Filin shakatawa na Pendjari

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wikidata.svgFilin shakatawa na Pendjari
national park (en) Fassara da biosphere reserve (en) Fassara
Parc national de la Pendjari.JPG
Bayanai
Bangare na W-Arly-Pendjari Complex (en) Fassara
Farawa 1961
IUCN protected areas category (en) Fassara IUCN category II: National Park (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Benin
Mamba na Man and the Biosphere Programme (en) Fassara
Heritage designation (en) Fassara part of UNESCO World Heritage Site (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo pendjari.net…
World Heritage criteria (en) Fassara World Heritage selection criterion (ix) (en) Fassara da World Heritage selection criterion (x) (en) Fassara
Significant place (en) Fassara Tanguiéta (en) Fassara
UNESCO Biosphere Reserve URL (en) Fassara http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/environment/ecological-sciences/biosphere-reserves/africa/benin/pendjari/
Wuri
 11°03′N 1°31′E / 11.05°N 1.52°E / 11.05; 1.52
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaBenin
Department of Benin (en) FassaraAtakora Department (en) Fassara

Filin shakatawa na Pendjari (Faransanci: Parc National de la Pendjari) yana arewa maso yammacin Benin, kusa da Filin shakatawa na Arli a Ƙasar Burkina Faso. An yi suna don Kogin Pendjari, wurin shakatawar na ƙasa an san shi da namun daji kuma gida ne ga wasu daga cikin yawan mutanen da suka yi babban wasa kamar giwar daji ta Afirka, zaki, dorinar ruwa, bauna na Afirka, da dabbobin daji daban-daban a Afirika ta Yamma. Gidan shakatawar kuma sananne ne saboda wadataccen tsuntsaye.

Gandun dajin na Pendjari yanki ne da ya kai muraba'in kilomita 2,755 (hamsin 275,500) a can arewa maso-yammacin Benin. Wurin shakatawan na daga cikin WAP hadadden (W-Arli-Pendjari) wanda yake yanki ne mai kariya sosai a cikin kasashen Benin, Burkina Faso da Niger. Duwatsu da tsaunuka na zangon Atakora suna sanya arewa maso yamma ɗaya daga cikin yankuna mafi kyau na ƙasar Benin. Suna ba da kyakkyawan tarihi ga Pendjari National Park, wanda, a keɓance da shi, ya kasance ɗayan mafi ban sha'awa a Afirka ta Yamma.

A watan Maris na shekara ta 2009 an zabi shi a matsayin wani yanki na shirin shirin UNESCO na Tarihin Duniya, kuma a watan Yulin 2017 an sanya shi a hukumance a matsayin (UNESCO) World Heritage Site a matsayin wani bangare na fadada kasa da kasa na W-Arly-Pendjari Complex.

Ilimin Lafiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duwatsun na yankin ba su da katako tare da Burkea africana, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea acida, Sterculia setigera da Combretum ghasalense. Ana iya samun nau'ika-nau'ikan tsirrai masu yawa tare da Isoberlinia doka da Afzelia africana. Kogin Pendjari yana da gandun daji mai ban sha'awa. Wurin shakatawa ya hada da Sudan da arewacin Guinea savannas, tare da yankunan ciyawar da Acacia sieberiana da Mitragyna inermis ko Terminalia macroptera suka mamaye. Akwai babban ruwan sama na shekara shekara kusan milimita 1,100 (inci 43); Filin shakatawa a bude yake duk shekara, kodayake daga Yuni zuwa Nuwamba ruwan sama na iya zama mai nauyi kuma wasu sassan wurin shakatawa ba za a iya shiga ba.

Furanni da Dabbobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dabbobi masu shayarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Pendjari is an important refuge for the African elephant in West Africa
African buffaloes
Western hartebeest
Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) in Pendjari
Lion in Pendjari National Park

Filin shakatawar na Pendjari yana da yawan giwaye, wanda ya daidaita a cikin shekarun da suka gabata kuma ya kirga mutane sama da 800 tsakanin 2005 da 2010.[1] Ciki har da Filin shakatawa na W mai makwabtaka da Filin shakatawa na Arly (WAP Complex), yawan jama'ar ya hada da giwaye sama da 3,800, wanda hakan ya sanya ta zama babbar giwar giwa a duk yammacin Afirka.[2] Na biyu mafi girma ajin shakatawa shine damisa. Har ila yau, akwai manyan mutane da yawa na wasu manyan ciyayi masu yawa kamar baffalo na Afirka (Syncerus caffer brachyceros; c. Dabbobi 2,700 a 2000), yammacin hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus babba; c. 1,500 a 2000), roan dabbar daji (c. 2,000 a 2000), Babban dabba (c. 2,600 a 2000), da gandun daji. Wasu ire-iren dabbobin daji irin su korrigum (Damaliscus lunatus korrigum), bushbuck, da reedbuck ba su da yawa. Ananan bovids sune duiker mai jan ja, oribi, da duiker gama gari. Firayun zaitun, biri patas, da biri na tantalus suna wakiltar Primates.[3]

Dayan manyan masu farauta a yankin da aka kiyaye shine cheetah ta Arewa maso Yammacin Afirka (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Ya zuwa 2007, mutane kusan 5-13 ne suka rage a gandun dajin da kuma Filin shakatawa na W mai makwabtaka.[4] Zuwa shekarar 2009, zaki (Panthera leo leo) da ke cikin W-Arly-Pendjari Complex ya kunshi dabbobi kusan 100 kuma watakila shi ne mafi girma a Afirka ta Yamma a lokacin.[5]

An rubuta karen daji na Yammacin Afirka da ke cikin hatsari (Lycaon hoto manguensis) a cikin Filin shakatawa na Pendjari a lokacin bincike a cikin Afrilu 2000, da damisar Afirka, hyena mai hangowa, duwawu mai gefe-gefe, da civet na Afirka.[3]

Adadin ruwa (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa) ya ragu daga kusan 3,000 a cikin 1970s zuwa 120 kawai a 2004.[6]

Rayuwar tsuntsaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) a cikin Pendjari
Chamaeleo senegalensis a cikin Pendjari Reserve
'Yan Afirka a cikin Pendjari Reserve
Chameleon a kan Delonix regia
Acraea caecilia a cikin Pendjari
Palpopleura lucia a cikin Pendjari

Ungulu mai kaho (Necrosyrtes monachus) mazaunin yanki ne mai kariya, amma a ƙananan lambobi.[7]

Filin shakatawr sananne ne saboda yalwar nau'in tsuntsaye.[8] Akwai wasu nau'ikan daban daban har 300. Ana yin rikodin jigilar ruwa (Circus macrourus) da ƙaramar kestrel (Falco naumanni) lokaci-lokaci kuma akwai record na rubuce-rubucen da aka keɓe don ɓarnar fushin ungulu (Torgos tracheliotus). Fox kestrel (Falco alopex) ba sabon abu bane, yayin da kitsen da ya haɗiye ɗan Afirka (Chelictinia riocourii) baƙo ne na baƙon rani. Hakanan an yi rikodin gaggafa (Hieraaetus pennatus) a nan. BirdLife ta lura da cewa "Pendjari sananne ne ga manyan nau'ikan fitattun abubuwa kamarsu stork na Afirka (Anastomus lamelligerus), na Abdim's stork (Ciconia abdimii), stork-billed stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis), kuma a wasu lokutan, garken tumaki na turai har 60 (Ciconia ciconia). Hakanan ana iya samun gaggafar kifin Afirka (Haliaeetus vocifer) da kuma mujiya mai kama da kamun kifi na Pel (Scotopelia peli)."

Daga cikin shahararrun jinsunan da aka rubuta akwai hadiya mai fuka-fukai (Hirundo leucosoma), farin-kambin robin-chat (Cossypha albicapillus), wheotar Botta (Oenanthe bottae), sananniyar hira (Cercomela familiaris), fararen fata na gaba-fari (Myrmecocichla albifrons), yin izgili da hira (Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris), dutsen da aka saba da shi (Monticola saxitilis), Senegal eremomela (Eremomela pusilla), blackcap babbler (Turdoides reinwardtii), pytilia mai fuka-fuka-fuka-fuka (Pytilia phoenicoptera), waxbill mai baƙar fata (Estrilda troglodytes) , daji petronia (Petronia dentata) da Togo firdausi-whydah (Vidua togoensis).

Gray tit-flycatcher (Myioparus plumbeus) an yi rikodin shi da wasu nau'ikan da dama na garƙashin. An sanya farar-kumburin greenbul (Phyllastrephus albigularis) a Tanguiéta da francolin mai yawan kumburi (Francolinus albogularis), wani baƙon mazaunin, an gan shi a yankin gonar kudu da Natitingou. Kudancin wurin shakatawar akwai wani babban yanki mai kariya wanda aka sani da Faransanci a matsayin La zone cygnetique de la Pendjari inda aka hango wasu nau'ikan halittun daban. Gandun dajin da gidan tsuntsayen suna da kariya daga gwamnati a Benin.

Sauran nau'in tsuntsayen sun hada da:

  • Fox kestrel (Falco alopex) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Red-thighed sparrowhawk (Accipiter erythropus) mazaunin1998
  • Senegal parrot (Poicephalus senegalus) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Violet turaco (Musophaga violacea) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Blue-bellied roller (Coracias cyanogaster) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Red-throated bee-eater (Merops bulocki) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Bearded barbet (Lybius dubius) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Yellow-billed shrike (Corvinella corvina) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Piapiac (Ptilostomus afer) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Yellow penduline-tit (Anthoscopus parvulus) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Fanti saw-wing (Psalidoprocne obscura) mazaunin 1998
  • Pied-winged swallow (Hirundo leucosoma) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Senegal eremomela (Eremomela pusilla) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Blackcap babbler (Turdoides reinwardii) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Purple glossy-starling (Lamprotornis purpureus) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • White-crowned robin-chat (Cossypha albicapilla) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Bush petronia (Petronia dentata) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Red-winged pytilia (Pytilia phoenicoptera) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Red-faced pytilia (Pytilia hypogrammica) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Lavender waxbill (Estrilda caerulescens) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Black-rumped waxbill (Estrilda troglodytes) mazaunin 1998 - A3
  • Togo paradise-whydah (Vidua togoensis) mazaunin 1998 - A3

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Bouché, P.; Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Wittemyer, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Doucet, J.L.; Lejeune, P. & Vermeulen, C. (2011). "Will Elephants Soon Disappear from West African Savannahs?". PLOS ONE. 6 (6): e20619. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.290.2335. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020619. PMC 3120750. PMID 21731620.
  2. Clerici, N.; Bodini, A.; Eva, H.; Grégoire, J.M.; Dulieu, D. & Paolini, C. (2007). "Increased isolation of two Biosphere Reserves and surrounding protected areas (WAP ecological complex, West Africa)". Journal for Nature Conservation. 15 (1): 26–40. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2006.08.003.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Sinsin, B., Tehou, A.C., Daouda, I. and Saidou, A. (2002). "Abundance and species richness of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park in Benin". Mammalia. 66 (3): 369–380. doi:10.1515/mamm.2002.66.3.369.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. Template:Cite iucn
  5. Henschel, P.; Azani, D.; Burton, C.; Malanda, G.; Saidu, Y.; Sam, M.; Hunter, L. (2010). "Lion status updates from five range countries in West and Central Africa" (PDF). Cat News. 52: 34–39. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  6. Kassa, B., Libois, R. and Sinsin, B. (2007). "Diet and food preference of the waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa) in the Pendjari National Park, Benin". African Journal of Ecology. 46 (3): 303–310. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00827.x. Archived from the original on 2012-10-21.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. Thiollay, J.M. (2006). "The decline of raptors in West Africa: long‐term assessment and the role of protected areas". Ibis. 148 (2): 240–254. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00531.x.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  8. Dasgupta, S. (2018-02-01). "$23.5 million funding pledge aims to protect critical West African national park". Mongabay. Retrieved 2018-02-01.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Assédé, E.P.S., Adomou, A.C. & B. Sinsin (2012) Magnoliophyta, Biosphere reserve of Pendjari, Atacora Province, Benin. Check List 8 (4): 642–661. [1]
  • Hogan, C.M. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  • Legba, F. (2005) Contribution de la vegetation des collines de la zone cynegetique et du Parc National de la Pendjari du Benin comme milieu cadre et milieu ressource de la faune sauvage. Thèse Ing. Agr., Université d´Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou. 121 S.
  • Nago, S.G.A. (2005) Diversité des amphibiens dans les terroirs riverrains à la Zone Cynogénétique de la Pendjari. Mémoire de diplôme d´étude approfondies (DEA), Université d´Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou.
  • UNDP/ GEF (2005): Enhancing the effectiveness and catalyzing the sustainability of the W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) protected area system. UNEP Project document PIMS 1617. [2]
  • Woodroffe, R., Ginsberg, J.R. and D.W. Macdonald. 1997. The African wild dog: status survey and conservation action plan, IUCN/SSC Candid Specialist Group, Published by IUCN,

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]