Icen Dalbejiya (Azadirachta Indica)

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Icen Dalbejiya (Azadirachta Indica)
Neem (Azadirachta indica) in Hyderabad W IMG 6976.jpg
Conservation status

Least Concern (en) Fassara (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
KingdomPlantae
OrderSapindales (en) Sapindales
DangiMeliaceae (en) Meliaceae
GenusAzadirachta (en) Azadirachta
jinsi Azadirachta indica
A.Juss.,
Icen Bedi/Dalbejiya (Azadirachta Indica)

Azadirachta indica wanda aka fi sani da icen Dalbejiya, ko Bedi wato neem, bishiyar-nim ko Indian lilac,[1] kuma a Najeriya ana kiranta dogo yaro ko dogonyaro,[2] [3] bishiya ce daga cikin dangin Mahogany Meliaceae. Yana ɗaya daga cikin nau'ikan halittu guda biyu na iyalan Azadirachta, kuma asalin yankin Indiya ne kuma galibin kasashen Afirka. Yawanci yana girma a yankuna masu zafi da na wurare masu zafi. Itacen Neem kuma na girma a tsibiran kudancin Iran. 'Ƴa'ƴan itãcensa da tsabarsa sune asalin man-neem.

Bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dalbejiya ko icen bedi ice ne mai azumi-girma itace cewa zai iya isa tsayin kimanin 15–20 metres (49–66 ft), da wuya 35–40 metres (115–131 ft). Yana zubar da yawancin ganye a lokacin damuna. Rassan suna da fadi kuma suna yaduwa. cikakkiyar kambi mai kauri yana zagaye kuma yana iya kaiwa fadin diamita 20–25 metres (66–82 ft). Itacen bedi ko dalbejiya yayi kama da danginsa, chinaberry (Melia azzara|Melia azedarach).[4]

Akasin haka, ganyen pinnate suna da tsawon kimanin 20–40 centimetres (8–16 in), tare da 20 zuwa 30 matsakaici tsawo da ganye kore mai duhu mai tsawon 3–8 centimetres (1.2–3.1 in). Sashin tsakiya na fallen ganyen tashar tana ɓacewa sau da yawa. Petioles gajere ne.

Icen na da fure masu launin fari da ƙamshi an shirya su a cikin ƙaramin ma'ajin axillary panicles masu saukowa waɗanda suka kai 25 centimetres (10 in) a tsawo. Inflorescences, wanda reshe ne yayi sama har zuwa mataki na uku, yana ɗaukar furanni 250 zuwa 300. Fure ɗaya na da tsawon 5–6 millimetres (0.20–0.24 in) da fadin 8–11 millimetres (0.31–0.43 in). Protantrism, furanni masu juna biyu da furannin maza suna saduwa akan bishiya guda.

'yayan icen Dalbejiya/Bedi

Ya'yan itacen masu santsi ne (masu walƙiya), ana kiransu drupe suna kama da zaitun wanda ya bambanta ta siffar tsawo oval zuwa kusan zagaye, kuma lokacin cikakke ya14–28 millimetres (0.55–1.10 in) ta10–15 millimetres (0.39–0.59 in). Fatar 'ya'yan itace (exocarp) siriri ne kuma ɓacin rai mai ɗanɗano (mesocarp) yana da launin shuɗi-fari kuma yana da yawa. Mesocarp shine 3–5 millimetres (0.12–0.20 in) kauri. Farar, harsashi na ciki mai ƙarfi (endocarp) na 'ya'yan itacen yana ɗauke da guda ɗaya, da wuya biyu, ko uku, elongated tsaba (kernels) waɗanda ke da gashin launin ruwan.

Akanyi kuskure wajen kamanya icen dalbejiya da wani ice mai kama dashi suna bakain. Shima icen Bakain yana da ganye masu tsini da kuma 'ya'yan itace masu kama da juna. Bambanci ɗaya shine cewa ganyen neem yana da pinnate amma ganyen bakain Pinnation yana da biyu-biyu ko uku-uku.

Asalin Kalma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar Neem (नीम) sunan Hindi ne wanda aka samo daga yaren Sanskrit Nimba (निंब).[5][6][7]

Ilimin Halittu da Muhallinsu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bishiyar dalbejiya wato neem tayi fice matuqa saboda juriya ga karancin ruwa. Yawanci yana wanzuwa a yankuna da ke da rani da kuma matsakaicin zafi, masuadadin ruwan sama na 400–1,200 millimetres (16–47 in). Icen na iya girma a yankuna daban daban na duniya, amma yana dogara ne mafi akasari da yanayin ruwan dake karkashin kasa. Sannan zai iya tsirowa ko wani irin nau'in na duniya, amma yafi wanzawa a nau'in kasa da ake kira sandy soil, suna ya dogara ne sosai akan matakan ruwan karkarshin ƙasa. Bedi na iya girma a cikin nau'ikan ƙasa daban -daban, amma yana haɓaka mafi kyau akan zurfin zurfin ƙasa da yashi. Yana da yanayi na wurare masu zafi zuwa bishiyar ƙasa kuma yana wanzuwa a matsakaicin yanayin zafin shekara na 21–32 °C (70–90 °F). Zai iya jurewa sama zuwa yanayin zafi sosai kuma baya jure zafin da ke ƙasa 5 °C (41 °F). Dalbejiya yana ɗaya daga cikin bishiyoyin da ke ba da inuwa waɗanda ke bunƙasa a cikin yankunan da ke fuskantar fari kamar busasshen bakin teku, gundumomin kudancin Indiya, da Pakistan. Bishiyoyin ba su dogara game da samun ruwa ba kuma suna bunƙasa ko da da digon ruwa ne, komai ingancin. A Indiya da ƙasashe masu zafi inda yakin ƙasar Indiya suka isa, ana yawan samun bishiyoyin Dalbejiya da ake amfani da su don rufe tituna, kusa da wuraren bauta, makarantu da sauran irin waɗannan gine -gine na mutum ko a mafi yawan yadudduka. A yakuna masu karancin ruwan sama, akan shuka bishiyoyin dalbejiya acikin manyan filaye.

Icen a matsayin ciyawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

akan dauki ganyen icen a matsayin ciyawa mara amfani a wasu sassa na duniya, musamman a yankunan Gabas ta Tsakiya, ƙasashen Saharar Afirka da Yammacin Afirka da jihohin Tekun Indiya, da wasu sassan Ostiraliya . A yanayin muhalli, yana rayuwa da kyau a cikin irin wannan muhallin ga nasa, amma ba a tantance ainihin matsayinsa na ciyawa ba.[8]

A watan Afrilu na shekara ta 2015, an zartar da cewa Icen dalbejiya a matsayin ciyawa mara amfani na na ajin B da C a Yankin Arewacin Kasar, Ostiraliya, ma'ana dole ne a sarrafa shuka ta da yaduwar ta kuma ba a yarda a shigo da tsirrai ko propagules cikin NT ba. Shari'a ta yarda a siya, a saida, ayi sufurinta ko irin ta. An kaddamar da ita a matsayin ciyawa a sanadiyyar mamaye hanyoyin ruwa da tayi a " Top End " na yankin.[9]

Bayan an gabatar da icen a kasar Ostiraliya, a 1940s, an dasa A. indica a yankin Arewa don samar da inuwa ga shanu. An kafa gonaki na gwaji tsakanin shekarun 1960 zuwa 1980 a Darwin, Queensland, da Yammacin kasar Australia, amma masana'antar sarrafa icen dalbejiya ta Ostiraliya ba ta tabbatar da mai yiwuwa ba. Yanzu itacen ya bazu zuwa cikin savanna, musamman a kusa da hanyoyin ruwa, kuma ana samun yawan mutane da yawa a yankunan.[10]

Sinadarai daga Bishiyar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

'Ya'yan itacen dalbejiyan, iri, ganye, mai tushe, da kuma bawon icen na dauke da sinadarai masu dumbin yawa wanda ake kira phytochemicals, wasu da aka fara ganowa daga iri, kamar azadirachtin wanda aka sarrafa su a shekarun 1960s matsayin maganin kwari antifeedant, tsaida yaduwa, da kuma maganin kwari.[11][12] Amfani daga icen a yayinda ake murƙushe kilogiram 2 na yayan tsaba icen yakan kai kusan gram 5.[13]

Bugu da kari sinadarin azadirachtin da limonoids masu alaƙa, man iri ya ƙunshi glycerides , polyphenols iri-iri, nimbolide, triterpenes, da beta-sitosterol.[14] Man yana da launin rawaya, bitter oil, yana da ƙamshi kamar tafarnuwa kuma ya ƙunshi kusan kashi 2% na mahaɗan limonoid. Ganyen yana ƙunshe da quercetin, catechins, carotenes, da bitamin C.[15]

Amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akan busar da ganyen dalbejiya kuma ana sanya shi a cikin kabad don hana kwari cin sutura, da kuma cikin tins inda ake adana shinkafa.[16] Hakanan ana amfani da furannin a wurin bukukuwan Indiya da yawa kamar Ugadi.

Matsayin kayan lambu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana cin sashin furen da 'yayan itacen a matsayin kayan lambu a kasar Indiya. Ana shirya abinci mai kama da miya mai suna veppampoo charu a cikin Tamil (an fassara shi da "neem flower rasam ") wanda aka yi da furen bedi a yankunan Tamil Nadu. A Bengali, ana soya ganyen neem a cikin mai tare da eggplant (brinjal). ana kiran girkin neem begun bhaja kuma shine abu na farko yayin cin abinci a Bengali wanda ke matsayin abinci washe harshe, ana cinshi da shinkafa. Ana amfani sassan dalbejiya a yankin kudu maso gabashin Asiya, musamman a Kambodiya, Laos (inda ake kira kadao ), Thailand (inda aka sani da sa-dao ko sdao ), Myanmar (inda aka sani da tamar ) da Vietnam (inda aka sani da sầu đâu kuma ana amfani dashi wajen dafa salatin gỏi sầu đâu ). Ko da an dafa shi da sama sama, dandanon sa na da ɗaci sosai, kuma ba duk mazaunan waɗannan ƙasashe ke cin wanan nau'in abincin ba. A Myanmar, ana dafa ganyen neem da sashen furanni da 'ya'yan tamarind wato tsamiya don rage dacinsa kuma ana ci a matsayin kayan lambu. Ana kuma cin ganyen neem mai tsami tare da tumatir da miya miya a Myanmar.

Magungunan Gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana amfani da samfuran da aka cire daga icen dalbejiya a wajen maganin gargajiya na Indiya na tsawon ƙarnuka, amma babu isasshen shaidar asibiti don nuna fa'idodin amfani da bedi don dalilai na magani. A manya mutane, ba a kafa takamaiman ka'idojin shan maganin ba, kuma yin amfani da dalbejiya na ɗan gajeren lokaci yana da aminci, amma yayin amfani da shi na dogon lokaci na iya haifar da matsalar koda ko hanta; a ga ƙananan yara, man-dalbejiya na da guba kuma yana iya sanadiyyar mutuwa. Bedi na iya haifar da bari wato zubewar ciki, rashin haihuwa, da ƙarancin sukari na jini.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Azadirachta indica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture(USDA). Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  2. "LSDPC, Design Union unveil Ilupeju Gardens in Lagos Mainland". 30 November 2020.
  3. "BENEFITS OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA (DOGONYARO OR NEEM) amp-version". Global Food Book. Retrieved 11 September 2021
  4. "The Tree. National Academies Press (US). 1992
  5. Compact Oxford English Dictionary (2013), Neem, page 679, Third Edition 2008 reprinted with corrections 2013, Oxford University Press.
  6. Henry Yule and A. C. Burnell (1996), Hobson-Jobson, Neem, page 622, The Anglo-Indian Dictionary, Wordsworth Reference. (This work was first published in 1886)
  7. "Plant Risk Assessment, Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica (PDF). Biosecurity Queensland. 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  8. Plant Risk Assessment, Neem Tree, Azadirachta indica (PDF). Biosecurity Queensland. 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  9. Neem has been declared: what you need to know(PDF), Department of Land Resource Management, 2015, archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2015, retrieved 17 March 2015.
  10. Neem Azadirachta indica (PDF), Department of Land Resource Management, 2015, archived from the original(PDF) on 24 March 2015, retrieved 17 March 2015
  11. "Neem". Drugs.com. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  12. Anna Horsbrugh Porter (17 April 2006). "Neem: India's tree of life". BBC News.
  13. "Neem". Drugs.com. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  14. "Nimbolide". PubChem, US National Library of Medicine. 6 March 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  15. "Neem". Drugs.com. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  16. Anna Horsbrugh Porter (17 April 2006). "Neem: India's tree of life". BBC News.