Gurbacewar ingancin ruwa

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Tashar wutar lantarki ta Brayton Point a Massachusetts ta fitar da ruwan zafi zuwa Dutsen Hope Bay . An rufe shukar a watan Yuni 2017.

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Lake Stechlin, Jamus, ya sami fitarwa mai sanyi daga tashar wutar lantarki ta Rheinsberg tun daga 1960s. Kamfanin ya yi aiki na tsawon shekaru 24, yana rufe a watan Yuni 1990.

Rashin gurɓataccen yanayi, wani lokacin ana kiransa "ƙaddamar da thermal", shine lalata ingancin ruwa ta kowane tsari da ke canza yanayin ruwan zafi . Gurbacewar yanayi shine tasowa ko faɗuwar zafin jikin ruwa na halitta wanda tasirin ɗan adam ke haifarwa. Rashin gurɓataccen yanayi, ba kamar gurɓatar sinadarai ba, yana haifar da canjin yanayin yanayin ruwa. Kuma Dalilin gama gari na gurɓacewar yanayi shi ne amfani da ruwa azaman sanyaya ta masana'antun wutar lantarki da masana'antu. Guguwa a cikin birni - guguwa ruwan da ke fitarwa zuwa saman ruwa daga saman rufin gidaje, tituna da wuraren ajiye motoci - kuma tafkunan ruwa na iya zama tushen gurɓacewar yanayi. Hakanan ana iya haifar da gurɓacewar yanayi ta hanyar sakin ruwa mai tsananin sanyi daga gindin tafki zuwa koguna masu dumi.

Lokacin da aka mayar da ruwan da aka yi amfani da shi azaman mai sanyaya zuwa yanayin yanayi a mafi girman zafin jiki, canjin zafin jiki ba zato ba tsammani yana rage isar da iskar oxygen kuma yana shafar tsarin muhalli . Kuma Kifi da sauran halittun da suka dace da kewayon zafin jiki za a iya kashe su ta hanyar canjin yanayin zafi na ruwa (ko dai saurin karuwa ko raguwa) wanda aka sani da " girgizar zafi". Ruwan sanyi mai dumi yana iya samun tasiri na dogon lokaci akan zafin ruwa, yana ƙara yawan zafin jiki na ruwa, gami da ruwa mai zurfi. Yanayin yanayi yana tasiri yadda waɗannan zafin jiki ke ƙaruwa ana rarraba su cikin ginshiƙi na ruwa. Sannan Ruwan daɗaɗɗen yanayin zafi yana rage matakan iskar oxygen, wanda zai iya kashe kifin da canza tsarin sarkar abinci, rage bambancin halittu, da haɓaka mamayewar sabbin nau'ikan thermophilic . :375

Tushen da sarrafa gurɓataccen yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hasumiya mai sanyaya a tashar wutar lantarki ta Gustav Knepper, Dortmund, Jamus

Ruwan sharar masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Amurka kusan kashi 75 zuwa 80 cikin 100 na gurbacewar yanayin zafi ana samun su ne ta hanyoyin samar da wutar lantarki. :376Sauran sun fito ne daga hanyoyin masana'antu irin su matatun mai, ɓangaren litattafan almara da injina na takarda, masana'antar sinadarai, masana'antun ƙarfe da masu aikin tuƙa . :4–2

Za a iya sarrafa ruwan zafi daga waɗannan hanyoyin da:

  • tafkuna masu sanyaya, jikunan ruwa da mutum ya ƙera don sanyaya ta hanyar evaporation, convection, da radiation
  • Hasumiya mai sanyaya, waɗanda ke canja wurin sharar da zafi zuwa yanayi ta hanyar evaporation da/ko canja wurin zafi
  • cogeneration, wani tsari inda ake sake yin amfani da zafin sharar gida don dalilai na dumama na gida da / ko masana'antu.

Ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu ba da gudummawa ga gurɓataccen zafi shine sau ɗaya ta hanyar sanyaya tsarin (OTC) waɗanda ba sa rage zafin jiki yadda ya kamata kamar tsarin da ke sama. Babban tashar wutar lantarki na iya janyewa da fitar da adadin galan miliyan 500 a kowace rana. Wadannan tsarin suna samar da ruwa mai zafi 10 ° C a matsakaici. Misali, tashar samar da wutar lantarki ta Potrero a San Francisco (an rufe a shekarata 2011), ta yi amfani da OTC kuma ta fitar da ruwa zuwa San Francisco Bay kusan 10. °C (20 °F) sama da yanayin yanayin zafi. Sama da wurare 1,200 a Amurka suna amfani da tsarin OTC tun daga shekarar 2014. :4–4

Za a iya ɗaukar yanayin zafi ta hanyar dabarun gano nesa don ci gaba da lura da gurbatar tsirrai. Wannan yana taimakawa wajen ƙididdige takamaiman tasirin kowane tsire-tsire, sannan kuma yana ba da damar ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idojin gurɓataccen yanayi.

Canza wurin aiki daga sau ɗaya ta hanyar sanyaya zuwa tsarin rufaffiyar madauki na iya rage gurɓatar yanayin zafi da ake fitarwa sosai. Waɗannan tsarin suna sakin ruwa a yanayin zafi mafi kwatankwacin yanayin yanayi.

Tafkunan ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayin da ruwa ke dagulewa a cikin madatsun ruwa da mutum ya yi, zafin jiki a kasa yana raguwa sosai. Kuma Ana gina madatsun ruwa da yawa don sakin wannan ruwan sanyi daga ƙasa zuwa tsarin halitta. Ana iya rage wannan ta hanyar zana madatsar ruwa don sakin ruwan zafi maimakon ruwan sanyi a kasan tafki.

Tantanin halitta don magance kwararar ruwa a cikin birane a California

Ruwan ruwa na birni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A lokacin dumin yanayi, zubar da ruwa a birane na iya yin tasiri mai mahimmanci na zafi a kan ƙananan rafuka. Yayin da ruwan guguwa ke wucewa a saman rufin rufin zafi, wuraren ajiye motoci, tituna da tituna yana ɗaukar wasu zafi, tasirin tsibirin zafi na birane . Sannan Kuma Wuraren kula da ruwa na guguwa wanda ke sha ruwa mai gudu ko kai shi cikin ruwan karkashin kasa, kamar tsarin bioretention da kwano na infiltration, kuma rage waɗannan tasirin thermal ta hanyar ƙyale ruwan ƙarin lokaci don sakin zafi mai yawa kafin shiga cikin yanayin ruwa. Waɗannan tsare-tsare masu alaƙa don gudanar da kwararar ruwa su ne ɓangarorin faɗaɗa tsarin ƙirar birane wanda aka fi sani da kayan aikin kore .

Tafkunan da ake riƙewa ( tafkunan ruwa na guguwa) ba su da tasiri wajen rage yawan zafin ruwa, saboda ana iya dumama ruwan da rana kafin a watsar da shi zuwa magudanar ruwa.

Tasiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Potrero Generating Station ya fitar da ruwan zafi zuwa San Francisco Bay . An rufe shukar a shekarar 2011.

Tasirin ruwan dumi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Maɗaukakin zafin jiki yawanci yana rage matakin narkar da iskar oxygen da na ruwa, saboda iskar gas ba sa narkewa a cikin ruwa masu zafi. Wannan na iya cutar da dabbobin ruwa kamar su kifi, amphibians da Kuma sauran halittun ruwa. Gurbacewar yanayi na iya ƙara yawan adadin dabbobin ruwa, a matsayin aikin enzyme, wanda ya haifar da waɗannan kwayoyin halitta suna cin abinci mai yawa a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci fiye da idan ba a canza yanayin su ba. :179Ƙara yawan adadin kuzari na iya haifar da ƙarancin albarkatu; mafi daidaita kwayoyin da ke motsawa a ciki na iya samun fa'ida akan kwayoyin da ba a amfani da su zuwa zafin zafi. Kuma Sakamakon haka, sarƙoƙin abinci na tsohon da sabbin mahalli na iya lalacewa. Wasu nau'in kifaye za su guje wa sassan rafi ko yankunan bakin teku kusa da magudanar zafi. Za a iya rage bambancin halittu a sakamakon haka. :415–17 :380

Babban zafin jiki yana iyakance watsawar iskar oxygen zuwa ruwa mai zurfi, yana ba da gudummawa ga yanayin anaerobic . Wannan na iya haifar da haɓaka matakan ƙwayoyin cuta yayin da ake samun wadataccen abinci. Sannan Kuma Yawancin nau'ikan ruwa za su kasa haifuwa a yanayin zafi mai tsayi. :179–80

Masu kera na farko (misali shuke-shuke, cyanobacteria ) ruwan dumi yana shafar su saboda yawan zafin jiki na ruwa yana ƙara haɓakar shuka, Kuma yana haifar da ɗan gajeren rayuwa da yawan yawan jama'a . Ƙara yawan zafin jiki na iya canza ma'auni na girma na ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, ciki har da adadin algae blooms wanda ke rage narkar da iskar oxygen.

Canjin yanayin zafi ko da digiri ɗaya zuwa biyu na ma'aunin celcius na iya haifar da gagarumin canje-canje a cikin metabolism na kwayoyin halitta da sauran illolin ilimin halitta na salula .Kuma Babban canje-canje mara kyau na iya haɗawa da mayar da bangon tantanin da ba zai iya jujjuyawa ba zuwa ga dole osmosis, coagulation na sunadaran tantanin halitta, da kuma canza yanayin metabolism na enzyme . Waɗannan tasirin matakin salon salula na iya yin illa ga mace-mace da haifuwa .

Babban ƙaruwa a cikin zafin jiki na iya haifar da ɓatawar enzymes masu tallafawa rayuwa ta hanyar rushe hydrogen - da haɗin disulphide a cikin tsarin quaternary na enzymes. Sannan Rage aikin enzyme a cikin halittun ruwa na iya haifar da matsaloli kamar rashin iya rushe lipids, wanda ke haifar da rashin abinci mai gina jiki . Ƙara yawan zafin jiki na ruwa yana iya ƙara narkewa da motsa jiki na karafa, wanda zai iya ƙara yawan karafa mai nauyi ta hanyar kwayoyin ruwa. Wannan na iya haifar da sakamako mai guba ga waɗannan nau'ikan, kazalika da haɓaka ƙarfe mai nauyi a cikin matakan trophic mafi girma a cikin sarkar abinci, haɓaka bayyanar ɗan adam ta hanyar cin abinci.

A cikin ƙayyadaddun yanayi, ruwan dumi yana da ɗan illa mai lalacewa kuma yana iya haifar da ingantacciyar aiki na karɓar muhallin ruwa. Kuma Ana ganin wannan al'amari musamman a cikin ruwan yanayi. Wani matsanancin hali ya samo asali ne daga halayen tarawa na manatee, wanda sau da yawa yana amfani da wuraren fitar da wutar lantarki a lokacin hunturu. Hasashen sun nuna cewa yawan jama'ar manatee za su ragu bayan cire waɗannan fitar da su.

Ruwan sanyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sakin ruwan sanyi da ba a saba da shi ba daga tafkunan ruwa na iya canza kifaye da dabbobin rafuka da yawa, da rage yawan amfanin kogin. A Ostiraliya, inda koguna da yawa ke da tsarin yanayin zafin jiki, an kawar da nau'in kifin na asali, kuma dabbobin macroinvertebrate sun canza sosai. Sannan Yawan rayuwa na kifaye ya ragu zuwa kashi 75 cikin dari saboda sakin ruwan sanyi.

Thermal girgiza[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da tashar wutar lantarki ta fara buɗewa ko rufewa don gyarawa ko wasu dalilai, kifaye da sauran kwayoyin halitta waɗanda suka dace da yanayin zafi na musamman na iya kashe su ta hanyar canjin yanayin zafi na ruwa ba zato ba tsammani, ko Kuma dai karuwa ko raguwa, wanda aka sani da "Thermal shock". :380 :478

Tasirin biochemical[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tasirin ɗumamar ruwa, sabanin tasirin sanyaya ruwa, an fi yin nazari akan tasirin biochemical .Kuma Yawancin wannan bincike ya shafi tasirin makamashin nukiliya na dogon lokaci a kan tabkuna bayan da aka kawar da tashar nukiliya. Gabaɗaya, akwai tallafi ga gurɓataccen yanayi wanda ke haifar da haɓakar yanayin ruwa. Lokacin da matattarar wutar lantarki ke aiki, ɗan gajeren lokaci zafin ruwa yana ƙaruwa da alaƙa da buƙatun lantarki, tare da Kuma ƙarin sakin ruwa mai sanyaya yayin watannin hunturu. Hakanan ana ganin ɗumamar ruwa yana ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin tsarin na dogon lokaci, koda bayan an cire tsire-tsire.

Lokacin da ruwan dumi daga injin sanyaya fitar da wutar lantarki ya shigo cikin tsarin, sau da yawa yana haɗuwa yana haifar da haɓaka gabaɗayan zafin ruwa a cikin ruwa, gami da zurfin sanyaya ruwa. Musamman a cikin tafkuna da makamantansu na ruwa, sannan ƙaddamarwa yana haifar da tasiri daban-daban akan yanayin yanayi. A lokacin rani, ana ganin gurɓataccen yanayi don ƙara yawan zafin jiki mai zurfi fiye da ruwan saman, kodayake har yanzu ana samun rarrabuwa, yayin da a cikin hunturu yanayin zafi na ruwa yana ganin karuwa mai girma. Ana rage ƙaddamarwa a cikin watanni na hunturu saboda gurɓataccen yanayi, sau da yawa yana kawar da thermocline.

Wani binciken da ke kallon tasirin tashar nukiliyar da aka cire a tafkin Stechlin, Jamus, ya gano karuwar 2.33 ° C ya ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin ruwa a lokacin hunturu da kuma karuwar 2.04 ° C a cikin ruwa mai zurfi a lokacin rani, tare da karuwa mai yawa a ko'ina cikin lokacin rani. ginshiƙin ruwa a duka hunturu da bazara. Bambance-bambancen yanayin zafi da ruwa saboda gurɓataccen yanayi yana da alaƙa da hawan sinadarai na phosphorus da nitrogen, kamar yadda sau da yawa raƙuman ruwa waɗanda ke karɓar fitar da sanyaya zuwa ketare za su juya zuwa eutrophiation . Kuma Ba a sami cikakkun bayanai kan wannan ba, saboda yana da wahala a bambanta tasiri daga sauran masana'antu da noma.

Hakazalika da tasirin da ake gani a tsarin ruwa saboda dumamar yanayi na ruwa a wasu sassan duniya, an kuma ga gurbacewar yanayi na kara yanayin zafi a lokacin rani. Sannan Kuma Wannan zai iya haifar da yanayin zafi na saman ruwa wanda ke haifar da sakin iska mai dumi zuwa cikin yanayi, ƙara yawan zafin iska. Don haka ana iya kallonsa a matsayin mai taimakawa wajen dumamar yanayi. Yawancin illolin da ke tattare da muhalli za su kasance da sauye-sauyen yanayi su ma, yayin da yanayin zafin jikin ruwa ya tashi.

Abubuwan sararin samaniya da yanayi na iya yin tasiri ga tsananin ɗumamar ruwa saboda gurɓacewar yanayi. Babban saurin iska yana haifar da ƙara tasirin gurɓataccen yanayi. Koguna da Kuma manyan jikunan ruwa suma suna rasa tasirin gurɓataccen yanayi yayin da suke ci gaba daga tushen.

Koguna suna ba da matsala ta musamman tare da gurɓataccen yanayi. Yayin da yanayin zafi ya ƙaru zuwa sama, tashoshin wutar lantarki na ƙasa suna samun ruwan dumi. Kuma An ga shaidar wannan tasirin tare da kogin Mississippi, yayin da ake tilasta masu amfani da wutar lantarki su yi amfani da ruwan dumi a matsayin masu sanyaya su. Wannan yana rage ingancin tsire-tsire kuma yana tilasta tsire-tsire su yi amfani da ruwa mai yawa da kuma samar da karin gurɓataccen yanayi.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ruwa sanyaya
  • Gurbacewar ruwa

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]