Rashin abinci mai gina jiki

Daga Wikipedia
A tsallaka zuwa: Shawagi, nema
Rashin abinci mai gina jiki
Rashin abinci mai gina jikiKirtani mai ruwan goro—kirtanin faɗakarwa domin rashin abinci mai gina jiki.
Kirtani mai ruwan goro—kirtanin faɗakarwa domin rashin abinci mai gina jiki.
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje
ICD/CIM-9 263.9 263.9
MedlinePlus 000404

Rashin abinci mai gina jiki ko rashin samun abinci mai gina jiki wani yanayi ne da ke samuwa a sanadin cin abinci wanda babu isassun sinadaran gina jiki ko kuma idan su ka yi yawa ta yadda hakan zai haifar da matsalolin lafiya. [1][2] Sinadaran gina jikin na iya haɗawa da: sinadarin sa kuzari wato kalori, sinadarin gina jiki wato protin, sinadarin ƙara ƙarfi wato kaboyaidiret, sinadarin ƙara lafiya wato bitamins ko da ake kira mineral.[2] Wani lokaci ana amfani da ita musamman da ma'anar rashin abinci mai gina jiki idan aka gaza samun isasshen sinadarin kalori, protin ko ƙananan sinadaran gina jiki; to amma, zai iya haɗawa da cin abinci mai gina jiki fiye da kima.[3][4] Idan rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki ya afku ko dai lokacin da ake da juna-biyu ko kafin shekaru biyu da haihuwa wannan zai iya haifar da matsala ta din-din-din tare da rashin girman jiki ko ƙwaƙwalwa.[2] Rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki wanda ya kai matuƙa, wanda aka fi sani da yinwa, na da alamomi da suka haɗa da: gajarta, sirancewar jiki, rashin kuzari da ya kai matuƙa, da kuma kumburin ƙafafu da ciki.[2][3] Kuma wasu lokuta mutane kan haɗu da kamuwa da cutuka da kuma yawan sanyi akai-akai. Alamomi na rashin ƙananan sinadarai masu gina jiki ya dogara ne da sinadarin abincin da aka rasa.[3]

Rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki ya fi faruwa sanadin rashin samun abinci mai inganci wanda za'a ci.[5] Wasu lokuta wannan na da alaƙa da tsadar abinci da kuma talauci.[2][5] Rashin shayar da nono na iya zama sanadi, domin yawaicin kamuwa da cutuka masu yaɗuwa misali: kumburin ciki da uwar hanji, mura, zazzaɓi da baƙon-dauro waɗanda ke bukatar ƙarin abinci mai gina jiki.[5] Akwai kaso biyu na rashin abinci mai gina jiki: rashin sinadari mai gina jiki wato protin da kuma rashin ingantaccen abinci.[4] Rashin sinadarin abinci mai gina jiki na da matsanantan nau'oi guda biyu: nau'in da ake kira marasmus (rashin sinadarin protin da Kaloris) da kuma nau'in da ake kira kwashiorkor (rashin sinadarin protin kaɗai).[3] Rashin ƙananan sinadaran gina jiki da aka fi sani sun haɗa da: iron, iodine da vitamin A.[3] Lokacin da mace ke da juna-biyu, sabo da ƙaruwar bukata, rashin sinadaran ya fi zama ruwan-dare.[6] A wasu ƙasashe masu tasowa cin abinci mai gina jiki fiye da kima na iya jawo ƙiba wanda akan haɗa wannan da al'umma wadda ke fama da rashin abinci mai gina jiki.[7] Wasu abubuwan da ke jawo rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki sun haɗa da anorexia nervosa da bariatric surgery.[8][9] Dangane da tsofaffi ana iya samun matsalar rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki a dalilai na zahiri, waɗanda suka shafi ƙwaƙwalwa ko kuma na zamantakewa.[10]

Ƙoƙarin inganta abinci mai gina jiki na ɗaya daga cikin mahimman hanyoyi na bunƙasa taimako.[11] Shayar da nono na iya rage rashin ingancin abinci da kuma mutuwa ga ƙanan yara,[2] kuma yinƙurin wannan hanya na ƙara yawa.[12] Ga yara ƙanana, samar da abinci ƙari a kan shayar da nono tsakanin watanni shida da shekaru biyu yana inganta sakamako.[12] Kuma akwai kyakkyawar shaida wurin taimakawa ga masu taimakawa ƙananan sinadarai lokacin da ake da juna-biyu da kuma a tsakankanin yara ƙanana a ƙasashe masu tasowa na duniya.[12] Samar da abinci ga waɗanda suka fi bukatarsa da kuma isar da shi da bayar da kuɗi ta yadda mutane za su iya sayen abincin a kasuwannin ƙauyuka na da inganci.[11][13] Ciyar da mutane kawai a makarantu bai wadatar ba.[11] Kula da mai fama da matsanancin rashin abinci mai gina jiki a gidansa ta hanyar samar da haɗaɗɗen abinci da za'a yi amfani da shi na iya yiwuwa a mafi yawan lokuta.[12] Ga waɗanda ke fama da matsanancin rashin abinci mai gina jiki wanda wasu matsalolin na rashin lafiya suka ta'azzara ya fi kyau a sami jiyya a asibiti.[12] Wasu lokuta wannan ya haɗa da kulawa da abinda ake kira ƙarancin sukari a cikin jini, yanayin ɗimin jiki, rashin ruwa a jiki, da kuma ciyarwa a hankali.[12][14] Bayar da antibiotic lokaci-lokaci na da mahimmaci sabo da haɗarin kamuwa da cuta zai ƙara yiwuwa.[14] Matakai na dogon lokaci sun haɗa da: inganta hanyoyin noma,[15] rage talauci, inganta mahalli, da kuma samar da aiki ga mata.[11]

Akwai mutane miliyan 925 da suke fama da rashin abinci mai gina jiki a duniya a shekara ta 2010, ƙarin miliyan 80 tun 1990.[16][17] Wasu mutanen biliyan ɗaya aka ƙiyasta da ke fama da rashin sinadarin bitamin da minerals.[11] A shekara ta 2010 rashin abinci mai ɗauke da sinadarin an ƙiyasta ya yi sanadiyyar mutawa 600,000 ƙasa daga mutuwa 883,000 a shekara ta 1990.[18] Wasu rashin na abinci mai gina jiki, wanda ya haɗa da rashin sinadarin iodine da rashin sinadarin iron na cikin jini, ya yi sanadiyyar wasu rashe-rashen 84,000.[18] Rashin abinci mai gina jiki har zuwa shekara ta 2010 shi ne sanadiyyar 1.4% na dukkanin shekarun daidaito na naƙasa.[11][19] Kimanin rasuwa guda cikin uku a ɓangaren yara ƙanana an yi imani ta na afkuwa ne a sanadin rashin abinci mai gina jiki; to amma, ba'a cika danganta mutuwar da wannan ba.[5] A shekara ta 2010 an ƙiyasta cewa an sami kimanin mutuwar mata da ƙanan yara miliyan 1.5[20] duk da cewa wasu sun ƙiyasta adadin da cewa zai iya fin miliyan 3 .[12] Ƙarin yara miliyan 165 na samun rashin kulawa da girmansu daga cutar.[12] Rashin abinci mai gina jiki ya fi zama ruwan-dare a ƙasashe masu tasowa.[21]

Abubuwan da aka duba[gyarawa | edit source]

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  10. editors, Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, (2011). Principles and practice of geriatric surgery (2nd ed. ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 78. ISBN 9781441969996. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’". www.gov.uk. Department for International Development. Oct 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A; Black, RE; Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review, Group; Maternal and Child Nutrition Study, Group (Aug 3, 2013). "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?". Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4. PMID 23746776. 
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  15. Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011). "Solutions for a cultivated planet". Nature 478 (7369): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10452. PMID 21993620. 
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  17. Food; (FAO), Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). p. 2. ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0. "FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period." 
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