Filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki
national park (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na Triniti na Sangha
Farawa 1993
IUCN protected areas category (en) Fassara IUCN category II: National Park (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Jamhuriyar Kwango
Heritage designation (en) Fassara part of UNESCO World Heritage Site (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 2°26′34″N 16°33′15″E / 2.4428°N 16.5542°E / 2.4428; 16.5542
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaJamhuriyar Kwango
Department of the Republic of the Congo (en) FassaraSangha Department (en) Fassara

Filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki shine wurin shakatawa na ƙasa a Jamhuriyar Congo. An kafa shi a cikin 1993, a arewacin lardin Kongo, gida ne ga giwayen daji, manyan birai, gami da gorillas na ƙasan yamma da ƙananan ƙabilu na chimpanzees da bongo. Yankin 3,921.61 km2 (1,514.14 sq mi) ne na gandun dazuzzuka mai tsafta ba tare da mazaunin ɗan adam a ciki ba kuma tare da ɗimbin yawan mutane a cikin yankin da suke da ƙananan ƙananan yankin. Dazuzzuka suna da dumbin halittu masu dauke da nau'ikan tsuntsaye guda 300, gami da tsirrai da nau'in bishiyoyi 1,000 wadanda suka hada da mahoganies masu hatsari.[1][2][3]

A wani taron Ministocin gandun daji na Hukumar Kula da Gandun Dajin Afirka ta Tsakiya (COMIFAC), an warware shi don a kafa a cikin Kogin Kwango, Kogin Sangha na Yankin Kare na Kasa Uku (TNS) tare da jimlar yanki 11,331 km2 (4,375 sq mi ) wanda ya hada da Dzanga Sangha na Musamman da kuma Filin shakatawa na Dzanga-Ndoki a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, da Filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki a Congo-Brazzaville, da kuma Filin shakatawa na Lobéké a Kamaru.[4][5] A shekarar 2012, an baiwa dukkan wuraren shakatawa uku na kasar matsayin matsayin Triniti na Sangha.[6]

An gudanar da filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park a karkashin yarjejeniyar Kawancen Jama'a da Masu zaman kansu (PPP), wanda aka sanya hannu a cikin 2013 tsakanin Gwamnatin RoC da WCS. Yarjejeniyar ta samar da Fondation Nouabalé-Ndoki (FNN), wanda aka wakilta WCS a matsayin Sashin Kula da Yankin Park har zuwa 2038.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tunanin kirkirar wuraren shakatawar ya samo asali ne a shekarun 1980 tare da fahimtar cewa giwayen da ke yawo wadanda suka yi tafiye-tafiye a cikin yankin gaba daya daga cikin wuraren shakatawa uku ana bukatar kariya daga masu farautar su da masana'antar sare bishiyoyi.[7] An tsara shirye-shiryen kafa gandun namun daji na Nouabale-Ndoki ne a 1991 daga kungiyar Kula da Dabbobin daji (WCS) da Gwamnatin Kwango tare da tallafi daga USAID a matsayin aikin haɗin gwiwa na ƙetare iyaka. Hakanan ya ƙunshi cigaban hulɗa tare da ƙananan hukumomi, yanki da na ƙasa. A ƙarshe an kafa shi a watan Satumba na 1993 wanda ya mamaye yanki na 392,169 ha (969,070 acres) tsakanin Sangha na arewa maso gabas da arewa maso yammacin Sashen Likouala na Congo. A shekarar 1999, kamfanin katako na CIB (Congolaise Industrielle du Bois) da jama'ar gari suka hada hannu da (WCS) da Gwamnatin Congo don kirkirar wani abin da zai rage tasirin shiga filin shakatawa. A cikin 2001, an faɗaɗa yankin shakatawa tare da wani ɓangare na rangadin makwabta da aka sani da Gouloago triangle don haɗawa da wannan wurin shakatawa. Kamfanin katako na kasar Jamus ya mika hakkinta sama da 100 km2 (39 sq mi) na Goualougo Triangle a karkashin hayar sa domin a hade shi da gandun dajin, sannan kuma ya yanke shawarar hana farauta. Yayin da ake gudanar da ayyukan sare itace (musamman nau'ikan biyu na Mahogony na Afirka don katako mai girma) sun gudana a yankuna da yawa na gandun daji a arewacin Kongo zuwa iyakantaccen sikelin, wannan wurin shakatawar babu irin wannan aikin. Wannan ya haifar da gaskiyar cewa yana da fa'ida ga kiyayewa da haɓaka yawan rayuwar rayuwar daji da mazaunin dazuzzuka a wurin shakatawar.[8][9][10][11]

labarin ƙasa da yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sangha Tri na Yankin Kasa. Alamar wurin shakatawa ne.

Yankin da aka kiyaye, wanda wani bangare ne na Sangha River Tri-National Protected Area (STN) ya malalo galibi daga Kogin Sangha, wani yanki ne na Kogin Congo. Wani ɓangare na gandun daji har yanzu bai yiwu ba kuma ya kasance ba a bincika shi ba. Gandun daji ne mai dausayi na yankuna masu zafi wadanda suke wani yanki na magudanan ruwan Kogin Kongo. Wannan wurin shakatawa, tare da sauran wuraren shakatawa guda biyu da aka keɓe a cikin babbar Sangha Reserve, an keɓe ta daga duk wani aikin tattalin arziki da ya shafi hanyoyi da kuma tsangwama na mutane, wanda ya haifar da kiyaye shi a matsayin gandun daji mai ruwan sama.[5][8][12] Gidan shakatawa yana cikin yankin gandun daji na Kwango wanda ya samar da kashi 11% na yawan yankin. An sake kebe shi zuwa wuraren da aka kiyaye, wuraren da aka tsarkake da aka fi sani da Bai da Yanga, yankuna biyu na yanayi don amfanin makiyaya, wuraren farauta da aka kebe wa ma'aikata, yankunan kariya wadanda ke aiki a matsayin yankunan farautar farauta, yankunan farauta ga al'ummar yankin, da kuma wurare masu tsarki shafuka.[9]

Gidan shakatawa yana da yanayi mai ɗumi kuma yana samun, a matsakaita, 1,250 mm (49 in) na ruwan sama a shekara. Lokacin damina shine watan Agusta zuwa Nuwamba kuma lokacin rani shine Disamba zuwa Fabrairu. Shuke-shuke sun haɗa da tarin nau'o'in mahoganies.[2]

Dabbobin daji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin masu samar da kayayyaki suna gudanar da safari a cikin wurin shakatawar don ba da gudummawar ayyukan kiyayewa da wayar da kan jama'a game da namun daji da duwatsu masu daraja a ciki. Kongo Travel and Tours, babban tushe ne na bayanin tafiye-tafiye game da wurin shakatawa da tafiye-tafiye na yanzu da yanayin yanayi, kuma yana da kasafin kuɗi da ƙarin hanyoyin tafiye-tafiye a cikin wurin shakatawa tun daga $ 1,799 na kwanaki 8, kowane mutum.

Fauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manyan macen gorilla a cikin wurin shakatawa

Akwai nau'ikan dake zaune a wurin shakatawa.[12][13][14] National Geographic Society ya lura cewa wurin shakatawar na iya kasancewa mafi yawan rayuwar rayuwar daji ta kowace murabba'in mil na kowane wuri a Afirka. Mafi shahararrun nau'ikan halittu ne na birrai. Akwai birai masu launi (launin fari da fari, colobus ja), da gorillas masu ƙoshin ƙasa, chimpanzees, da birai guenon da aka ɓullo. Gandun dajin ya dauki bakuncin fiye da nau'ikan tsuntsaye sama da 300. Wasu daga cikin mahimman halittu sune gaggafa, ungulu, mujiya, lalatattun hankulan ungulu, da kuma jijiyar wuya. Hakanan akwai giwayen dajin Afirka da baƙon gaske, bauna daji, damisa, bongo, da shuɗi mai duhu. Hakanan kada da kwari masu shan jini suma suna daga cikin jinsunan dajin.[12] An gudanar da karatun Herpetofauna a cikin takamaiman yankuna huɗu na wurin shakatawa. Wadannan karatuttukan sun samar da 20 amphibian da 14 masu rarrafe a gefen kudu na wurin shakatawa; daga cikin wadannan, nau'ikan kwado sune Aubria masako, Amietophrynus regularis, Cryptothylax greshoffii, Hyperolius balfouri, H. brachiofasciatus, Leptopelis brevirostris da L. calcaratus meridionalis.[15]

Hakanan ana ganin aku a yankin wurin shakatawa. Giwayen daji suna samar da sarari ta hanyar share dajin don sauran dabbobi su motsa. Gwanayen ƙaho tare da kilo 12 (kilogiram 5.4) sama da lamba 100 a cikin 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi). A cewar wani labari na Pygmy, wani dabba mai rarrafe mai dogon wuya, da ake kira Mokele-mbembe ya kashe giwaye da babban kahon gabanta.[8]

Mbeli Bai yanki ne na musamman mai nisan kilomita 3 (2 sq mi) a cikin wurin shakatawar wanda ke da wadataccen gorillas, tare da rahoton gorillas 180 na yammacin yamma. Hakanan ya ƙunshi nau'ikan biri da yawa, kuma tara daga cikinsu suna da yawan jama'a 50 a kowace 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi). Nau'in biri da aka samo anan shine bakaken fata-da-fari da jajajaja, gashin baki da rawanin guenon, mangabeys masu launin toka da sauran mutane.[8][16]

Flora[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bishiyoyi da tsirrai suna bunƙasa a cikin wannan yanayin. Filin shakatawa na Ndable-Ndoki babban dazuzzuka ne mai dausayi. Gida ne na nau'ikan iri iri 24 daban. Ko yaya, babban ciyayi shine na Gilbertiodendron dewervei (G. dewevevri a yankin tsauni kuma nesa da koyar da ruwa a manyan yankuna; gauraye da gandun daji suma fasali ne. Dajin yana da “bais” da yawa ma'ana "yankuna da aka share". Fiye da nau'ikan tsire-tsire 1000 da bishiyoyi daban-daban an gano su.[1][13] G. dewevevri shi ne irin na shekara-shekara wanda ake shuka shi kuma ana "tunanin cewa cinya mai yiwuwa ne ya faru ne don magance samar da iri ta hanyar koshi." An bayyana halayenta a matsayin "79% na tushe daga sama 10 cm a tsawo nono da 88% na asalin yankin." Waɗannan ƙwayoyin sun lalace ne ta ƙwaro. Koyaya, sune asalin tushen abinci ga yawancin dabbobi masu shayarwa kamar rodents, duikers (Cephelophus spp.), Aladu (Putamoechoerus porcus da Hylochoerus meinertzhagen), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giwaye, musamman gorillas.[17]

Matakan kiyayewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kokarin kiyayewa bai tsaya ga Filin shakatawa na Nuabale-Ndoki shi kadai ba har ma da sauran wuraren shakatawa guda biyu na yankin guda uku, da kuma dukkanin Yankin Kare na Yankuna Uku na Sangha wanda ya ƙunshi fiye da 96% na yankin ƙasar. Kasashen da suka kafa ƙungiyar ta ƙasashe uku a ƙarƙashin shirin iyakokin ƙasa ta hanyar ƙokarin Asusun Duniya na Yanayi (WWF) su ne Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Kongo da Kamaru. Wannan ƙoƙari na ƙungiya ya tabbatar da aiwatar da ayyukan da suka dace da suka shafi ɓarna, bincike da inganta yawon buɗe ido zuwa dazukan ruwan sama. Babban fasalin wannan ƙoƙari shi ne tarurrukan da ake gudanarwa lokaci-lokaci na gwamnatocin shakatawa uku, da kuma shugabannin ƙasashe uku. Ana yin sintiri a wuraren shakatawa ta hanyar sintiri na hadin gwiwa na yau da kullun don tabbatar da cewa farauta, fasa-kwaurin hauren giwa da kamun kifi ba tare da izini ba da makaman wuta ba su faruwa a wurin shakatawa.[5][7] Masu ziyara za su iya ziyartar wurin shakatawa kawai a cikin rukuni a matsayin wani ɓangare na yawon shakatawa da aka shirya da ƙwararrun masu yawon shakatawa na rayuwar daji.[12]

Matakan kiyayewa ana samun tallafi daga kungiyar Hadin Gwiwar Fasaha ta Jamus (GTC) a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya da Kamaru, da Asusun Kula da Dabbobin Duniya na Yanayi (WWF) da Kungiyar kiyaye namun daji (WCS - New York) a Kongo. Hakanan an ƙirƙiri asusun amintattu, wanda yake cike da kuɗi, don kiyaye wuraren shakatawa.[5][7] Har ila yau, filin shakatawa na ƙasa yana da ayyukan bincikensa da yawa waɗanda USAID-CARPE, US Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S.Z da Columbus Zoo, da MacArthur Foundation ke tallafawa da kuɗi. Dangane da tallafi na ƙasashe masu yawa, wannan wurin shakatawa yanzu ba a ɗauke shi da muhimmanci ga ƙasa kawai ba, har ma da yankin da aka amince da shi na kiyayewa mai mahimmancin gaske, tare da ingantattun kayan more rayuwa, ƙwararrun ma'aikata, da kuma taimakon tattalin arziki.[11]

Kariya

A baya, an iyakance fasahar kariya ga masu gadi. Koyaya, yanzu, suna amfani da masu ganowa don kama masu laifi waɗanda ke cutar dajin. Masu gadin filin shakatawa na Nouabalé-Ndoki suna da ƙungiya da aka sani da 'eco-guards'. 'Masu tsaron lafiyar' suna karkashin kulawar MFEE (Ma'aikatar Tattalin Arziki da Muhalli). Tare da MFEE / eco-guards, an tabbatar da cewa babu wani aikin ɗan adam da ya saba doka wanda ya faru a wurin shakatawa kamar su farauta.[1] Baya ga masu gadin, jama'ar yankin na Ba'Aka suna kuma samar da kayayyakin masarufi na cikin gida don inganta dorewa da kiyaye dazuzzuka a wurin shakatawar.[1][7]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Nouabale-Ndoki National Park". WCS Congo. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  2. 2.0 2.1 ""Incognita: Nouabale-Ndoki National Park."". Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  3. "Welcome to WCS-Congo". WCS-Congo. Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  4. "Lowland Gorilla Sangha National Park". The Zambazi Safari and Travel Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on 2010-11-06. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "The Sangha River Tri-national Protected Area (STN)". Dazanga Sangha Central African Republic. Archived from the original on 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  6. "Sangha Trinational". UNESCO World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Sangha Tri-National Landscape" (PDF). World Wild Life Fund. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Riley, Laura; William Riley (2005). Nature's strongholds: the world's great wildlife reserves. Princeton University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-691-12219-9. Retrieved 2010-09-21.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Protected areas of Congo". Congo BioDiversity: Description. Wild Life Conservation Society (WCS). Archived from the original (ppt) on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  10. "Congo BioDiversity: Description". Slide 4. Permanent Missions of the Republic of Congo. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Congo Nouabale-Ndoki National Park Guided Tour - 11 Day". Wiled Frontier. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Congo Republic: Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park". Wild Life Hot Spots. Archived from the original on 2011-04-09. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  14. Berg, Maria.
  15. Kate Jackson & David C. Blackburn (2007). "The amphibians and reptiles of Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)" (PDF). Salamandra. Whitman Education: 149–. ISSN 0036-3375. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  16. "Mbeli Bai, Nouabale-Ndoki National Park, R. P. Congo". Dept. of Anthropology Washington University. Archived from the original on 1999-10-12. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
  17. Blake, Stephen; Fay, J. Michael (1997). "Seed Production by Gilbertiodendron dewevevri in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 13 (6): 885–891. doi:10.1017/S0266467400011056. JSTOR 2560244.