinsin da aka fi sani.[1][10]

Tashar binciken ta Filin shakatawa na Comoé[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dakunan gwaje-gwaje da kuma hasken rana na tashar

Tashar binciken ta Filin shakatawa na Comoé, wacce ke cikin Filin shakatawa na Comoé, Côte d'Ivoire, farfesa Karl Eduard Linsenmair ne ya kafa ta a shekarar 1989/90. Yanayinta na kayan fasaha, tare da wutar lantarki, ruwan famfo, yanar gizo da kuma babban dakin gwaje-gwaje masu sanya yanayi suna sanya shi ɗayan manyan tashoshin filayen zamani a Afirka. An tilastawa tashar binciken rufewa bayan barkewar yakin basasar farko na kasar Ivory Coast a shekara ta 2002. Bayan karshen yakin basasar na biyu a shekarar 2011 aka fara gyare gyare a tashar kuma a shekarar 2014 tashar ta sake samun cikakkiyar damar aiki.[7] Abinda aka fi mayar da hankali akan binciken shine akan kiyayewa, ilimin halittu masu zafi da halayya.[12]

Comoé Chimpanzee Conservation Project (CCCP)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daga shekara ta 2014 zuwa yanzu, CCCP na aiki kan bincike da kiyaye halittar gandun daji da ke zaune a wani yanki na wurin shakatawar da yankunan da ke kewaye da shi. Wannan adadi ne mai mahimmanci na kiyaye chimpanzees a Cote d'Ivoire kuma ɗayan savanna chimpanzees da ake nazari mai zurfi. Yawancin ɗalibai na ƙasashe daban-daban sun haɗa kai kuma sun fahimci karatun Jagora, na digiri na biyu ko na PhD a cikin tsarin aikin wanda har ila yau yana amfani da mazauna gari a matsayin hanyar shigar da ansan Afirka a cikin kiyayewa.[13]

Matsayin kiyayewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An sanya filin shakatawa na Comoé a matsayin Wurin Tarihi na Duniya a cikin Hadari a 2003 galibi saboda karuwar ɓarnar ɓarna da rashin kulawa ya haifar sakamakon ɓarkewar yakin basasa na farko a Ivory Coast. Bayan karshen yakin basasa na biyu na Ivory Coast da daidaita yankin sai hukumar kula da namun daji ta OIPR (Office Ivorien des Parcs et Reserves) suka ci gaba da aikinsu a cikin Filin shakatawa na Comoé. OIPR ta nemi taimakon Rapid Response Facility (RRF) don samarda kudade kuma tayi nasarar samun kyautar dala 30,000 domin tabbatar da filin.[2] Manyan kalubalen da ke fuskantar gudanarwa suna samun nasarar yaki da farauta, da rage matsin lamba a bangaren noma da kuma gyaran tituna a dajin don kula da hanyoyin da suka dace.[14] Manyan ayyukan da za a magance wadannan matsalolin su ne kafa ingantaccen tsarin sa ido a wurin shakatawar da kuma yin hadin gwiwa tare da al'ummomin yankin don rage matsin lambar da ke gefen yankin dajin ta hanyar gudanar da hadin kai tare da kafa hanyoyin samun kudin shiga na karkara.[1]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Konaté, Souleymane; Kampmann, Dorothea (2010). Biodiversity Atlas of West Africa, Volume III: Côte d'Ivoire. Abidjan & Frankfurt/Main: BIOTA. ISBN 978-3-9813933-2-3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Wildlife authority of Côte d'Ivoire awarded Rapid Response Facility grant to combat poaching after period of civil unrest". UNESCO. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kronberg, FGU (September 1979). Gegenwärtiger Status der Comoé und Tai Nationalparks sowie des Azagny-Reservats und Vorschläge zu deren Erhaltung und Entwicklung zur Förderung des Tourismus. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Teschnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). pp. 12–13.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine; Juhé-Beaulaton, Dominique; Boutrais, Jean; Roussel, Bernard (2005). Patrimoines naturels au Sud : territoires, identités et stratégies locales. Paris: IRD éditions. ISBN 2-7099-1560-X.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Fischer, Frauke (2004). "Status of the Comoé National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, and the effects of war". Parks: War and Protected Areas. 14 (1): 17–25.
  6. "Evaluation rapide de l'etat du parc national de la Comoé: les grands mammiferes et les activités illegales humaines". Wild Chimpanzee Foundation: 1–38. June 2008.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Habekuss, Fritz (2015). "Der Patron und sein Paradies". Die Zeit. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  8. "Comoé National Park, Côte d'Ivoire". Rapid Response Force. RRF. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
  9. "Comoé National Park". IUCN. World Heritage Outlook. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 McGinley, Mark. "Comoé National Park, Côte d'Ivoire". Encyclopedia of Earth. United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  11. Mepham, Robert (1991). IUCN Directory of African Wetlands. Pinter Pub. Ltd. ISBN 2-88032-949-3.
  12. Linsenmair, Eduard. "Tropenforscher kehren zurück". University of Würzburg. einBLICK. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comoé_Chimpanzee_Conservation_Project
  14. Mauvais, Geoffroy; Youssouph, Diedhiou (24 June 2012). "In trouble and in need: West Africa's World Heritage". IUCN. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2015.