Gobarar Daji

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Gobarar Daji (kuma " Waldsterben ", kalmar lamuni na Jamusanci) yanayi ne da yake faruwa a cikin bishiyoyi ko tsire-tsire masu fitowa waɗanda ake kashe sassan gefe, ko dai ta hanyar ƙwayoyin cuta, wuta ko yanayi kamar ruwan acid, fari,[1] da sauransu. Waɗannan al'amuran na iya haifar da mummunan sakamako kamar rage juriya na yanayin muhalli, bacewar mahimman alaƙar dabi'a [2] da ƙofa. [3] Wasu wuraren da za'a iya kaiwa ga manyan hasashen canjin yanayi a ƙarni na gaba suna da alaƙa kai tsaye da mutuwar gandun daji.

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gobarar dajin yana nufin al'amarin tsayawar bishiyu da ke rasa lafiya da mutuwa ba tare da wani dalili na zahiri ba. Wannan yanayin kuma ana kiransa da raguwar gandun daji, lalacewar gandun daji, matakin mutuwa baya, da tsayawa matakin mutuwa.[4] Wannan yawanci yana shafar nau'ikan bishiyoyi guda ɗaya, amma kuma yana iya shafar nau'ikan iri daban-daban. Gobarar Dajilamari ne na al'ada [4] kuma yana iya ɗaukar wurare da siffofi da yawa. Yana iya kasancewa tare da kewaye, a takamaiman tsayi, ko kuma ya tarwatse a cikin yanayin dajin.[5]

Direwar daji yana ba da kansa ta hanyoyi da yawa: fadowa daga ganye da allura, canza launin ganye da allura, raƙuman rawanin bishiyu, matattun bishiyoyin wasu shekaru, da canje-canje a tushen bishiyar. Hakanan yana da nau'i-nau'i masu ƙarfi da yawa. Tsayin bishiyu na iya nuna ƙananan alamu, matsananciyar alamomi, ko ma mutuwa. Ana iya kallon raguwar gandun daji sakamakon ci gaba, yaɗuwa, da kuma mummunan mutuwa na nau'ikan nau'ikan da yawa a cikin gandun daji. Ana iya bayyana raguwar gandun daji na yanzu ta: saurin ci gaba akan bishiyu ɗaya, faruwa a nau'ikan gandun daji daban-daban, abin da ya faru na tsawon lokaci (sama da shekaru 10), da kuma faruwa a cikin yanayin yanayi na nau'ikan da abin ya shafa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi bincike da yawa a cikin 1980s lokacin da wani mummunan mutuwa ya faru a Jamus da Arewa maso Gabashin Amurka. Abubuwan da aka kashe a baya sun iyakance a yanki, duk da haka, tun daga ƙarshen 1970s, raguwar dazuzzukan Turai ta Tsakiya da sassan Arewacin Amurka. Lalacewar gandun daji a Jamus, musamman, ya bambanta saboda raguwar ya yi tsanani: lalacewar ta yadu a cikin nau'ikan bishiyoyi daban-daban. Yawan itatuwan da abin ya shafa ya karu daga kashi 8% a 1982 zuwa 50% a 1984 kuma ya tsaya a 50% zuwa 1987. An gabatar da hasashe da yawa don wannan mutuwa, duba ƙasa.

A cikin karni na 20, Arewacin Amurka an buge shi da fitattun katako guda biyar. Sun faru ne bayan balaga dajin kuma kowane lamari ya kai kimanin shekaru goma sha daya. Mafi tsananin zafin dajin dajin ya yi niyya ga fararen birch da bishiyar birch rawaya . Sun fuskanci wani lamari wanda ya fara tsakanin 1934 zuwa 1937 kuma ya ƙare tsakanin 1953 zuwa 1954. Wannan ya biyo bayan tsarin igiyar ruwa wanda ya fara bayyana a yankunan Kudu kuma ya koma yankunan Arewa, inda aka yi tashin gwauron zabi tsakanin 1957 zuwa 1965 a Arewacin Quebec.[6]

Dieback kuma na iya shafar wasu nau'ikan kamar toka, itacen oak, da maple . Sugar Maple, musamman, ya fuskanci guguwar mutuwa a sassan Amurka a cikin shekarun 1960. An samu guguwar ruwa ta biyu a Kanada a cikin shekarun 1980, amma kuma ta yi nasarar isa Amurka. An yi nazarin waɗannan abubuwan da suka mutu ta ƙididdigewa don keɓance mace-macen bishiyu . Ana hasashen cewa dajin da ya balaga ya fi saurin kamuwa da matsananciyar matsalolin muhalli .

Abubuwan da za su iya haifar da mutuwar daji ko gobarar daji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke cikin yanayin yanayin gandun daji suna da sarƙaƙiya kuma gano takamaiman dalili-tasirin alaƙa tsakanin mutuwa da muhalli tsari ne mai wahala. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata, an gudanar da bincike da yawa kuma an yi ittifaqi a kan wasu hasashe kamar:

  • Bark beetle : Bark beetle suna amfani da laushin kyallen bishiya don matsuguni, rayuwa da kuma gida. Zuwansu yakan hada da wasu kwayoyin halitta kamar fungi da kwayoyin cuta. Tare, suna samar da alaƙar dabi'a inda yanayin bishiyar ke ƙara tsananta.[7] Yanayin rayuwarsu ya dogara ne da kasancewar bishiya yayin da suke sa qwai a cikinsu. Da zarar tsutsa ta kyankyashe, za ta iya ƙulla dangantaka da bishiyar, inda take rayuwa daga cikinta kuma ta yanke zagayawa da ruwa da abinci mai gina jiki daga tushen zuwa ga harbe. [7]
  • Yanayi na karkashin kasa: Wani bincike da aka gudanar a Ostiraliya ya gano cewa yanayi irin su zurfin da gishiri na iya taimakawa wajen hasashen mutuwa kafin su faru. A cikin wani yanki na halitta, lokacin da zurfin zurfafa da gishiri ya karu, tsayawar dazuzzuka ya karu. Duk da haka, a wani yanki na yanki a cikin wannan yanki na binciken, lokacin da zurfin ya ƙaru amma ruwan yana da ƙarancin gishiri (watau ruwa mai laushi), raguwa ya karu. [8]
  • Fari da damuwa mai zafi: Fari da damuwa zafi ana hasashen su haifar da mutuwa. Dalilinsu na fili ya fito ne daga hanyoyi biyu. [9] Na farko, gazawar hydraulic, [9] yana haifar da gazawar sufuri na ruwa daga tushen zuwa harben bishiya. Wannan na iya haifar da rashin ruwa da yiwuwar mutuwa. [10] Na biyu, yunwar carbon, [9] yana faruwa ne a matsayin martanin shuka ga zafi shine rufe stomata. Wannan al'amari yana yanke shigar da carbon dioxide, don haka ya sa shuka ta dogara da abubuwan da aka adana kamar sukari. Idan yanayin zafi ya yi tsayi kuma idan shuka ya ƙare da sukari, zai ji yunwa kuma ya mutu. [10]
  • Kwayoyin cuta suna da alhakin mutuwa da yawa. Yana da wuya a ware da kuma gano ainihin ƙwayoyin cuta da ke da alhakin da kuma yadda suke hulɗa da bishiyoyi. Misali Phomopsis azadirachtae shine naman gwari na nau'in Phomopsis wanda aka gano yana da alhakin mutuwa a Azadiachta indica (Neem) a cikin yankuna na Indiya.[11] [12] Wasu ƙwararru suna ɗaukar mutuwa a matsayin rukuni na cututtuka waɗanda ba su da cikakkiyar fahimtar asalin abin da ke tasiri ta hanyar abubuwan da ke ba da damar bishiyoyi a ƙarƙashin damuwa zuwa mamayewa.

Wasu hasashe na iya yin bayanin musabbabi da illolin mutuwa. Kamar yadda aka amince tsakanin mu’amalar kimiyyar Jamus da Amurka a cikin 1988:

  • Ƙasa acidification / aluminum toxicity : Yayin da ƙasa ta zama mafi acidic, aluminum yana samun saki, yana lalata tushen bishiyar. Wasu daga cikin abubuwan da aka lura sune: raguwar ɗauka da jigilar wasu cations, raguwa a cikin tushen numfashi, lalata tushen ciyarwa mai kyau da tushen tsarin halittar jiki, da raguwa a cikin elasticity na bangon tantanin halitta . Farfesa Bernhard Ulrich ne ya gabatar da wannan a cikin 1979.
  • Complex High-levation Cuta : Haɗuwa da manyan matakan ozone, ajiyar acid da ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki a tsayi mai tsayi yana kashe bishiyoyi. Matsakaicin adadin ozone yana lalata ganye da alluran bishiyu da kuma abubuwan gina jiki da ke tsirowa daga ganyen. Silsilar al'amura na karuwa akan lokaci. Ƙungiyar farfesa: Bernhard Prinz, Karl Rehfuess, da Heinz Zöttl ne suka gabatar da wannan. [5]
  • Cutar jajayen allura na spruce : Wannan cuta yana haifar da digon allura da kambi. Allura suna juya launin tsatsa kuma su faɗi. Wannan yana faruwa ne ta hanyar fungi na foliar, waɗanda sune ƙwayoyin cuta na biyu waɗanda ke kai hari kan bishiyoyi da suka riga sun raunana. Farfesa Karl Rehfuess ne ya gabatar da hakan. [5]
  • Gurbacewa : Ƙarfafa matakan da ake samu na gurɓataccen yanayi yana cutar da tushen tsarin kuma yana haifar da tarawa na guba a cikin sababbin ganye. Masu gurɓatawa na iya canza girma, rage ayyukan photosynthesis, da rage samuwar metabolites na biyu. An yi imani da cewa ƙananan matakan za a iya la'akari da su masu guba ne. Kungiyar malamai karkashin jagorancin Peter Schütt ce ta gabatar da wannan. [5]
    • Abubuwan gurɓataccen iska : wannan sashin yana mai da hankali kan mahaɗan kwayoyin halitta. Abubuwan da aka tattauna sosai sune ethylene, aniline, da dinitrophenol . Ko da a ƙananan matakan, waɗannan mahadi na sinadarai sun haifar da: zubar da ganye mara kyau, karkatattun ganye, da kashe tsire-tsire. Fritz Führ ne ya gabatar da wannan. [5]
  • Rage yawan Nitrogen Deposition: Ƙara matakin nitrogen da ammonium, duka biyun da ake samu a cikin taki, na iya samun sakamako masu zuwa: zai iya hana fungi masu amfani, jinkirta halayen sinadarai, dagula ma'auni na al'ada tsakanin girma girma da tushen girma, da kuma ƙara yawan leaching ƙasa . Duk da haka, babu wata hujja ta gwaji. Carl Olaf Tamm ne ya gabatar da wannan. [5] Duba kuma: gurɓatar abinci mai gina jiki

Sakamakon mutuwar daji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya haifar da mutuwar daji ta hanyar abubuwa da yawa, duk da haka, da zarar sun faru, suna iya samun wasu sakamako.

  • Al'ummar Fungal : Ectomycorrhizal fungi suna samar da alakar alama da bishiyoyi. Bayan fashewar ƙwayar ƙwaro, mutuwa na iya faruwa. Wannan tsari na iya rage photosynthesis, wadatar abinci mai gina jiki da ƙimar lalacewa da tafiyar matakai. Da zarar wannan ya faru, dangantakar symbiotic, da aka ambata a baya, ta sami mummunan tasiri: ƙungiyar ectomycorrhizal fungi yana raguwa sannan dangantakar ta ɓace gaba ɗaya. Wannan yana da matsala saboda wasu tsire-tsire sun dogara da kasancewar su don rayuwa.
  • Chemistry na ƙasa : Kimiyyar ƙasa na iya canzawa bayan wani lamari na mutuwa. Yana iya haifar da haɓaka jikewa na tushe yayin da biomass da aka bari a baya ya sa wasu ions kyauta kamar calcium, magnesium da potassium . Ana iya la'akari da wannan sakamako mai kyau saboda jikewar tushe yana da mahimmanci don haɓaka tsiro da haɓakar ƙasa. Don haka, wannan yana nuna cewa ilimin sunadarai na ƙasa yana biye da mutuwa ko da zai iya taimakawa wajen dawo da ƙasa acidic.

Canjin yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Canje-canje a matsakaicin zafin jiki na shekara da fari sune manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da mutuwar gandun daji. Yayin da ake fitar da karin carbon daga matattun bishiyoyi, musamman a cikin dazuzzukan Amazon da Boreal, ana fitar da karin iskar gas a sararin samaniya. Ƙara yawan matakan iskar gas na ƙara yawan zafin jiki. Hasashen mutuƙar ya bambanta, amma barazanar sauyin yanayi na duniya yana tsayawa ne kawai don ƙara yawan mutuwa.

  • Rage ƙarfin ƙarfi: Bishiyoyi na iya jurewa. Duk da haka, ana iya canza wannan lokacin da yanayin yanayin ya sami matsala ta fari. Wannan yana haifar da bishiyun su zama masu saurin kamuwa da kamuwa da kwari, ta yadda hakan ke haifar da abin da ya faru na mutuwa. [9] Wannan dai matsala ce yayin da ake hasashen sauyin yanayi zai kara yawan fari a wasu yankuna na duniya.
  • Ƙofa: Ƙofa da dama sun wanzu dangane da mutuwar gandun daji kamar "diversity ..., yanayin muhalli ... da aikin muhalli." ]. Kamar yadda canjin yanayi ke da ikon haifar da mutuwa ta hanyar matakai da yawa, waɗannan ƙofofin suna ƙara samun ci gaba inda, a wasu lokuta, suna da ikon haifar da ingantaccen tsarin amsawa: [3] lokacin da yankin basal a cikin yanayin yanayin ya ragu ta hanyar. 50%, nau'in wadatar fungi na ectomycorrhizal yana biye. Kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, ectomycorrhizal fungi suna da mahimmanci don rayuwar wasu tsire-tsire, juya mutuwa zuwa hanyar amsawa mai kyau.
  • Mahimman bayanai : Masana kimiyya ba su san ainihin maƙasudin sauyin yanayi ba kuma suna iya ƙididdige ma'auni kawai. Lokacin da aka kai madaidaici, ƙaramin canji a ayyukan ɗan adam na iya haifar da sakamako na dogon lokaci akan muhalli . Biyu daga cikin maki tara don manyan hasashen canjin yanayi na ƙarni na gaba suna da alaƙa kai tsaye da mutuwar gandun daji. [13] Masana kimiyya sun damu cewa dazuzzukan dazuzzukan dazuzzukan dajin Amazon da kuma dajin Boreal Evergreen za su haifar da wani buri a cikin shekaru 50 masu zuwa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  • Bakin ƙwaro
  • Birch ya mutu
  • Ciwon daji
  • Kalaman zafi
  • Hymenoscyphus fraxineus - dalilin mutuwar ash
  • Kauri mutuback
  • Matsakaicin jujjuyawa na dindindin

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon?". Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2010.
  2. Empty citation (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 . 6 Invalid |url-status=6775 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ciesla WM, Donaubauer E (1994). Decline and dieback of trees and forests: A global overview. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Krahl-Urban B, Papke HE, Peters K (1988). Forest Decline: Cause-Effect Research in the United States of North America and Federal Republic of Germany. Germany: Assessment Group for Biology, Ecology and Energy of the Julich Nuclear Research Center.
  6. Auclair AN, Eglinton PD, Minnemeyer SL (1997). Principle Forest Dieback Episodes in Northern Hardwoods: Development of Numeric Indices of Aereal Extent and Severity. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Allen C, Ayres M, Berg E, Carroll A, teal (2005). "Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and Consequences" (PDF). US Forestry Service. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  8. Empty citation (help)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Empty citation (help)Sangüesa-Barreda G, Linares JC, Camarero JJ (December 2015). "Reduced growth sensitivity to climate in bark-beetle infested Aleppo pines: Connecting climatic and biotic drivers of forest dieback". Forest Ecology and Management. 357: 126–137. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.017. hdl:10261/123320. ISSN 0378-1127.
  10. 10.0 10.1 . 6 Invalid |url-status=1285–1291 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. Prasad, M. N. Nagendra; Bhat, S. Shankara; Raj, A. P. Charith; Janardhana, G. R. (2009-02-01). "Detection of Phomopsis azadirachtae from dieback affected neem twigs, seeds, embryo by polymerase chain reaction". Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 42 (2): 124–128. doi:10.1080/03235400600982584. ISSN 0323-5408. S2CID 84610692.
  12. Empty citation (help)
  13. Empty citation (help)Lenton TM, Held H, Kriegler E, Hall JW, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S, Schellnhuber HJ (February 2008). "Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (6): 1786–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.0705414105. PMC 2538841. PMID 18258748.