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Harshen Hadza

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Harshen Hadza
'Yan asalin magana
800
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 hts
Glottolog hadz1240[1]

Hadza yare ne mai zaman kansa wanda ake magana a bakin tekun Eyasi a Tanzania da kusan mutane 1,000 na Hadza, wadanda suka hada da masu farauta na cikakken lokaci a Afirka. Yana daya daga cikin harsuna uku kawai a Gabashin Afirka tare da danna consonants. Duk ƙananan masu magana, amfani da harshe yana da ƙarfi, tare da yawancin yara suna koyon shi, amma UNESCO ta rarraba harshe a matsayin mai rauni.

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hadza sun tafi da sunaye da yawa a cikin adabi. Hadza kanta tana nufin "dan Adam." Hazabee ita ce jam'i, kuma Hazaphii na nufin "su ne maza." Hatza da Hatsa tsofaffin rubutun Jamus ne. Wani lokaci ana bambanta harshen kamar Hazane, "na Hadza".[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Tindiga ya fito ne daga Swahili watindiga "mutanen ciyawar marsh" (daga babban bazara a Mangola) da kitindiga (harshensu). Kindiga a fili wani nau'i ne na daya daga cikin harsunan Bantu na gida, mai yiwuwa Isanzu .[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>Kangeju [ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (January 2023)">lafazin</span> ] ) sunan Jamus ne wanda ba a san asalinsa ba wanda ba a san shi ba. Wahi (lafazin Vahi ) shi ne harshen Jamusanci na sunan Sukuma don ko dai Hadza yammacin tafkin, ko watakila dangin Sukuma wanda ya samo asali daga zuriyar Hadza.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>

Rabewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hadza keɓewar harshe ne [2] (Starostin 2013). Masana harsuna da yawa sun taɓa rarraba shi a matsayin yaren Khoisan, tare da maƙwabcinsa Sandawe, musamman saboda dukansu suna da latsa baƙaƙe . Duk da haka, Hadza yana da ' yan ƙalilan da aka ba da shawarwari tare da ko dai Sandawe ko sauran harsunan Khoisan mai sanyawa, kuma da yawa daga cikin waɗanda aka ba da shawarar suna da shakku. Hanyoyin haɗin gwiwa tare da Sandawe, alal misali, kalmomin lamuni ne na Cushitic, yayin da haɗin gwiwa tare da kudancin Afirka kaɗan ne kuma gajere (yawanci baƙar fata-wasulan wasali ɗaya) wanda ya fi dacewa sun yi daidai. 'Yan kalmomi sun danganta shi da Oropom, wanda zai iya zama da kansa; Ƙimar lambobi /it͡ʃʰaame/</link> "daya" da piye /pie/</link> "biyu" suna ba da shawarar alaƙa da Kwʼadza, harshen da ba a taɓa gani ba na mafarauta waɗanda wataƙila sun koma Cushitic kwanan nan. (An aro manyan lambobi a cikin harsuna biyu.)[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>

Babu yaruka, kodayake akwai wasu ƙamus na yanki, musamman rancen Bantu, waɗanda suka fi yawa a yankunan kudanci da yamma na manyan harsuna biyu.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

An yiwa harshen alamar " barazana " a cikin Ethnologue .

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin syllable Hadza yana iyakance ga CV, ko CVN idan an yi nazarin wasulan hanci a matsayin coda hanci. Harsunan farko na wasali ba sa faruwa da farko, kuma a tsaka-tsaki suna iya zama daidai da /hV/ – aƙalla, ba a san ƙaramin nau'i-nau'i na /h/ vs sifili ba.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

An lura Hadza don samun dannawa na tsakiya (latsa cikin morphemes). Hakanan ana samun wannan rarraba a cikin Sandawe da harsunan Nguni Bantu, amma ba a cikin harsunan Khoisan na kudancin Afirka ba. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan kalmomi ana samun su ta tarihi daga dannawa a matsayi na farko (da yawa suna bayyana suna nuna sake fasalin lexicalized, alal misali, wasu kuma saboda prefixes), amma wasu ba su da kyau. Kamar yadda yake a Sandawe, yawancin dannawa na tsaka-tsaki ana ɗaukaka su, amma ba duka ba: puche 'a spleen', tanche 'don nufin', tacce 'a belt', minca 'don lasa leɓuna', laqo 'don tafiya', keqhe-na 'slow', penqhenqhe ~ peqeqhe 'to sauri', haqqa-ko 'a dutse', shenqe 'to peer over', exekeke 'don saurare', naxhi 'don jama'a', khaxxe 'tsalle', binxo 'dauka yana kashewa a ƙarƙashin bel ɗin mutum'.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babu sautin lexical ko lafazin farar da aka nuna ga Hadza. Babu sanannen ƙaƙƙarfan nau'i-nau'i ko amfani na nahawu na damuwa/ sautin.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hadza tana da wasula biyar, [i e a o u]</link> . Dogayen wasulan na iya faruwa a lokacin da ake magana da juna [ɦ]</link> an rufe. Misali, [kʰaɦa]</link> ko [kʰaː]</link> 'don hawan', amma wasu kalmomi ba su da shaidar [ɦ]</link> , as [boːko]</link> 'Ita' vs [boko]</link> 'ba lafiya'. Dukkan wasulan ana sanya su a hanci kafin a yi taswirar hanci da sautin danna hanci, kuma masu magana sun bambanta akan ko suna jin su azaman wasulan hanci ne ko kuma jerin VN. Wasalan hanci mara canzawa, ko da yake ba a saba gani ba, suna faruwa, ko da yake ba a gaban baƙaƙen da ke da wurin magana don haɗawa da su ba. A irin waɗannan wurare, [CṼCV]</link> da [CVNCV]</link> Allphones ne, amma tun da VN ba zai iya faruwa a ƙarshen kalma ko a gaban baƙon glottal ba, inda ake samun wasulan hanci kawai, yana iya yiwuwa wasulan hanci suna allophonic tare da VN a kowane matsayi.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Consonants a cikin sel masu inuwa suna fitowa ne kawai a cikin kalmomin lamuni ko jerin NC ne, waɗanda ba su bayyana kashi ɗaya ba amma an jera su anan don kwatanta rubutun. (Ba a kwatanta ba su ne jerin latsa-danna a cikin tsakiyar kalmomi: nch, nqh, nxh da tenuis ngc, ngq, ngx .)

Hadza consonants and orthography.
Labial Dental~alveolar Postalveolar~palatal Velar Glottal
central lateral central lateral plain labialized
Click Aspirated Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Tenuis Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Nasal (ᵑʘʷ<br><br>~<span class="wrap"> </span>ᵑʘ͡ʔ</span>

Samfuri:Angbr)1
Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Glottalized nasal1 Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Stop Aspirated Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Tenuis Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
voiced Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Ejective Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr2
Aspirated prenasalized Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Tenuis prenasalized Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Nasal Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Affricate Aspirated Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr3
Tenuis Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr3
Voiced Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Ejective Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr <span about="#mwt152" class="IPA nowrap" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true,&quot;mandatoryTargetParams&quot;:[],&quot;optionalTargetParams&quot;:[]}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;IPA&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./Template:IPA&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;c𝼆ʼ&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwAbs" lang="und-Latn-fonipa" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" typeof="mw:Transclusion">c𝼆ʼ</span> Samfuri:Angbr3 Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr4 Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Aspirated prenasalized Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Tenuis prenasalized Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr
Fricative Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr Samfuri:Nobreak
Approximant Samfuri:IPA link ~ Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr5 (Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr)7 (Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr)7 Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:Angbr7
  1. Nasalization na glottalized hanci dannawa yana bayyana a kan wasulan da suka gabata, amma ba lokacin riƙe da danna kanta ba, wanda yayi shuru saboda rufewar glottal lokaci guda. Labial [ᵑʘ͡ʔ]</link> (ko [ᵑʘʷ]</link> ) ana samunsa a cikin kalma ɗaya ta mimetic inda ta musanya da [ᵑǀ]</link> .
  2. The labial ejective /pʼ/</link> ana samunsa a cikin 'yan kalmomi kawai.
  3. Za a iya yin furuci da ɓacin rai tare da farawar alveolar ( /t͜𝼆/</link> da dai sauransu ), amma wannan ba a buƙata ba.
  4. The velar ejective /k͜xʼ/</link> ya bambanta tsakanin plosive [kʼ]</link> , cibiyar haɗin gwiwa [k͜xʼ]</link> , haɗin gwiwa na gefe [k͜𝼄ʼ]</link> , da kuma ɓacin rai [xʼ]</link> . Sauran ɓangarorin na tsakiya na iya fitowa a matsayin masu ɓarna (watau [sʼ], [ʃʼ], [xʷʼ]</link> ).
  5. Ƙarshen kusan /l/</link> ana samun shi azaman kada [ɾ]</link> tsakanin wasali da wasu lokuta, musamman a cikin saurin magana. [l]</link> ya fi kowa bayan-pausa kuma a cikin maimaita kalmomin (misali a lola, sp. zomo). Ganewar harsashi ta gefe [ɺ]</link> zai iya faruwa kuma.
  6. Murya mara murya [x]</link> an san shi daga kalma ɗaya kawai, inda ta musanya da /kʰ/</link> .
  7. [ɦ] kuma farkon sifili ya bayyana kamar allophones. [w, j] na iya zama allophones na [u, i], da abin da ake yawan rubutawa a cikin wallafe-wallafe kamar [w] kusa da wasalin baya ko [j] kusa da wasali na gaba (misali msg copula da aka rubuta -a, -ha, -wa, -ya ) ba komai bane illa canzawa tsakanin wasulan.
  8. Matsalolin NC suna faruwa ne kawai a cikin matsayi na farko a cikin kalmomin lamuni. Abubuwan toshewar murya da baƙar hanci /ɲ ŋ ŋʷ d ɡ ɡʷ dʒ/ kuma watakila /dz/ (a kan duhu) kuma da alama an aro. [3]

Rubutun Rubutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Miller da Anyawire ne suka ƙirƙiro wani rubutu mai amfani. Tun daga shekarar 2015, duk wani mai magana da Hadza ba ya amfani da wannan rubutun don haka yana da iyakacin ƙimar sadarwa a Hadza. Ya yi kama da rubutun harsunan makwabta kamar Swahili, Isanzu, Iraqw, da Sandawe . Rubutun, wanda yake a ko'ina a cikin rubuce-rubuce a cikin adabin ɗan adam amma yana haifar da matsala game da karatu, ba a amfani da shi: Tasha Glottal ana nuna shi ta hanyar jerin wasali (wato, /beʔe/</link> an rubuta ⟨ bee ⟩, kamar yadda a cikin ⟨ Hazabee ⟩ /ɦadzabeʔe/</link> 'Hadza'), wanda jerin wasalin gaskiya ke raba su ta y ko w (wato, /pie/</link> 'biyu' an rubuta ⟨ piye ⟩ ), ko da yake a wasu lokuta h na iya zama barata, da fitarwa da dannawa ta hanyar gemination (ban da rage ⟨ dl ⟩ maimakon *ddl don /c𝼆ʼ/</link> ). Abubuwan da aka fitar sun dogara ne akan baƙaƙen murya, ⟨ zz jj dl gg ggw ⟩, saboda in ba haka ba ana samun waɗannan galibi a cikin rance don haka ba a gama gari ba. Tc /tʃ/</link> da tch /tʃʰ/</link> suna kamar a Sandawe, sl /ɬ/</link> kamar a Iraqw. (Wannan shi ne kyakkyawan al'adar Faransanci.) Wasan wasali / VN rimes ne ⟨ an en in un ⟩ . Dogayen wasali sune ⟨ â ⟩, ko ⟨ aha ⟩ inda suke saboda rudewa /ɦ/</link> . Ana iya rubuta harafin tonic tare da babban lafazi, ⟨ ⟩, amma gabaɗaya ba shi da alama.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (May 2023)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Don ƙarin bayani, duba

Hadza yare ne mai alamar kai a cikin jumla da jimlolin suna. Tsarin kalma yana da sassauƙa; Tsarin tsari na asali shine VSO, kodayake VOS da gaba zuwa SVO duka na kowa ne. Tsarin ƙididdigewa, suna, da sifa suma sun bambanta, kodayake suna da sakamakon morphological. Akwai yarjejeniya da lamba da jinsi akan sifofi biyu (na sunayen kai) da fi'ili (na batutuwa).

Ana amfani da sake maimaita harafin farko na kalma, yawanci tare da lafazin tonic da dogon wasali, don nuna 'kawai' (ma'ana ko dai 'kawai' ko 'kadai') kuma ya zama gama gari. Yana faruwa akan sunaye da fi'ili, kuma ana iya amfani da maimaitawa don jaddada wasu abubuwa, kamar suffix na al'ada -he- ko jam'i infix ⟨ kV ⟩ .

Sunaye da karin magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunaye suna da jinsi na nahawu (namiji da na mata) da lamba (na ɗaya da jam'i). An yi musu alama da ƙasidu kamar haka:

sg. pl
m -biyi
f - ku -kudan zuma

Ana amfani da jam'in mata don gauraya jinsin halitta, kamar yadda yake a cikin Hazabee 'the Hadza'. Ga dabbobi da yawa, nahawu muɗaɗɗen nau'in nau'i ne, kamar yadda a cikin Ingilishi: dongoko 'zebra' (ko dai ɗaya ko rukuni). Jam'i na namiji na iya haifar da jituwar wasali: dongobee 'zebras' (lambar da ba ta dace ba), dungubii 'kudin zebra'. Kalmomin dangi biyu da ƙaramar kari -nakwe take -te a cikin m.sg. , wanda in ba haka ba ba shi da alama.

Ana amfani da jinsi ta hanyar misali, tare da kalmomin mata na yau da kullun waɗanda aka sanya su na maza idan suna da sirara musamman, kuma galibi kalmomin na maza sun zama na mata idan suna da zagaye. Hakanan jinsi yana bambanta abubuwa kamar itacen inabi (m) da tubers (f), ko bishiyar berry (f) da berries (m). Mass nouns yakan zama jam'i a nahawu, kamar su atibii 'ruwa' (cf. ati 'rain', atiko 'a spring').

Sunayen da aka ruwaito ga matattun dabbobi ba sa bin wannan tsarin. Kiran hankali ga mataccen zebra, alal misali, yana amfani da sifar hantayii (masculine hantayee, jam'i (rare) hantayetee da hantayitchii ). Wannan saboda waɗannan sifofin ba sunaye ba ne, amma kalmomi ne na wajibi; ilimin halittar jiki ya fi bayyana a cikin jam’i na wajibi, yayin da ake magana da mutum fiye da ɗaya: hantatate, hantâte, hantayetate, hantayitchate (masanyawa -si na ƙarshe -te lokacin da ake magana da maza kawai; duba ƙasa don ƙaramar abu na magana -ta-, -a-, -eta-, -itcha- ).

Kopula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Siffofin suna -pe da -pi galibi ana gani a cikin wallafe-wallafen ɗan adam (ainihin -phee da -phii ) suna da yawa : dongophee 'su zebras' ne. Ƙaddamarwa a cikin dukan mutane da kuma haɗuwa a cikin mutum na farko. Su ne:

m.sg. f.sg. f.pl. m.pl
1. misali - ne - neko -'ofe -'ufi
1. in -babban -bibi
2 -ta -tako -tafi - titi
3 -a - kowa -feyi -fi

Siffofin da manyan wasulan ( i, u ) sukan ɗaga tsakiyar wasulan da suka gabace su zuwa sama, kamar yadda -bii ke yi. 3.sg copula yana yin sauti kamar -ya (ko) ko -wa (ko) bayan babban wasali kuma sau da yawa tsakiyar: /oa, ea/</link> ≈ [owa, eja]</link> , da rubuce-rubuce tare da w da y sun zama ruwan dare a cikin wallafe-wallafe.

Karin magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Karin magana
guda ɗaya jam'i
masc fem fem masc
1st



</br> mutum
exclusive ku zo oko babi uwa
inclusive daya bee unibi
Mutum na 2 da tako ethebee itibi
3rd



</br> mutum
proximal hama haka habee hali
given bami boko kudan zuma bi
distal naha nako nabi nabi
invisible himgi himigîko himigbee himigbii

Akwai ƙarin ƙarin karin magana na mutum na uku, gami da wasu nau'ikan sinadarai. Ana samun maganganu daga nau'ikan mutum na 3 ta ƙara wurin -na : hamana 'here', beena 'there', naná 'over there', himiggêna 'in/bayan can'.

Infix ⟨ kV ⟩, inda V shine wasali mai amsawa, yana faruwa ne bayan harafin farko na fi'ili don nuna jam'i .

An rufe copula a sama. Hadza yana da wasu kalmomi masu taimako da yawa: jerin ka- da iya- ~ ya- 'da sa'an nan', mummunan akhwa- 'ba', da subjunctive i- . Juyayinsu na iya zama maras ka’ida ko kuma suna da mabanbantan ƙarshen juzu’i daga na ƙamus, [4] waxanda su ne kamar haka:

Hadza tashin hankali-bangaren-hanzari
na gaba/



</br> wanda bai wuce ba
na baya/



</br> baya
m



</br> na sharadi
na gaskiya



</br> na sharadi
wajibi/



</br> m
m



</br> (subjunctive)
1sg ku -ˆta - ina - ne -nikwi -na na
1. misali -'ota - ba a -'ee -'ukwi - iya
1. in - bita -ba - kudan zuma - biki (amfani da 2 pl) - ba
2sg ku -tita ~ -ita - ta -ta -tikwi -'V -ta
2f.pl (e) ta (e) shayi - yi - ˆtîkwi (ˆ)ta
2m.pl -(i) ta (i) ta -ayi (ˆ) si
3m.sg ku - iya -mun -heso - kwaso - ka - haka
3 f.sg - kowa -akwai -haka - kwakwa - kota - ku
3f.pl -efe - ame - wannan - cika - keta -se
3m.pl ku -ipii -ami -hisi - kwai - kitsa - si

Ayyukan na gaba da na baya sun bambanta tsakanin masu taimakawa; tare da kalmomin kalmomi, ba na baya ba ne kuma sun shuɗe. Matsaloli masu yuwuwa da tabbatacce suna nuna ƙimar tabbacin cewa wani abu zai faru. 1sg.npst -ˆta da wasu sifofi guda biyu suna tsawaita wasalin da ya gabata. Siffofin 1.ex ban da -ya suna farawa da tasha glottal. Imp.sg tasha ce ta glottal sai kuma wasali echo .

Siffofin al'ada suna ɗauka -he, wanda yakan rage zuwa dogon wasali, kafin waɗannan ƙarewa. A cikin wasu fi'ili, al'adar ta zama ƙamus (alama 3.POST siffofin tare da glottal stop), don haka ainihin al'ada yana ɗaukar na biyu -he . Hanyoyi daban-daban na tsaka-tsaki-yanayin suna faruwa ta hanyar ninka ƙarshen jujjuyawar. Akwai ƙarin ɓangarorin da yawa waɗanda ba a yi aiki ba.

Ƙarshen inflectional clitics ne kuma yana iya faruwa akan wani adverb kafin fi'ili, yana barin ƙarar fi'ili mara amfani (tushen fi'ili da ƙari na abu).

Halaye[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda aka saba a yankin, akwai ƴan sifofi kaɗan kawai a cikin Hadza, kamar su pakapaa 'babban'. Yawancin siffofi masu siffa suna ɗaukar kari tare da giciye-jinsi alamar lamba: -e (m.sg. da f.pl.) ko -i (f.sg. da m.pl.). Waɗannan sun yarda da sunan da suke gyarawa. Siffar -i tana ƙoƙarin haifar da jituwar wasali, ta yadda, alal misali, sifa ɗaya- 'mai zaki' yana da siffofi masu zuwa:

daya 'mai dadi'
guda ɗaya jam'i
masc ina (wani) uibi
mace uniko zobe

Ƙarshen -ko/-bee/-bii za a iya maye gurbinsa da copula, amma lambar e/i ta giciye. alamar jinsi ya rage.

Nunai, sifofi, da sauran sifofi na iya faruwa kafin ko bayan suna, amma sunaye suna ɗaukar jinsin su kawai. adadin yana ƙarewa lokacin da suka fara faruwa a cikin jumlar suna: Ondoshibii unîbii 'sweet cordia berries', manako unîko 'nama mai daɗi', amma unîbii ondoshi da unîko mana . Hakazalika, dongoko boko amma boko dongo 'wadannan zebra'.

Har ila yau ana iya sanya kalmomi da sifa: dluzîko akwiti 'matar ( akwitiko ) da ke magana', daga dlozo 'don faɗi'. Ana amfani da wannan nau'i mai mahimmanci tare da copula don samar da yanayin ci gaba : dlozênee 'Ina magana' (mai magana namiji), dluzîneko 'Ina magana' (mace mai magana).

Alamar abu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmomi na iya ɗaukar har zuwa ƙarshen abu biyu, don abu kai tsaye (DO) da abu kai tsaye (IO). Waɗannan kawai sun bambanta a cikin 1ex da 3sg. Hakanan ana amfani da suffixes na IO akan sunaye don nuna mallaka ( mako-kwa 'tukunna', mako-a-kwa 'it is my pot').

Abu/mallaka kari
raira waƙa. jam'i
YI IO YI IO
1. misali -kwa - oba - iya
1. in - ina ~ -yana
2m - ina - ina
2 f -na na
3m ku -a ~ -ya ~ -na -ma -cika
3 f -ta -sa -ta

Ana ba da izinin ƙararrakin abu biyu kawai idan na farko (DO) mutum na uku ne. A irin waɗannan lokuta DO yana ragewa zuwa nau'i na nau'i mai mahimmanci: -e (m.sg. / f.pl.) ko -i (f.sg. / m.pl.); mahallin kawai ya bayyana wace haɗin lamba da jinsi ake nufi. 3rd-mufuradi kai tsaye abubuwa kuma suna raguwa zuwa wannan siffa a cikin maɗaukaki na wajibi; Na uku-jam'i suna canza wasulan su amma kar su haɗu da guda ɗaya: duba 'matattu zebra' ƙarƙashin sunaye a sama don misalin sifofin.

Tsarin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ba a san abubuwan da ke jagorantar tsari na kalma a cikin jimloli ba. Tsarin tsarin mulki yana da mahimmanci SXVO (inda X shine mataimakin) don sabon ko jaddada batun, tare da batun da ke motsawa baya (XSVO, XVSO, da XVOS), ko kuma kawai ba a ambaci shi ba (XVO) mafi kyau an kafa shi. Inda mahallin, ma'anar magana, da ma'anar kalma sun kasa warwarewa, ana fahimtar ma'anar ma'anar a matsayin VSO.

Hadza bai ƙidaya ba kafin ƙaddamar da yaren Swahili . Lambobin asali sune ƙaiƙayi 'ɗaya' da piye 'biyu'. Sámaka 'uku' aron Datooga ne, da kashi 'hudu', bothano 'biyar', da ikhumi 'ten' sukuma . Ana amfani da Aso 'da yawa' maimakon bothano don 'biyar'. Babu wata hanya ta tsari don bayyana wasu lambobi ba tare da amfani da Swahili ba.

Dorothea Bleek ta ba da shawarar piye 'biyu' na iya samun tushen Bantu; mafi kusa a cikin Nyaturu -βĩĩ . (Sauran harsunan Bantu na gida suna da l/r tsakanin wasulan.) Sands ya fara gane kamannin 'ɗaya' da 'biyu' ga Kwʼadza da aka ambata a sama.

Matattu sunayen dabbobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hadza ya sami ɗan kulawa don dozin 'biki' ko 'nasara' sunayen dabbobin da suka mutu. Ana amfani da waɗannan don sanar da kisa. Su ne (a cikin maɗaukaki ɗaya):

Dabba Sunan gama gari Sunan nasara
zebra dóngoko hantáyii
giraffe zzókwanako háwayii
baffa naggomako tíslii
damisa nqe, tcanjai henqêe
zaki séseme hubuwee
eland khomatiko hubuwii
impala p(h)óphoko dlunkúwii
daji



</br> hartebeest
bisoko
qqeleko
</br> bisoko
qqeleko
zzonowii
sauran manyan tururuwa hephêe
kananan tururuwa hingcíyee
karkanda tlhákate hukhúwee
giwa



</br> hippopotamus
beggáuko
wezzáyiko
</br> beggáuko
wezzáyiko
kapuláyii
warthog



</br> bore
dláha
kwa'i
</br> dláha
kwa'i
hatcháyee
babban neeko nqokhówii
jimina khenangu hushúwee

Kalmomin sun ɗan bambanta: henqêe</link> ana iya amfani dashi ga kowane cat da aka hange, hushuwee</link> ga kowane tsuntsu kasa mai gudu. 'Lion' da 'eland' suna amfani da tushen iri ɗaya. yana tunanin hakan na iya yin wani abu da eland ana ɗaukarsa sihiri a yankin.

Ana iya amfani da ƙaramar IO don yin nuni ga wanda ya yi kisan. Kwatanta hanta- 'zebra' tare da ƙarin fi'ili na yau da kullun, qhasha 'ɗauke' da kw- 'don bayarwa', a cikin maɗaukaki ɗaya da jam'i:

 

kasha-ii

qasha-ta-te

dauke- . 3fs - IMP

"Ki dauka!

kw-i-ko-o

kw-i-kwa-te

ba- . 3fs - IO . 3fs - IMP

"Bani min!"

qhasha-ii kw-i-ko-o

qhasha-ta-te kw-i-kwa-te

dauke-DO. 3fs - IMP bada-DO. 3fs - IO. 3fs - IMP

{"Dauke shi!} {"Ba ni!"}

Hasashe game da harshen ɗan adam na farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 2003 'yan jaridu sun ba da rahoton ko'ina game da shawarwarin Alec Knight da Joanna Mountain na Jami'ar Stanford cewa asalin harshen ɗan adam na iya samun dannawa. Shaidar da aka ce ga wannan ita ce kwayoyin halitta: masu magana da Juǀʼhoan da Hadza suna da mafi bambance-bambancen sanannun DNA na mitochondrial na kowane yawan mutane, suna nuna cewa su ne na farko, ko aƙalla cikin na farko, mutanen da suka tsira da suka rabu da bishiyar iyali. A wasu kalmomi, manyan sassa uku na farko na ’yan Adam su ne Hadza, da Juǀʼhoan da dangi, da kowa da kowa. Domin biyu daga cikin rukunoni uku suna magana da harsuna tare da dannawa, watakila yaren kakanninsu na gama gari, wanda ta hanyar ma'ana shine harshen kakanni ga dukkan bil'adama, yana da dannawa kuma.

Duk da haka, baya ga fassarar kwayoyin halitta, wannan ƙarshe ya dogara ne akan zato da yawa marasa tallafi:

  • Dukansu ƙungiyoyi sun kiyaye harsunansu, ba tare da canjin harshe ba, tun lokacin da suka rabu da sauran bil'adama;
  • Sautin sauti, al'amarin da ya zama ruwan dare gama gari, bai shafi kowane harshe ba, har ta kai ga ba a iya gane ainihin sautinsa;
  • Babu wata kungiya da ta yi aron dannawa a matsayin wani ɓangare na sprachbund, kamar yadda harsunan Bantu Nguni (Zulu, Xhosa da sauransu) da Yeyi suka yi; kuma
  • Kakannin Juǀʼhoan ko na Hadza ba su haɓaka dannawa da kansu ba, kamar yadda masu yin Damin suka yi.

Babu wata shaida cewa ɗayan waɗannan zato daidai ne, ko ma mai yiwuwa. Ra'ayin harshe shi ne danna baƙaƙe na iya zama ɗan ɗan gajeren ci gaba a cikin harshen ɗan adam, cewa ba su da juriya ga canji ko kuma kusan zama kayan tarihi na harshe fiye da sauran sautin magana, kuma ana iya aro su cikin sauƙi: aƙalla yaren Khoisan guda ɗaya., ǁXegwi, an yi imanin ya sake yin latsawa daga harsunan Bantu, waɗanda a baya suka aro su daga harsunan Khoisan, misali. Labarin Knight da Mountain shine sabon sabo a cikin dogon layi na hasashe game da asalin asalin danna baƙaƙe, waɗanda aka fi ɗorawa da tsohon ra'ayin cewa mutanen farko suna magana da manyan harsuna, waɗanda ba su da wani goyan baya.

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • A cikin littafin Peter Watts na almarar kimiyya-fiction novel <i id="mwBL8">Blindsight</i>, Hadza an gabatar da shi a matsayin harshen ɗan adam wanda ya fi dacewa da harshen kakanni na vampires, [5] yana ambaton ra'ayin da ba a sani ba cewa dannawa yana da kyau don farauta.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Hadza". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Sands 1998.
  3. Elderkin 1978.
  4. Ya and ka take -ˆto, -tikwa, -ˆte, -ˆti in the 3rd-person posterior rather than -amo, -akwa, -ame, -ami, for example. In lexical verbs, those endings are used with habitual -he- to emphasize it.
  5. Blindsight, with notes at Watts' website

Littafi Mai Tsarki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]