Fouta Djallon

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Fouta Djallon
Guinea Topography.png
General information
Gu mafi tsayi Mount Loura (en) Fassara
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 1,515 m
Yawan fili 81,952 km²
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 11°19′03″N 12°17′23″W / 11.3175°N 12.289722222222°W / 11.3175; -12.289722222222
Mountain range (en) Fassara Guinea Highlands (en) Fassara
Kasa Gine
Taswirar Guinea Highlands.

Fouta Djallon (Fula: 𞤊𞤵𞥅𞤼𞤢 𞤔𞤢𞤤𞤮𞥅, romanized: Fuuta Jaloo) yanki ne mai tsayi a tsakiyar Guinea, kusan yayi daidai da Guinea ta Tsakiya, a Afirka ta Yamma.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fulanin da suka yi hijira a yankin sun kira shi da harshen Pular Fuuta-Jaloo.[lower-alpha 1] Asalin sunan daga kalmar Fula ta 'yan cirani don yankin da Fulɓe ke zaune, tare da sunan asalin mazaunan, Jalonke ko Yalunka (Faransanci: Djallonké).

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fouta-Djallon ya ƙunshi yawancin filayen ciyawa, a tsawan tsawan kusan 900 m (3,000 ft). Matsayi mafi girma, Mount Loura, ya hau zuwa 1,515 m (4,970 ft). Yankin plateau ya kunshi tsare-tsaren sandstone masu kauri wanda ya mamaye dutsen ƙasa na dutse. Zaizayar ƙasa ta ruwan sama da koguna sun sassaƙa maɓuɓɓugan dazuzzuka da kwari a cikin dutsen yashi.

Taswirar Fouta Djallon tare da manyan koguna.

Tana karɓar ruwan sama mai yawa, kuma shine ruwan manyan koguna guda huɗu da sauran matsakaita:

Don haka, wani lokacin ana kiranta hasumiyar ruwa (chateau d'eau a cikin adabin Faransa) na Yammacin Afirka. Wasu marubutan kuma suna kiran Fouta Jallon a matsayin "Switzerland ta Yammacin Afirka." Wannan magana ce ta gama gari wacce ba za a san asalin ta ba.[1]

Yawan jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawan jama'ar ya kunshi yawancin Fulɓe [mufuradi Pullo], wanda aka fi sani da Fula ko Fulani. A Fuuta-Jaloo ana kiran yarensu da suna Pular, ko Pulaar. Yankin mafi girman yare yana dauke da suna Pular / Fulfulde kuma ana magana dashi a kasashe da yawa a Afirka ciki harda Nigeria, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kamaru, Senegal, Gambiya, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Sudan, Chadi, Mauritania, da dai sauransu. Fulani (Peul) suna wakiltar tsakanin 32.1% zuwa 40% a Guinea.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun karni na 17, yankin Fouta Djallon ya kasance matattarar Musulunci. Juyin juya halin farko da Karamokho Alfa da Ibrahim Sori suka jagoranta sun kafa tarayyar da ta kasu zuwa larduna tara. Yawancin rikice-rikicen da suka biyo baya sun raunana ikon tsakiyar da ke Timbo har zuwa 1896, lokacin da Almamy na karshe, Bubakar Biro, ya ci sojojin Faransa a yakin Poréaka.[3]

Kungiyar Fulɓe ta Fouta Djallonke ce ta jagoranci faɗaɗa addinin Islama a yankin.[4] Malaman musulinci na Fulɓe sun haɓaka adabin asali na asali ta amfani da haruffan larabci.[5] Wanda aka sani da Ajamiyya, wannan nasarar ta adabi ta sami wakilcin manyan mawaƙa-masu ilimin tauhidi kamar Tierno Muhammadu Samba Mombeya [fr], Tierno Saadu Dalen, Tierno Aliou Boubha Ndyan, Tierno Jaawo Pellel da sauransu.[6] A zamanin da take, an ce Fuuta-Jaloo wani maganadisu ne na karantarwa, yana jawo ɗalibai daga Kankan zuwa Gambiya, kuma yana nuna manyan malamai na Jakhanke a Tuba da kuma malaman Fulɓe. Ya zama cibiyar jijiyar fataucin matafiya ta kowace hanya. Yawancin layin kasuwanci, na kowane irin kabila, sun kafa yankuna a tsaunukan Futanke da kuma manyan hanyoyin.. Hakan ya biya bukatunsu don tura theira sonsansu maza zuwa makarantun Futanke, don tallafawa ɗaliban da suka fito don koyarwa, kuma gabaɗaya don faɗaɗa tasirin tasirin da ya fito daga Futa Jalon.[6]

Amadou Hampâté Bâ ya kira Fuuta-Jaloo "Tibet na Afirka ta Yamma" don girmama al'adun ruhaniya da sufi (Sufi) na malamanta.

Yara a ƙauyen Doucky

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Galibi karkara tattalin arziƙin ya shafi kiwon dabbobi (shanu, tumaki, awaki), noma, tattarawa, kasuwanci, da yawon buɗe ido mara iyaka.

Tattalin arzikin karkara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fulɓe suna yin wani nau'in aikin gona na halitta wanda za a iya gane shi a yau a matsayin aikin gona mai ƙima. Babban amfanin gonar yankin shine ayaba da sauran 'ya'yan itatuwa. Babban amfanin gona na gona shine fonio, kodayake ana shuka shinkafa a cikin ƙasa mai albarka. Yawancin ƙasa suna raguwa da sauri kuma suna da acidic sosai tare da guba na aluminium, wanda ke iyakance nau'in amfanin gona da za a iya girma ba tare da ingantaccen sarrafa ƙasa ba.

Aikin gona mai zurfi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mindmap Suntuure

Wani lokaci a ƙarshen karni na 18, Fulɓe a Fouta Djallonke ya haɓaka wani nau'in aikin gona mai ƙima, mai yiwuwa saboda larura, tunda an kai matan asalin da aka ci nasara cikin gidajen masu rinjayensu na Musulunci waɗanda dabbobinsu suka zama alhakinsu. Haɗuwa da kiwon dabbobi da zaman kashe wando a cikin ingantaccen tsarin agropastoralism ya buƙaci sabuwar hanyar tsara rayuwar yau da kullun. Dabbobi, da suka haɗa da dawakai da shanu, sun fi cin abinci kuma suna haifar da ɓarna fiye da abin da manoma na asali suka saba. Tun da dole ne a kare dabbobin daga dabbobin daji da daddare, an kawo su cikin gidan dangin, wanda Faransanci ke kiransu da tapade, da kuma na gida a matsayin cuntuuje (mufuradi Suntuure) a yaren Pular.[4]

A yau, dabbobin suna kiwo a wurare masu buɗe ido da rana amma ana ba su mafaka a cikin ɓarna cikin dare, ban da awaki, waɗanda aka ba su izinin yin sarrafa kansu cikin iyaka. Irin wannan tsarin dole ne ya ɓullo da ƙarshen ƙarshen 18th zuwa karni na 19. Duk da haka, zubar da datti na dabbobi, wanda ya zama aikin mace, yana buƙatar hanyar da za a bi wajen zubar da ita. Kuma, bayan lokaci, matan sun fitar da hanyar yin hakan. A cikin lambun kayan lambu, ana kiran maganin su da takin takin ko ciyawa. A tsawon lokaci, matan sun haɗu da wasu abubuwa daban -daban na halitta tare da taki (tarkacen dafa abinci, ragowar girbi, da kayan tsiro daga shinge mai rai ko shinge) kuma sun tara ta kowace rana akan gadajen lambun su da bishiyoyi don su ruɓe su zama humus mai gina jiki. A cikin karni na 20, dabbobin da ke tsakanin Fulɓe sun canza daga manyan dabbobi zuwa ƙananan iri. Dawakai, wataƙila saboda kumburin tsetse ya ragu, yayin da awaki, tumaki, aladu, da kaji suka ƙaru, kuma dabbobin na ci gaba da zama abin ƙima.

Yankunan Permaculture

Masana na duniya daga fannoni daban -daban sun yi bincike sosai a lambunan taputa na Fouta Djallon. Wannan bincike ya bayyana cewa tsarin cuntuuje yana da matakan gina ƙasa fiye da kowane ƙasa a yankin. Kusan dukkan aiki, in ban da shiri na farko, mata da yara ne ke gudanarwa da gudanar da su, a da da yanzu, a cikin kowane rukunin iyali. Gidajen lambun suna da mahimmanci ga abinci da amfanin gona na tsabar kudi ga danginsu. PLEC, wani shiri ne na Jami’ar Majalisar Nationsinkin Duniya, ya auna amfanin gona a kan hekta 6.5 daga filayen tapade a Misiide Heyre, Fouta Djallon kuma ya gano cewa masara ta haura 7 t/ha, rogo 21 t/ha, dankali mai daɗi 19 t/ha, da gyada (gyada) kusan 8 t/ha.[7]

Kowane suntuure yana kusan kadada 1 (kadada 2.5) a matsakaita, don haka ambaton su a matsayin lambuna ba daidai bane, ba don girman su ko sarkakkiyar su ba. Cuntuuje yana wakiltar tsarin tsarin samar da abinci, kuma ya bambanta ta hanyar ilimin su, da kuma yadda mutane ke amfani da ƙarfi da haɓaka iyakance ƙasa. A yau, lambunan cuntuuje suna ci gaba da samar da adadi mai yawa da iri iri na kayan aikin gona.[8]

Fences masu rai da ke kewaye da kowane suntuure ba kawai shinge bane don kiyaye mutane, dabbobin daji, da dabbobin gida. A cikin ƙamus na ƙamus, shinge shine ganyen ciyayi, kuma yana da mahimmanci wajen aiwatar da hawan keke mai gina jiki da riƙe abubuwan gina jiki a cikin suntuure. A takaice dai, abin da ake kira cuntuuje yana wakiltar tsarin gonar polyculture mai ɗorewa mai ɗorewa da tsarin gine -gine, gidaje ɗaya ko fiye da yanayin muhalli kuma misalai ne na abin da muka sani a yau don zama ƙirar ƙira. Mai hoto a cikin wannan sashin shine taswirar tunani na yankuna na ciki da sassan da aka samu yawanci a cikin yanayin suntuure.

Ciki na suntuure, Yankuna 1-3 (ƙofar ciki, ƙofar shiga, allon sirri, da mazaunin) an keɓance su musamman don membobin dangi. Yana cikin Yankuna 4 da 5 (hoggo da shinge mai rai) inda yawancin ayyukan rayuwar yau da kullun ke faruwa. Anan, ana gaishe da baƙi a mafaka ko falo na biyu, ana shirya aikin lambuna (hoggos), yara suna yin yini cikin wasa da aiki idan sun tsufa, da sallar la'asar, nafila, hira, da abinci suna faruwa har zuwa duhu. Zone 6 ita ce duniyar waje.

A shekara ta 2003, Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNFAO) ta amince da abincin Fuuta-Jalon a matsayin daya daga cikin Tsarin Muhimmin Kayan Gona na Duniya.[9]

Birane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban birni a yankin shine Labé.

Hijira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fuuta-Jalon a tarihi yana da babban ƙaura, yawanci na ɗan gajeren lokaci, kuma galibi zuwa Senegal da Saliyo. Yawancin Fulbe sun tsere zuwa Senegal bayan Sekou Toure ya zama shugaban Guinea mai cin gashin kansa a 1959. Da yawa sun zauna a Leidi Ulu a yammacin Kogin Gambia kuma sun fara noma ban da kiwon shanu. Sun tuna Guinea a matsayin ƙasar 'ya'yan itace da zuma inda aikin gona mai wahala bai zama dole ba.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Africa Travel Magazine
  2. Cia.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-15
  3. Mamdani, Mahmood. "Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror." Pantheon, 2004.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mats Widgren, "Slaves: Inequality and sustainable agriculture in pre-colonial West Africa." In, Ecology and Power: Struggles over land and material resources in the past, present, and future. London: Routledge, 2012. pp. 97-107.
  5. Les Peuls − Land of Faith and Liberty. (video)
  6. 6.0 6.1 David Robinson. The Holy War of Umar Tal: the Western Sudan in the mid-nineteenth century. Clarendon Press. Oxford University Press, 1985.
  7. Boiro, Ibrahima; Barry, A. Karim; & and Diallo, Amadou. (2003). "Guinée." Chap. 5. In Harold Brookfield, Helen Parsons & Muriel Brookfield (eds.). Agrodiversity: Learning from farmers across the world., pp. 110-133. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Specific information cited from p. 116.
  8. Harold Brookfield, Exploring Agrodiversity, Chapter 5. New York: Columbia UP, 2001. pp. 80-99; Véronique André-Lamat, Gilles Pestaña, and Georges Rossi. "Foreign Representations and Local Realities: Agropastoralism and Environmental Issues in the Fouta Djalon Tablelands, Republic of Guinea." Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 23, No 2, May 2003:149-155; Carole LAUGA-SALLENAVE, "Le clos et l'ouvert Terre et territoire au Fouta-Djalon." In, Bonnemaison Joël (ed.), Cambrézy Luc (ed.), Quinty Bourgeois Laurence (ed.). Le territoire, lien ou frontière? : identités, conflits ethniques, enjeux et recompositions territoriales. Paris: ORSTOM, 1997, 10 p. (Colloques et Séminaires); Carole LAUGA-SALLENAVE, Terre et territoire au Fouta-Djalon (Guinée), GRET - University Paris X, 1999.
  9. Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS); "Tapade Cultivation System, Guinea," Archived 2014-08-19 at the Wayback Machine A project of the United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization.

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • De Sanderval, La conquête du Fouta-Djallon (Paris, 1899)
  • Dölter, Ueber die Capverden nach dem Rio Grande und Futa Dschallon (Leipzig, 1884)
  • Noirot, A travers le Fouta-Djallon et le Bamboue (Paris, 1885)
  • Marchat, Les rivières du sud et le Fouta-Djallon (Paris, 1906)


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