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Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya

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Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya ( ILC ) ƙungiya ce ta ƙwararrun masana da ke da alhakin taimakawa haɓakawa da tsara dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa . Ta ƙunshi mutane Guda 34 da aka amince da su don ƙwarewa da cancantar su a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa, waɗanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNGA) ke zaɓar su duk bayan shekaru biyar.

Tushen akidar ILC ya samo asali ne tun a ƙarni na 19, lokacin da Majalisar Vienna a Turai ta samar da ka'idoji na ƙasa da ƙasa da dama don daidaita halaye a tsakanin mambobinta. Bayan yunƙuri da yawa na haɓakawa da daidaita dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa a farkon karni na 20, UNGA ta kafa ILC a cikin shekara ta 1947 bisa ga Yarjejeniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, wacce ke kira ga Majalisar don taimakawa haɓaka da tsara dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa. Hukumar ta gudanar da zamanta na farko a shekara ta 1949, inda yakin duniya na biyu ya rinjayi aikinta na farko da kuma damuwar da ta biyo baya game da laifukan kasa da kasa kamar kisan kiyashi da ayyukan ta'addanci.

Tun daga lokacin ILC ta gudanar da zaman shekara-shekara a ofishin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke Geneva don tattaunawa da muhawara kan batutuwa daban-daban a cikin dokokin kasa da kasa da inganta ka'idojin shari'a na ƙasa da ƙasa. Ita ce ke da alhakin ci gaba da ginshiƙai da dama a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa, ciki har da Yarjejeniyar Vienna kan Dokar yarjejeniyoyin, wanda ya kafa tsarin ƙirƙira da fassara yarjejeniyoyin, da Kotun Hukunta Manyan Laifuka ta Duniya, kotun dindindin ta farko da ke da alhakin yanke hukunci kan laifuka kamar kisan kiyashi da laifuka. a kan bil'adama.

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An yi ƙoƙari da yawa a cikin tarihi don tsara dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa. An fara aikin da ya kai ga Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya a cikin kudurin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na ranar 22 ga watan Satumba, shekara ta alif 1924, wanda ya kafa Kwamitin Kwararru na Ci gaba na Dokar Kasa da Kasa, wanda ya kunshi mambobi 17, don manufar bayar da shawarwari game da batutuwan da ake buƙata a magance su a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa da kuma matakan da ake son cimmawa. Aikin kwamitin ya kai ga taron Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na shekarar 1930, wanda ya shafi batutuwan da suka shafi dokokin ƙasa, ruwan yanki da alhakin jihar na lalacewa da aka yi wa ƴan ƙasashen waje.

Yawancin ra'ayoyi na taron shekara ta 1930 an amince da su a cikin Yarjejeniya ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya, wacce ta kafa kungiyar da za ta gaji ƙungiyar. Mataki na 13, sakin layi na 1 a cikinsa yana cewa:

1. Babban taron zai fara nazari tare da ba da shawarwari don manufar: a. ... ƙarfafa ci gaba na ci gaban dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa da tsarinta.

Bisa ga wannan tanadi, a ranar 11 ga watan Disamba, shekara ta alif 1946, babban taron ya zartas da kuduri mai lamba 94, wanda ya yi kira da a kafa kwamitin kwararru kan harkokin shari'a don ba da shawarwari ga babban sakataren MDD kan hanyoyin da babban taron zai iya karfafa ci gaban dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa. da codification. Kwamitin ƙwararrun ya ƙunshi mambobi 17 kuma ya yi taro daga ranar 12 ga watan Mayun, zuwa ranar 17 ga watan Yuni, shekara ta alif 1947. Ya ba da shawarar kafa kwamitin Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na dindindin don inganta waɗannan manufofin.

A ranar 21 ga watan Nuwamba, shekara ta alif 1947, babban taron Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya zartas da ƙuduri mai lamba 174, wanda ya tanadi samar da "Hukumar Shari'a ta kasa da kasa" domin cika wajiban da ke cikin kundin. A kan kudurin an makala ka'idar hukumar, wacce ta bayyana manufofinta kamar haka:

  • Ƙaddamar da ƙididdiga na dokokin duniya.
  • Magance matsaloli a cikin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa na jama'a da masu zaman kansu .

An yi bayanin hanyoyin aiki na Hukumar a cikin labarai na 16-26.

Hanyoyin aiki na ILC[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An tsara aikin hukumar ne bisa ka’ida, wanda tun farko babban taron majalisar ya amince da shi a ranar 21 ga watan Nuwamba, shekara ta alif 1947, kuma aka yi masa kwaskwarima a ranar 12 ga watan Disamba, shekara ta alif 1950, da ranar 3 ga watan Disamba 3, shekara ta alif 1955, da ranar 18 ga watan Nuwamba, shekara ta alif 1981.

Ya ƙunshi mambobi 34 (asali 15) waɗanda duk dole ne su kasance ƙwararru a kan dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa, waɗanda babban taron Majalisar ya zaɓe su a matsayin daga jerin sunayen 'yan takarar da gwamnatocin ƙasashe membobin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya suka gabatar. Membobi suna aiki ne a matsayin daidaikun mutane ba a matsayin jami'an da ke wakiltar jihohinsu ba.

Wani wurin aiki ga hukumar a cikin tsara ƙa'idodin dokokin duniya shine lokacin da babban taron ya buƙaci yin hakan. A wannan yanayin, hukumar ta nada daya daga cikin mambobinta a matsayin mai ba da rahoto na musamman kan wannan batu kuma ta shirya shirin aiki game da batun da ake magana akai. An bukaci gwamnatoci da su mika wa hukumar ra'ayoyinsu a rubuce kan batun da ake magana a kai, kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin shirin aiki. Daga nan sai wakilin ya rubuta rahoton shawarwarinsa kan batun da ake tattaunawa kuma dole ne sauran kwamitin da kuma babban sakataren Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya su amince da rahoton kafin ya zama takardar hukumar. Daga nan ne hukumar ta sake duba rahoton bayan samun karin rubuce-rubucen ra’ayoyin gwamnatoci, kuma ana mika rahoton ga babban zauren Majalisar domin amincewa.

Wani wurin da za a yi aiki shi ne lokacin da hukumar ta bukaci ko dai ta gwamnati ko wata kungiya ko kuma wata hukumar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ta tsara shawarwarin tarukan kasa da kasa kan batutuwa daban-daban. Idan haka ne, hukumar ta tsara tsarin aiki tare da samun rubutaccen ra'ayi daga gwamnatoci kan batun da ake magana a kai. Ana kuma mika daftarin karshe ga babban taron.

Hakanan hukumar tana aiki ba tare da buƙatun waje ba ta hanyar aikinta na yau da kullun na yin la'akari da tambayoyin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa. Hakanan a cikin waɗannan lokuta, ana ƙaddamar da duk shawarwarin ayyuka ga Babban Taro don amincewa ta ƙarshe. Tattaunawar hukumar mai zaman kanta kan yi ta ne a zamanta na shekara-shekara.

Taro na shekara-shekara na hukumar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban aikin hukumar tun lokacin da aka kafa shi shi ne zamanta na shekara, tun daga shekarar 1949. Da farko dai ana gudanar da harkokin wa]annan zaman ne a cikin takardan rubutu, kuma ba a samu ga jama'a ba, amma a ranar 3 ga watan Disamba, 1955, babban taron ya zartas da kuduri mai lamba 987, wanda ya bukaci a fitar da takaitaccen bayani kan yadda wadannan tarurrukan suka gudana a kasar. Littafin shekara na musamman da aka keɓe don wannan dalili, kuma wannan ne domin a samar da bayanan ga jama’a da gwamnatoci. A zaman na 1, an buga shari’o’i a cikin juzu’i guda, amma tun daga zama na 2, an buga shari’ar a cikin juzu’i biyu – na farko mai dauke da takaitattun shawarwari da kuma na biyu dauke da takardu da aka karɓe a wancan zaman.

A farkon kowane zama hukumar za ta zabi daya daga cikin mambobinta da zai zama shugabanta har zuwa zama na gaba.

Zama na 1, 1949[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Babban taron ne ya shirya ajanda don zama na farko a tsawon 1947-1948. A cikin kuduri mai lamba 177 (Nuwamba 21, 1947), Majalisar ta tuhumi hukumar da tsara ka'idoji bisa hukuncin kotun Nuremberg da kuma tsara sabon kundin laifuffuka ga zaman lafiyar 'yan Adam. Kudiri mai lamba 178 (na wannan rana) ya tuhumi hukumar da shirya takarda kan hakki da ayyukan jihohi a cikin dokokin kasa da kasa. Shawarar 260 (Disamba 9, 1948) ta umurci hukumar da ta yi la'akari da kafa kotunan laifuka a cikin Kotun Duniya, don gurfanar da shugabannin siyasa da laifukan cin zarafin dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa.

An gudanar da zaɓen mambobin kwamitin 15 na Babban Taro a ranar 3 ga Nuwamba, 1948.

An gudanar da zama na 1 na hukumar a Lake Success, New York, Amurka, daga 12 ga Afrilu zuwa 9 ga Yuni, 1949. Ajandar zaman ta kunshi abubuwa guda shida:

  • Yin cikakken bincike kan batutuwan dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa waɗanda ke buƙatar ƙididdigewa cikin yarjejeniyoyin da yarjejeniyoyin.
  • Hakkoki da ayyukan jihohi.
  • Ka'idojin Nuremberg da ma'anar laifuffukan da ake yi wa zaman lafiyar ɗan adam.
  • Yiwuwar kafa hukumar shari'a don gurfanar da shugabanni da laifin kisan kiyashi.
  • Neman hanyoyin samar da dokoki da takaddun dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa ga jama'a da masana.
  • Haɗin kai daga ILC tare da sauran hukumomin Majalisar Ɗinkinin Duniya.

A taron farko da aka yi, an zaɓi mamban hukumar ta Amurka Manley O. Hudson a matsayin shugaban hukumar na tsawon wannan lokaci, yayin da dan tarayyar Soviet Vladimir Koretsky aka zabi mataimakin shugaban farko, kuma dan Indiya Benegal Rau ya zama mataimakin shugaba na biyu.

A yayin wannan zama dai an samu sabani tsakanin mambobin kwamitin kan ko hukumar na da damar shigar da wani batu a ajandarta ba tare da amincewar babban taron ba. A kan wannan batu, hukumar ta yanke shawarar cewa ta cancanci yin hakan, ta hanyar kuri'a 10 zuwa 3. [1]

Dangane da batutuwan da za a sanya a cikin ajandar tsara dokokin kasa da kasa, hukumar ta yanke shawarar fara aiki kan wasu batutuwa masu iyaka da farko. Don haka ne aka yanke shawarar cire batun dokokin yaki a lokacin tattaunawar hukumar. An ba da fifiko mafi girma ga batutuwan dokar yarjejeniyoyin, sasantawa, da tsarin mulki na teku, kuma an zaɓi masu aiko da rahotanni daidai da haka.

Wani batu da ake tattaunawa a kai shi ne bayyana hakki da ayyukan jihohi. An yanke shawarar cire batun haƙƙin mafaka daga cikin daftarin da aka tsara, kuma a ci gaba da tattaunawa kan lamarin a zama na 2.

Sauran batutuwan da aka dage zuwa zama na 2 sune Kamar haka::

  • Ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin Nuremberg da jerin laifuka akan zaman lafiyar ɗan adam.
  • Batun hukumcin laifuka na duniya.
  • Samar da rubuce-rubuce na dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa.
  • Haɗin kai tare da gwamnatoci da hukumomin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya.

Hukumar ta amince da daftarin Sanarwa kan Hakkoki da Ayyuka na Jihohi, wanda ita ce babbar takardar doka da aka amince da ita a wancan zaman. [2] Babban ɓangare na aikin a kan wannan batu ya yi da wakilin Panama Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jovane . An mika daftarin sanarwar ga babban taron don ci gaba da tattaunawa, amma a kudurinta mai lamba 596 na ranar 7 ga Disamba, 1951, Majalisar ta yanke shawarar dage wata tattaunawa kan takardar.

Hukumar ta kuma yanke shawarar lokaci da wurin da za a gudanar da zama na 2. An yanke shawarar gudanar da shi a Geneva, daga watan Mayun shekara ta 1950, na tsawon makonni 10.

Zama na 2, 1950[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Abun Asali : Rahoton zaman na 1 da daftarin bayyana hakki da ayyukan jihohi, wanda a yanzu Majalisar ta amince da su - Hukunci : Hukumar ta lura da hakan ba tare da daukar wani mataki ba.
  • Abun Asali : Babban Shawarar Babban Taro na ba da fifiko ga batun yankin ruwa - Shawara : hukumar ta amince da shawarar.
  • Abun Asali : Ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin Nuremberg da daftarin kundin laifuffuka na cin zarafin zaman lafiya da tsaro na ɗan adam - Yanke shawara : hukumar ta tsara wani tsari na ka'idoji bakwai da za a kira su "Ka'idodin Nuremberg".
  • Abu na Asali : Bukatu da yuwuwar kafa kotun kasa da kasa don hukunta shugabannin siyasa da laifin kisan kare dangi - Hukunci : Hukumar ta zartas da kudurori kan cewa kafa irin wannan kotun yana da kyawawa kuma mai yiwuwa. Sai dai an dage kafa irin wannan kotun har sai an ci gaba da tattaunawa.
  • Abun Asali : Dokar yarjejeniyoyin - Shawara : hukumar ta jinkirta yanke shawara har sai an kara nazari.
  • Abun Asali : Hanyar sasantawa tsakanin jihohi - Shawara : hukumar ta kasa cimma matsaya kan hanyoyin sasantawa na tilas, kuma an dage batun har sai an kara yin la'akari.
  • Abun Asali : Tsarin Mulki na Tekuna - Yanke shawara : hukumar ta yanke shawarar cewa kowane jirgin ruwa a kan manyan tekuna dole ne ya kasance yana da tutar ƙasa ɗaya kawai don dalilai na tantancewa. Sai dai an kasa cimma matsaya kan sauran batutuwan da suka shafi tsarin mulkin teku.
  • Abu na Asali : Hanyoyin samar da rubuce-rubucen dokokin kasa da kasa - Shawara : Hukumar ta ba da shawarar cewa a rarraba wallafe-wallafen Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan dokokin kasa da kasa da kuma cewa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta fara buga jerin shirye-shirye kan kotunan kasa da kasa da dokokin kasa da kundin tsarin mulki na kasashe daban-daban. Bugu da kari, hukumar ta ba da shawarar ga babban taron da ya tsara yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa da za ta tsara yadda ake musayar littattafan doka tsakanin gwamnatoci.
  • Abu na Asali : Haƙƙin mafaka - Shawara : Hukumar ta yanke shawarar dage duk wani tattaunawa kan batun, tun da Kotun Duniya ta tattauna batun.
  • Abun Asali : Haɗin gwiwar hukumar tare da sauran hukumomin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, gwamnatoci da sauran ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa.
  • Abu na asali : Kwanan wata da wurin zama na 3 - Shawara : Hukumar ta yanke shawarar cewa za a gudanar da shi a Geneva na tsawononni 12 daga Mayu 1951.

Rikicin Gabas-Yamma da ya haifar da yakin cacar baka ya rinjayi gudanar da zama na 2. Tuni a taron farko na wancan zama, Koretsky memba na Tarayyar Soviet ya nuna rashin amincewarsa da cewa Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin ba ta da wakilci a cikin kwamitin, yana mai da'awar cewa ita ce wakilan jama'ar Sinawa ba jamhuriyar Sin ba, wadda a yanzu take mulki a Taiwan kawai. Ya bukaci a maye gurbin dan ƙasar China na hukumar da wani mamba daga babban yankin ƙasar Sin. Shugaban hukumar Scelle ya yi adawa da bukatar Soviet, yana mai da'awar cewa kowane memba yana wakiltar ra'ayinsa na shari'a maimakon kowane matsayi na gwamnati. Hukumar ta amince da matsayin Hudson da kuri'u 10 zuwa 1, kuma Koretsky a cikin zanga-zangar ya bar zaman ba tare da halartar wani taro ba. [3] A ranar 8 ga watan Yuni ne aka gabatar da wata wasiƙar nuna rashin amincewa da wakilcin yankin Taiwan a hukumar ta Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin, amma ba a dauki wani mataki kan hakan ba.

Zama na 3, 1951[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Abu : Babban Shawarwari don sake fasalin dokokin hukumar - Shawara : Hukumar ta yi wani bangare na rahoto kan lamarin.
  • Abu : Daftarin kundin laifuffuka ga zaman lafiyar bil'adama - Shawara : Hukumar ta tsara daftarin.
  • Abu : Ayyukan jihohi idan rikicin ya barke - yanke shawara : hukumar ta yanke shawarar ci gaba da ma'anar ta'addanci a gaba ɗaya.
  • Abu : Dokar yarjejeniyoyin - Shawara : Hukumar ta ba da jerin shawarwari game da yarda da rade-radin yarjejeniyoyin kasashe da yawa.
  • Abu : Hanyar sasantawa.
  • Abu : Tsarin Mulkin teku - yanke shawara : an dage batun har sai an kara nazari.
  • Abu : Kwanan wata da wurin zama na 4 - Hukunci : Hukumar ta yanke shawarar gudanar da zama na gaba a Geneva na tsawon makonni goma, wanda zai fara daga kusan 1 ga Yuni.
  • Abu : Daftarin yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa ko yarjejeniya don kawar da rashin kasa - Shawara : an dage batun har sai an kara nazari.
  • Abu : Haɗin kai da hukumar ta yi tare da sauran hukumomi - Shawara : ba a yanke wani takamaiman shawara ba.
  • Abu : Haɓaka shirin shekaru 20 don samun zaman lafiya ta hanyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya - Shawarar : ba a yanke wani takamaiman shawara ba.
  • Abu : Majalisar ta yi tsokaci kan rahoton zaman na 2.

Wasu al'amura na ƙasa da ƙasaa sun yi tasiri a kan gudanar da zaman, yayin da wakilin Syria Faris El-Khouri bai halarci tarukan farko ba, sakamakon shawarwarin da MDD ta yi kan korafe-korafen Syria kan Isra'ila .

Zama na 4, 1952[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An gudanar da zama na 48 a birnin Geneva daga ranar 6 ga watan Mayu zuwa 26 ga Yuli, 1996.

Yawancin zaman dai an sadaukar da shi ne kan batun tsarin sasantawa, wanda hukumar ta zartas da daftarin farko, wanda ya ƙunshi batutuwa 32.

Zama na 5, 1953[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An gudanar da zama na 5 a Geneva daga ranar 1 ga Yuni zuwa 14 ga Agusta, 1953.

Kamar yadda aka yi a taron buɗe taro na 2, haka kuma a wannan zama, wakilin Tarayyar Soviet Feodor I. Kozhevnikov ya bukaci da a kori wakilin Taiwan tare da nada wakilin Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin a madadinsa. A wannan karon kuma an ki amincewa da wannan kudiri, amma memban Tarayyar Soviet bai fita a zaman ba kamar yadda aka yi a shekara ta 1950.

Nasarorin da aka samu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ayyukan Hukumar Dokokin Duniya sun haifar da ƙirƙirar yarjejeniyoyin da dama da sauran ayyukan dokokin duniya waɗanda ke da mahimmanci ga tsarin shari'a na duniya na yanzu (duba gabaɗaya [1] ), misali:

  • Yarjejeniyar Vienna kan dokar yarjejeniyoyin
  • Yarjejeniyar Vienna game da maye gurbin ƙasashe dangane da yarjejeniyoyin
  • Yarjejeniyar Vienna kan huldar diflomasiyya
  • Rubuce- rubucen Daftarin Mahimman Halin da Jihohi ke da shi na Ayyukan Kuskure na Duniya
  • Kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta kasa da kasa, ta fara ba da shawara a watan Disamba 1948 bisa bukatar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya.

Suka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daya daga cikin matsalolin da suka shafi aikin hukumar shi ne yadda gwamnatocin za su yi watsi da shawarar da ta yanke da kuma kauracewa karbar shawarwarin da ta bayar a lokacin da suke tsara manyan tarurruka. A taro na 63 da aka yi a ranar 7 ga Yuli, 1950, shugaba Georges Scelle ya koka da yadda gwamnatoci suka yi watsi da tambayoyin da hukumar ta yi musu saboda rashin sha’awar aikinta. [4]

Wani suka da aka yi ta yi game da ayyukan hukumar ita ce, takaitaccen zamanta na shekara-shekara (makwanni 10 zuwa 12) ba ya ba da damar yin nazari sosai kan matsalolin da ake tattaunawa. Tuni a taron 83 na hukumar, wanda aka yi a ranar 17 ga Mayu, 1951, dan kwamitin Georges Scelle, ya ba da shawarar hanyar da za a iya gyara matsalar ita ce ta hanyar yin kwaskwarima ga hukumar ta yadda za ta rika yawan haduwa kuma a duk lokacin da Sakatare Janar ya so. [5]

Wani zargi da aka yi tun a farkon tarihin hukumar ya fito ne daga wakilin Colombia Jose Maria Yepes cewa hukumar ta kaurace wa tsara ka'idoji kan sabbin batutuwa don haka ta nuna kanta a matsayin wanda bai dace ba. [6]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Ofishin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya mai kula da harkokin shari'a
  • Kwamitin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shida (Legal)

Magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Yearbook of the ILC, 1949, p. 32
  2. Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of States, 1949
  3. Yearbook of the ILC, 1950, vol. 1, pp. 1-2
  4. Yearbook of the ILC, 1950, vol. 1, p. 183
  5. Yearbook of the ILC, 1951, vol. 1, p. 9.
  6. Yearbook of the ILC, 1950, vol. 1, p. 217

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Shabtai Rosenne, "The International Law Commission 1940-59", British Yearbook of International Law, vol. 36 (1960)
  • HW Briggs, Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya (Ithaca, New York, Jami'ar Cornell Press, 1965)
  • James Crawford, Labaran Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya akan Alhakin Jiha: Gabatarwa, Rubutu da Sharhi (Cambridge, Jami'ar Cambridge, 2002)
  • Georg Nolte (Ed.), Aminci ta hanyar Dokokin Duniya: Matsayin Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya. A Colloquium a Lokaci na Cika Shekaru Sittin (Berlin, 2009)
  • Jeffrey S. Morton, Kwamitin Dokokin Duniya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
  • Stephan Wittich, "Labarun Hukumar Shari'a ta Duniya game da Alhakin Jihohi na Ayyukan Kuskure na Duniya da aka Amince akan Karatu Na Biyu" Leiden Journal of International Law 15(2002) shafi. 891-919

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]