Abinci mai gina jiki

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Abinci mai gina jiki
health specialty (en) Fassara
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na diet, food and nutrition (en) Fassara
Has cause (en) Fassara nutrient (en) Fassara
Karatun ta nutritional science (en) Fassara
Contributing factor of (en) Fassara metabolism (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan nutritionist (en) Fassara
Rukunin da yake danganta Category:Trophic ecology (en) Fassara
NCI Thesaurus ID (en) Fassara C28294
see caption
Amblypodia anita (purple leaf blue malam buɗe ido) yana tattara abubuwan gina jiki daga guano

Gina Jiki shine tsarin sinadarai da ilimin halittar jiki wanda kwayoyin halitta ke amfani da abinci don tallafawa rayuwarta. Yana ba da kwayoyin halitta tare da kuma abubuwan gina jiki, wanda za'a iya daidaita shi don ƙirƙirar makamashi da tsarin sinadarai. Rashin samun isasshen abinci mai gina jiki yana haifar da rashin abinci mai gina jiki. Kimiyyar abinci mai gina jiki ita ce nazarin abinci mai gina jiki, kodayake yawanci yana jaddada abinci mai gina jiki na ɗan adam.

Abinci mai gina jiki

Nau'in kwayoyin halitta yana ƙayyade abubuwan gina jiki da yake buƙata da kuma yadda yake samun su. Kwayoyin halitta suna samun abubuwan gina jiki ta hanyar cinye kwayoyin halitta, shan haske, ko wasu haɗin waɗannan. Wasu na iya samar da sinadirai masu gina jiki a ciki ta hanyar cinye abubuwan asali, yayin da wasu kuma dole ne su cinye wasu kwayoyin halitta don samun abubuwan gina jiki da suka rigaya. Duk nau'ikan rayuwa suna buƙatar carbon, makamashi, da ruwa da sauran ƙwayoyin cuta daban-daban. Dabbobi suna buƙatar hadaddun abubuwan gina jiki irin su carbohydrates, lipids, da sunadarai, samun su ta hanyar cinye wasu kwayoyin halitta. Mutane sun bunkasa noma da dafa abinci don maye gurbin noma da ciyar da dan adam gaba. Tsire-tsire suna samun abubuwan gina jiki ta hanyar ƙasa da yanayi. Fungi suna shanye abubuwan gina jiki da ke kewaye da su ta hanyar wargaza su da shanye su ta cikin mycelium.

Nazari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Binciken kimiyya game da abinci da abubuwan gina jiki ya fara ne a lokacin juyin juya halin sinadarai a ƙarshen karni na 18. Masana ilmin sinadarai a ƙarni na 18 da 19 sun yi gwaji da abubuwa daban-daban da hanyoyin abinci don haɓaka ka'idodin abinci mai gina jiki. [1] Kimiyyar abinci mai gina jiki ta zamani ta fara ne a cikin shekarun 1910 yayin da aka fara gano wasu ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Vitamin na farko da aka gano ta hanyar sinadarai shine thiamine a cikin shekarar 1926, kuma an yi nazarin rawar bitamin a cikin abinci mai gina jiki a cikin shekaru masu zuwa. An haɓaka ba da izinin abinci na farko da aka ba da shawarar ga ɗan adam a lokacin Great Depression da Yaƙin Duniya na II. [2] Saboda mahimmancin da yake da shi a lafiyar ɗan adam, nazarin abinci mai gina jiki ya jaddada abinci mai gina jiki da aikin noma na ɗan adam, yayin da ilimin halittu ya kasance abin damuwa na biyu. [3]

Abubuwan gina jiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Yin takin zamani a cikin tsarin noma yana ba da fifiko ga ayyukan sake yin amfani da sinadarai a cikin yanayin muhalli. Kwayoyin cuta, fungi, kwari, earthworms, kwari, da sauran halittu suna tono kuma suna narkar da takin cikin ƙasa mai albarka. Ana sake yin amfani da ma'adanai da abubuwan gina jiki a cikin ƙasa don samar da amfanin gona.

Abubuwan gina jiki sune abubuwan da ke ba da kuzari da abubuwan jiki ga kwayoyin halitta, suna ba ta damar rayuwa, girma, da haifuwa. Abubuwan gina jiki na iya zama abubuwa na asali ko hadaddun macromolecules. Kimanin abubuwa 30 ana samun su a cikin kwayoyin halitta, tare da nitrogen, carbon, da phosphorus sune mafi mahimmanci. [4] Macronutrients sune abubuwan farko da kwayoyin halitta ke bukata, kuma micronutrients abubuwa ne da kwayoyin halitta ke bukata a cikin adadi mai yawa. An rarraba ƙananan ƙwayoyin halitta a matsayin bitamin, kuma an rarraba ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta a matsayin ma'adanai. [5]

Kwayoyin suna shanye abubuwan gina jiki kuma ana amfani da su a cikin halayen biochemical. Waɗannan sun haɗa da halayen haɓakawa waɗanda ke haifar da metabolites na farko da makamashi, halayen biosynthetic waɗanda ke canza metabolites na gaba zuwa ƙwayoyin toshe, polymerizations waɗanda ke haɗa waɗannan ƙwayoyin a cikin polymers macromolecule, da halayen taro waɗanda ke amfani da waɗannan polymers don gina tsarin cells. [4]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Carpenter, Kenneth J. (1 March 2003). "A Short History of Nutritional Science: Part 1 (1785–1885)". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (3): 638–645. doi:10.1093/jn/133.3.638. ISSN 0022-3166. PMID 12612130. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.Empty citation (help)
  2. Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rosenberg, Irwin; Uauy, Ricardo (13 June 2018). "History of modern nutrition science—implications for current research, dietary guidelines, and food policy". BMJ. 361: k2392. doi:10.1136/bmj.k2392. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 5998735. PMID 29899124. Archived from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022.Empty citation (help)
  3. Simpson & Raubenheimer 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Andrews 2017.
  5. Wu 2017.