Hakkin Neman Mafaka

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Masu neman mafaka ta kasar asali daga shekarar 2009. 
Ya rage ɗayan alamomin iyaka na dutse na huɗu don tsattsarkan wurin Saint John na Beverley a Gabas ta Gabas na Yorkshire .
Wuri Mai Tsarki a ƙofar Notre-Dame de Paris (Faransa).
Alamar iyaka na da a St.<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwJw"> </span>Georgenberg, Tyrol .
Littafin rubutu a St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, Dingli, Malta, yana nuna cewa ɗakin sujada ba ya jin daɗin rigakafin cocin

Hakkin neman mafaka (wani lokaci ana kiransa da 'yancin mafakar siyasa ; daga tsohuwar kalmar Girka ἄσυλον) tsohuwar magana ce ta shari'a, wanda a ƙarƙashinsa wani mutum zai tsananta wa wata ƙasa, kamar wata ƙasa ko uri mai tsarki, wanda a zamanin da zai iya ba da wuri mai tsarki. Wannan haƙƙin ya sami amincewa daga Masarawa, Helenawa, da Ibraniyawa, waɗanda daga gare su aka karɓe su zuwa al'adun yammacin turai . René Descartes ya tsere zuwa Netherlands, Voltaire zuwa Ingila, da Thomas Hobbes zuwa Faransa, saboda kowace ƙasa tana ba da kariya ga baƙi da aka tsananta.

Masarawa, Helenawa, da Ibraniyawa wasu Masana kenan sun amince da ''haƙƙin mafaka" na addini, shi ne kiyaye masu laifi (ko waɗanda ake tuhuma da aikata laifi) daga ɗaukan matakin doka har zuwa wani lokaci. Daga baya wannan cocin kirista da aka kafa ya amince da wannan ƙa'idar, kuma aka samar da dokoki daban-daban waɗanda ke bayani dalla-dalla kan yadda za a cancanci kariya da kuma wane irin kariyar da mutum zai samu.

Majalisar Orleans ta yanke shawara a cikin 511, a gaban Clovis I, cewa za a iya ba da mafaka ga duk wanda ya nemi mafaka a coci ko dukiyar coci, ko a gidan bishop. An ba da wannan kariya ga masu kisan kai, ɓarayi da mazinata duka wato mabiya addinin kirista kenan.

Cewa "Kowa na da 'yancin ya nema kuma ya boye a cikin wasu kasashe na neman mafaka daga zalunci" an sanya shi a cikin sanarwar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya game da' Yancin Dan Adam na shekarata 1948 kuma an goyi bayan Yarjejeniyar 1951 dangane da Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira da Yarjejeniyar 1967 dangane da Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira. A karkashin wadannan yarjeniyoyin, dan gudun hijirar mutum ne da ke wajen kasar ta mutum saboda tsoron fitina kan dalilan kariya, da suka hada da kabila, jinsi, dan kasa, addini, ra'ayin siyasa da kuma shiga cikin kowane irin rukunin zamantakewar jama'a ko ayyukan zamantakewa.

Ingilan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Ingila, Sarki Æthelberht na Kent ta shelanta dokokin Anglo-Saxon na farko akan mafaka a kusan shekara ta 600 AD. Duk da haka Geoffrey na Monmouth a cikin Tarihinsa Regum Britanniae (c. 1136) ya ce sanannen sarki kafin Saxon din Dunvallo Molmutius (karni na 4 / 5th na BC) ya kafa dokokin tsattsauran ra'ayi a tsakanin dokokin Molmutine kamar yadda Gildas ya rubuta (c. 500-570). [1] Dokokin sarki Ethelred sunyi amfani da kalmar grith. Da Norman zamanin da suka biyo 1066, nau'i biyu daga Wuri Mai Tsarki, sun samo asali ne: duk majami'u da ƙananan-matakin iko da zai iya baiwa Wuri Mai Tsarki a cikin coci dace, amma mafi fadi iko na majami'u lasisi ta sarauta shatan mika Haikalina a zone a kusa da coci . Aƙalla majami'u ashirin da biyu suna da taswira don wannan babban tsattsarkan wuri, gami da abubuwan su na yau da kullum.

  • Yaƙin Abbey
  • Beverley (duba hoto, dama)
  • Colchester
  • Durham, Ingila
  • Hexham
  • Norwich
  • Ripon
  • Katolika na Wells
  • Babban cocin Winchester
  • Westminster Abbey
  • York Minster

Wani lokaci sai mai laifin ya samu kansa ya shiga ɗakin sujada don a kiyaye shi, ko ya buga wani kararrawa, ya riƙe wani zobe ko ƙwanƙwasa ƙofa, ko kuma ya zauna a kan wata kujera (" frith -stool"). Wasu daga waɗannan abubuwan suna rayuwa a majami'u daban-daban. A wani wuri, Wuri Mai Tsarki da aka gudanar a yankin kusa da cocin ko abbey, wani lokacin yana faɗaɗa cikin radius zuwa kusan mil da rabi. Dutse "giciye masu tsarki" sun yi alama kan iyakokin yankin; har yanzun masu nemen yan'uwan su Don haka yana iya zama tsere a tsakanin gwamnati da jami'an shari'a na zamanin da zuwa iyakar mashigar mafi kusa. Yin aiki da adalci a kan rundunar ƙafa na iya tabbatar da magana mai wahala.

An tsara tsarkakakkun wuraren ibada ta hanyar dokar gama gari. Mai neman mafaka dole ne ya faɗi laifinsa, ya ba da makamansa, kuma ya ba da izini daga coci ko kuma ƙungiyar abbey da ke da iko. Daga nan masu neman sun sami kwanaki arba'in don yanke shawara ko su mika wuya ga hukumomin da ba na addini ba kuma a gurfanar da su a gaban kotu kan zargin da ake musu, ko kuma su amsa laifukansu, su gurgunta daula, kuma su yi hijira zuwa gajeriyar hanya kuma kada su dawo ba tare da izinin sarki ba. Waɗanda suka dawo sun fuskanci hukuncin kisa a ƙarƙashin doka ko kuma an cire su daga Cocin gaba daya.

Idan wadanda ake zargin suka zabi yin furuci da laifin da suka yi, kuma sun yi hakan ne a gaban jama'a, galibi a kofar cocin. Zasu sallama dukiyoyinsu ga cocin, kuma duk wani mallakar fili ga kambi. Maigidan, wani jami'in na da, zai zaɓi tashar tashar jirgin ruwa wanda ɗan gudun hijirar zai bar Ingila (duk da cewa ɗan gudun hijirar wani lokaci yana da wannan dama). Thean gudun hijirar zai tashi ba takalmi da ƙafa, ɗauke da sandar gicciye a matsayin alama ta kariya a ƙarƙashin cocin. A ka'idar zasu tsaya zuwa babbar hanyar mota, su isa tashar jiragen ruwa kuma su ɗauki jirgi na farko daga Ingila. A aikace, duk da haka, ɗan gudun hijirar zai iya samun nisa daga nesa, saboda tazarar da ale da shi a tsakanin wani gurin zuwa wani gun, hakan tasa ya watsar da ma'aikatan gicciye ya tashi ya fara sabuwar rayuwa. Koyaya, mutum na iya amintar da abokai da dangin wanda abin ya shafa sun san wannan dabarar kuma za su yi duk abin da za su iya don tabbatar da hakan bai faru ba; ko kuma hakika wadanda suka tsere ba su kai ga inda suke niyyar zuwa ba, suna zama wadanda aka yi musu hukunci na 'yan banga a karkashin rudin wani dan gudun hijirar da ya yi nisa da babbar hanyar yayin da yake kokarin "tserewa."

Sanin munanan zaɓuɓɓuka, a wasu 'yan gudun hijirar sun ƙi zaɓin biyu kuma sun zaɓi mafaka daga mafaka kafin kwana arba'in ɗin. Wasu kawai ba su zabi ba kuma ba su yi komai ba. Tun da yake haramun ne abokan wanda aka kashe su shiga mafaka, cocin za ta hana ɗan gudun hijirar da abinci har sai an yanke shawara tukunna.

A lokacin Yaƙe-yaƙe na Roses, lokacin da 'yan York ko Lancastrians za su sami babban iko ba zato ba tsammani ta hanyar yin nasara a yaƙi, wasu masu bin ɓangaren ɓataccen ɓangaren na iya samun kansu tare da mabiya ɗayan ɓangaren kuma ba za su iya komawa zuwa ga nasu ɓangaren ba. Bayan sun fahimci wannan halin sai su garzaya zuwa mafaka a coci mafi kusa har sai an gama lafiya sun fito. Babban misali shine Sarauniya Elizabeth Woodville, matar Edward IV ta Ingila .

A cikin 1470, lokacin da 'yan Lancastrians suka maido da Henry na shida a taƙaice, Sarauniya Elizabeth tana zaune a Landan tare da' yan mata da yawa. Ta ƙaura tare da su zuwa Westminster don tsattsauran ra'ayi, suna zaune a can cikin jin daɗin sarauta har sai da aka mayar da Edward IV zuwa gadon sarauta a 1471 kuma ta haifi ɗa na fari Edward V a wannan lokacin. Lokacin da Sarki Edward na hudu ya mutu a 1483, Elizabeth (wacce ba ta da kyakkyawar ƙauna ga ma 'yan York kuma mai yiwuwa tana buƙatar kariya) ta ɗauki' ya'yanta mata biyar da ƙarami (Richard, Duke na York) kuma suka sake komawa cikin mafaka a Westminster. Don tabbatar da cewa tana da dukkan abubuwan jin daɗin gida, ta kawo ɗakuna da yawa da akwatuna da yawa wanda ya sa dole masu aiki su kwankwasa ramuka a cikin wasu bangon don samun komai cikin sauri yadda zai dace da ita. [2]

Henry VIII ya canza dokokin neman mafaka, inda ya rage zuwa taƙaitaccen jerin laifuffukan da aka ba mutane izinin neman mafaka saboda su. James I a cikin tsarin tsararre na zamanin da an dakatar dashi gaba ɗaya James I a 1623.

Siyasar Siyasa ta Zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mataki na 14 na Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Duniya ta bayyana cewa "Kowa na da 'yancin ya nemi jin daɗin sa a cikin wasu ƙasashe na ƙaurace wa zalunci." Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta 1951 dangane da Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira da Yarjejeniyar 1967 Game da Matsayin' Yan Gudun Hijira na jagorantar dokokin kasa game da mafakar siyasa. A karkashin wadannan yarjejeniyoyi, a 'yan gudun hijira (ko don lokuta inda repressing tushe nufin an amfani kai tsaye ko tsabtace muhalli ga' yan gudun hijira) ne da wani mutum wanda shi ne a waje da cewa mutum ta mallaka kasar ƙasa (ko wuri na yawan zama idan stateless ) anta tsoron zalunci a kan kariya filaye Ka'idodin kariya sun haɗa da launin fata, wariyar launin fata, ƙasa, addini, ra'ayoyin siyasa da membobinsu ko sa hannu cikin kowane rukunin zamantakewar jama'a ko ayyukan zamantakewa. Ba da gaskiya ga waɗanda aka zalunta ga wanda ke tsananta musu ƙeta ƙa'ida ce da ake kira rashin karɓuwa, ɓangare na al'adun gargajiya da na gaskiya na Majalisar ofasa.

Waɗannan sune yarda da sharuddan da sharudda kamar akida, da kuma wani muhimman hakkokin bangare a cikin 1951 United Nations Yarjejeniyar dangantaka da Status of 'yan gudun hijira da ba-refoulement domin. [3]

Tun daga shekarun 1990s, waɗanda ke fuskantar zalunci ta hanyar lalata (wanda ya haɗa da tashin hankalin cikin gida, ko zalunci na tsari na jinsi ko tsiraru a cikin jima'i) sun sami karɓa a wasu ƙasashe a matsayin rukunin halal na da'awar neman mafaka, lokacin da masu da'awar na iya tabbatar da cewa jihar ba ta iya ba ko kuma rashin bada kariya.

'Yancin Mafaka ta ƙasar Kafaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The Dutch government grants asylum to a couple of hundred elderly from Yugoslavia, Poland, Hungary and the Baltic states. Since the end of World War II the people stayed in camps in Austria and West Germany. (Newsreel (in Dutch))

Tarayyar Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafaka a cikin ƙasashen membobin Tarayyar Turai da aka kafa sama da rabin karni ta hanyar amfani da Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta 28 ga Yuli 1951 kan Matsayin 'Yan Gudun Hijira . Manufofin gama gari sun bayyana a cikin 1990s dangane da Yarjejeniyar Schengen (wacce ta danne iyakokin cikin gida) ta yadda masu neman mafakar da ba su yi nasara ba a wata memberan wouldasa ba za su sake shigar da wata ba. Manufofin gama gari sun fara ne da yarjejeniyar Dublin a 1990. Ya ci gaba tare da aiwatar da Eurodac da Dokar Dublin a 2003, da kuma zartar da shawarwari biyu daga Hukumar Turai a watan Oktoba na 2009. [4]

Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Faransa ita ce ƙasa ta farko da ta kafa haƙƙin tsarin mulki don neman mafaka, an sanya wannan a cikin labarin 120 na kundin tsarin mulki na 1793. Wannan kundin tsarin mulki, bai taba aiki da karfi ba. A zamani Faransa dama da mafaka, da aka aza saukar da 1958 kundin tsarin mulki, Vis-A-Vis da sakin layi na 4 na Preamble ga kundin tsarin mulki na shekarar 1946, ga abin da Preamble na 1958 kundin tsarin mulki kai tsaye tana nufin. Kundin tsarin mulki na 1946 ya kunshi wasu bangarori na kundin tsarin mulki na 1793 wanda ya bayar da tabbaci ga 'yancin mafaka ga "duk wanda aka zalunta saboda aikinsa na' yanci" wadanda ba sa iya neman kariya a kasashensu na asali.

Baya ga haƙƙin da tsarin mulki ya ba shi na neman mafaka, haƙƙin mallaka na Faransanci na zamani na neman mafaka (droit d'asile) an sanya shi bisa ƙa'idar doka da ƙa'ida a cikin Code de l'Entree et du Sejour des Etrangers et du Droit d'Asile (CESEDA).

Faransa kuma tana bin yarjeniyoyin kasa da kasa wadanda suka tanadi tsarin aikace-aikace don 'yancin neman mafaka, kamar Yarjejeniyar 1951 ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) mai alaƙa da Matsayin' Yan Gudun Hijira (wanda aka ƙulla a 1952), ƙarin yarjejeniyar 1967; labarin K1 da K2 na yarjejeniyar Maastricht ta 1992 da Yarjejeniyar Schengen ta 1985, wacce ta bayyana manufar ƙaura ta EU. Aƙarshe, haƙƙin mafaka an bayyana shi ta sashi na 18 na Yarjejeniyar 'Yancin amentalancin ofasashen Tarayyar Turai .

Wasu daga cikin ka'idojin da za a iya kin amincewa da neman mafakar sun hada da: i) Tafiya ta hanyar "lafiya" kasa ta uku, ii) Asalin Asalin Asali (Mai neman mafaka na iya zama wanda aka ƙi amsar neman mafaka idan sun kasance 'yan asalin ƙasar da kasance "amintacce" daga hukumar bayar da mafaka ta Faransa OFPRA), iii) Barazanar Tsaro (babbar barazana ga dokar jama'a), ko iv) Aikace-aikacen zamba (cin zarafin hanyar neman mafaka saboda wasu dalilai).

Dokar Disamba 10, 2003, doka ta iyakance mafakar siyasa ta manyan ƙuntatawa biyu:

  • Maganar "mafakar cikin gida": ana iya yin watsi da bukatar idan baƙon na iya cin gajiyar mafakar siyasa a wani yanki na ƙasarsu.
  • OFPRA ( Ofishin français de protection des réfugiés et apatrides - Ofishin Faransa na Kare 'Yan Gudun Hijira da Mutanen Kasa) yanzu sun yi jerin sunayen "amintattun kasashe" wadanda ke girmama ' yancin siyasa da ka'idojin 'yanci . Idan mai neman mafakar ya fito daga irin wannan ƙasar, ana aiwatar da buƙatar cikin kwanaki 15, kuma ba zai sami kariya ta taimakon jama'a ba. Suna iya yin takara game da shawarar, amma wannan ba ya dakatar da duk wani umarnin kora. Lissafi na farko, wanda aka kafa a watan Yulin 2005, ya ƙunshi "ƙasashe masu aminci" Benin, Cape Verde, Ghana, Mali, Mauritius Island, India, Senegal, Mongolia, Georgia, Ukraine, Bosnia and Croatia . Ya sami sakamako na ragewa a cikin watanni shida da kusan 80% adadin masu nema daga waɗannan ƙasashe. Jerin na biyu, wanda aka zartar a watan Yulin 2006, sun hada da Tanzania, Madagascar, Niger, Albania da Macedonia . [5]

Duk da yake an taƙaita shi, an kiyaye haƙƙin mafakar siyasa a Faransa tsakanin dokokin ƙaura da ƙaura daban-daban. Wasu mutane suna da'awar cewa, ban da tafarkin shari'a kawai, ana amfani da tsarin mulki don rage gudu kuma daga karshe a ƙi abin da za a iya ɗauka azaman buƙatun buƙatu. A cewar Le Figaro, Faransa ta bai wa mutane 7,000 matsayin ‘yan gudun hijirar siyasa a shekarar 2006, daga cikin bukatun 35,000; a 2005, OFPRA mai kula da bincikar sahihancin irin wadannan buƙatun ya ba da ƙasa da 10,000 daga jimlar buƙatun 50,000. [6]

Yawancin waɗanda aka kora daga mulkin kama-karya na Kudancin Amurka, musamman daga Augusto Pinochet na Chile da Dirty War a Argentina, an karɓi su a cikin 1970s-80s. Tun bayan mamayewar Afganistan a shekara ta 2001, dubun- dubatar masu neman mafakar 'yan Afghanistan ke kwana a wani wurin shakatawa a Paris kusa da tashar jirgin kasa ta Gare de l'Est. Kodayake ba a karɓi buƙatunsu ba tukuna, amma an yi haƙuri da kasancewar su. Koyaya, tun a ƙarshen 2005, ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu suna lura da cewa ' yan sanda sun raba' yan Afghanistan daga sauran baƙin yayin samamen, kuma suna korar ta hanyar takaddama waɗanda suka iso Gare de l'Est ta jirgin ƙasa kuma ba su da lokacin neman mafaka ( ranar 30 ga Mayu, 2005, doka ta buƙaci su biya mai fassara don taimakawa tare da tsarin hukuma).

Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ƙarni na 19, kasar Ingila ta ba da mafaka ta siyasa ga mutane da yawa waɗanda aka tsananta musu, daga cikinsu akwai membobin ƙungiyar gurguzu da yawa (ciki har da Karl Marx ). Tare da yunƙurin fashewar bam na 1845 na Greenwich Royal Observatory[ana buƙatar hujja] da 1911 Siege na Sidney Street a cikin mahallin farfagandar ayyukan (anarchist), an hana mafakar siyasa.

Amirka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasar Amirka ta amince da 'yancin mafakar mutane kamar yadda dokar duniya da ta tarayya ta bayyana. Wani takamaiman adadin 'yan gudun hijirar da aka ayyana bisa doka wadanda suke neman matsayin yan gudun hijira a kasashen waje, da kuma wadanda suke neman mafaka bayan sun isa Amurka, ana karbar su kowace shekara.

Tun yakin duniya na II, yawancin yan gudun hijirar sun sami gidaje a Amurka fiye da kowace al'umma kuma sama da 'yan gudun hijira miliyan biyu sun isa Amurka tun 1980. A lokacin yawancin shekarun 1990s, Amurka ta karbi sama da ‘yan gudun hijira 100,000 a kowace shekara, kodayake wannan adadi kwanan nan ya ragu zuwa kusan 50,000 a kowace shekara a cikin shekaru goma na farkon karni na 21, saboda matsalolin tsaro mafi girma. Game da masu neman mafaka, sabon alkalumma ya nuna cewa mutane 86,400 ne suka nemi mafaka a Amurka a shekara ta 2001. Kafin harin 11 ga Satumba an tantance masu neman mafakar siyasa a cikin aikace-aikace na sirri a Ofishin Shige da Fice da Bautar Naturalasa na Amurka (INS) .

Duk da wannan, an nuna damuwa game da tsarin ba da mafaka da ƙudurin Amurka. Wani binciken kwatancin da masana shari'a uku suka gabatar ya bayyana tsarin ba da mafakar Amurka a matsayin wasan caca ; wato a ce sakamakon ƙayyadaddun mafaka ya dogara da babban ɓangaren halin mutumin da yake yanke hukunci a kansa ba tare da cancanta ba. Lowananan lambobin 'yan gudun hijirar Iraki da aka karɓa tsakanin 2003 da 2007 na nuna damuwa game da tsarin' yan gudun hijirar Amurka. Policyungiyar Manufofin Kasashen Waje ta ba da rahoton cewa: [7]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ambato[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae 2, 17
  2. Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, pp. 35–36
  3. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Article 33 (1)
  4. A single asylum procedure and equitable to establish a uniform status valid throughout the European Union: the final building blocks of international protection are asked, Brussels, October 21, 2009 (press release Europa.eu)
  5. Asile politique: la France ajoute cinq Etats à sa liste de pays «sûrs», Le Figaro, April 27, 2006 (in French)
  6. "La porte étroite de l'asile politique", Le Figaro, February 13, 2007, p.20 (in French)
  7. "Global Views: Iraq's refugees, by R. Nolan, Foreign Policy Association Features, Resource Library, June 12, 2007.