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Tambarin
Tambarin lambar

Lamban Ƙididdigar Littafin Ƙasa ta Duniya ( ISBN ) mai gano littafin kasuwanci ne na lambobi wanda aka yi niyya ya zama na musamman. [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Masu bugawa suna siya ko karɓar ISBNs daga wata alaƙa ta Hukumar ISBN ta Duniya.

Ana bada ISBN ga kowane bugu na daban da bambancin (banda Wanda aka sake bugawa) na ɗaba'ar. Misali, littafin e-littafi, takarda da takarda mai kauri da bugu na littafi guda daya dole kowannensu ya sami ISBN daban. ISBN yana da tsayin lambobi goma idan aka sanya su kafin 2007, kuma tsayin lambobi goma sha uku idan aka sanya su a ranar 1 ga Janairu 2007 ko bayan haka. [lower-alpha 3] Hanyar sanya ISBN ta keɓance ƙasa ce kuma ta bambanta tsakanin ƙasashe, galibi ya danganta da girman masana'antar buga littattafai a cikin ƙasa.

An ƙirƙiri tsarin gano farkon ISBN a cikin 1967, bisa lambobi 9 na Ma'auni na Litattafai ( SBN ) da aka ƙirƙira a 1966. Ƙungiyar ISBN mai lamba 10 ta ƙirƙira ta Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya (ISO) kuma an buga shi a cikin 1970 a matsayin daidaitattun ISO 2108 na duniya (ana iya canza lambar SBN mai lamba 9 zuwa ISBN mai lamba 10 ta hanyar prefixing shi da sifili) .

Littattafai masu zaman kansu wani lokaci suna fitowa ba tare da ISBN ba. Hukumar ISBN ta kasa da kasa a wasu lokutan tana baiwa irin wadannan littafai ISBN da kanta. [2]

Wani mai ganowa, International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), yana gano wallafe-wallafen lokaci-lokaci kamar mujallu da jaridu . Lambar Kiɗa ta Ƙasashen Duniya (ISMN) ta ƙunshi maki na kiɗan .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Standard Book Number (SBN) tsarin kasuwanci ne dake amfani da lambobin lambobi tara don gano littattafai. A cikin 1965, dillalin litattafai na Burtaniya da ma'aikatan tashar WHSmith sun sanar da shirye-shiryen aiwatar da daidaitaccen tsarin ƙididdigewa ga littattafansa. Sun dauki hayar masu bada shawara don yin aiki a madadinsu, kuma Gordon Foster, farfesa a fannin kididdiga a Kwalejin Trinity Dublin ya tsara tsarin. Kwamitin Fasaha na Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya (ISO) akan Takardu ya nemi daidaita SBN na Burtaniya don amfani da ƙasashen duniya. An kirkiro tsarin gano ISBN a cikin 1967 a cikin Burtaniya ta David Whitaker [3] (wanda ake kasafta shi da "Uban ISBN") kuma a cikin 1968 a Amurka ta Emery Koltay [4] daga baya ya zama darektan hukumar ISBN ta Amurka RR Bowker ). [5]

Tsarin ISBN mai lamba 10 ISO ne ya samar dashi kuma an buga shi a cikin 1970 a matsayin daidaitattun ISO 2108 na duniya Ƙasar Ingila taci gaba da amfani da lambar SBN mai lamba tara har zuwa 1974. ISO ta nada Hukumar ISBN ta kasa da kasa a matsayin hukumar rijistar ISBN a duk duniya kuma an samar da ma'aunin ISBN karkashin kulawar kwamitin fasaha na ISO 46/Kwamitin 9 TC 46/SC 9 . Kayan aikin kan layi na ISO kawai yana nufin 1978.

Jimlar yawan rajistar ISBN. 2020

Ana iya canza SBN zuwa ISBN ta hanyar sanya lambobi "0". Misali, bugu na biyu na Mista JG Reeder Returns, wanda Hodder ya buga a 1965, yana da "SBN 340 01381 8", inda "340" ke nuna mawallafin, "01381" shine lambar serial da mawallafin ya sanya, da "8". " shine lambar cak . Ta hanyar sanya sifili, ana iya canza wannan zuwa  ; lambar cak ɗin baya buƙatar sake ƙirgawa. Wasu mawallafa, irin su Ballantine Books, wani lokaci za su yi amfani da SBN mai lamba 12 inda lambobi uku na ƙarshe suka nuna farashin littafin; misali, Woodstock Handmade Houses suna da Madaidaicin Littafin Lambobin Lambobi 12 na 345-24223-8-595 (SBN mai inganci: 345-24223-8, ISBN : 0-345-24223-8), da ya kai US$5.95 .

Tun daga 1 ga Janairu 2007, ISBNs sun ƙunshi lambobi goma sha uku, tsarin da ya dace da " Littafi Mai Tsarki " Lambobin Labari na Turai, waɗanda ke da lambobi 13.

{Asar Amirka, tare da ISBN miliyan 3.9 masu rijista a cikin 2020, ita ce mafi girma mai amfani da gano ISBN a cikin 2020, sai kuma Jamhuriyar Koriya (329,582), Jamus (284,000), China (263,066), Birtaniya (188,553) ) da Indonesia (144,793). ISBN na rayuwa masu rijista a Amurka sun haura miliyan 39 a cikin 2020.

Dubawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana sanya ISBN daban ga kowane bugu da bambancin (ban da sake bugawa) na ɗaba'ar. Misali, ebook, audiobook, paperback, da hardcover bugu na littafi daya dole kowannensu ya sami ISBN daban da aka sanya masa. :12ISBN tana da lambobi goma sha uku idan aka sanya su a ranar 1 ga Janairu 2007 ko bayan haka, kuma tsayin lambobi goma idan aka sanya su kafin 2007. [lower-alpha 3] Adadin Littafi Mai-Tsarki na Duniya ya ƙunshi sassa huɗu (idan ISBN mai lamba 10 ne) ko sassa biyar (don ISBN mai lamba 13).

Sashe na 5 na littafin jagorar mai amfani na Hukumar ISBN ta Duniya :11ya bayyana tsarin ISBN mai lamba 13, kamar haka:

Sassan ISBN mai lamba 10 da EAN-13 masu dacewa da lambar barcode. Kula da lambobi daban-daban a kowane. Bangaren EAN-13 mai lakabin "EAN" shine lambar ƙasar Bookland .
  1. don ISBN mai lamba 13, wani yanki na prefix - prefix na GS1 : ya zuwa yanzu 978 ko 979 GS1 sun samar da su,
  2. rukunin rukunin rajista (Rukunin ƙasar masu raba harshe, ƙasa ɗaya ko yanki), [lower-alpha 4]
  3. element na rejista ,
  4. bangaren buga, da
  5. harafin checksum ko duba lambobi .

Ana iya raba ISBN mai lamba 13 zuwa sassansa ( prefix element, rukunin rajista, mai rijista, bugawa da kuma duba lambobi ), kuma idan an yi haka ya zama al'ada a raba sassan tare da sarƙaƙƙiya ko sarari. Rarraba sassan ( Rukunin rajista, mai rijista, bugawa da rajistan lambobi ) na ISBN mai lamba 10 kuma ana yin su tare da saƙa ko sarari. Gano yadda za a raba daidai ISBN da aka bayar yana da wahala, saboda yawancin sassan ba sa amfani da tsayayyen adadin lambobi. [lower-alpha 5]

Tsarin bayarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayar da ISBN ya shafi kasa ne, ta yadda hukumar ISBN ke bayar da rajistar da ke da alhakin wannan kasa ko yankin ba tare da la’akari da yaren bugawa ba. Matsalolin ISBN da aka keɓe ga kowace ƙasa sun dogara ne akan bayanan buga ƙasar da abin ya shafa, don haka jeri zai bambanta dangane da adadin littattafai da lamba, nau'in, da girman mawallafin da ke aiki. Wasu hukumomin rajista na ISBN suna zaune ne a dakunan karatu na kasa ko kuma a cikin ma’aikatun al’adu don haka za su iya samun tallafin kai tsaye daga gwamnati don tallafa musu. A wasu lokuta kuma, ƙungiyoyi irin su masu samar da bayanan littattafan da ba gwamnati ba ne ke ba da sabis ɗin rajista na ISBN.

Ana samun cikakken tarihin hukumomin ISBN akan gidan yanar gizon Hukumar ISBN ta Duniya. An ba da jerin sunayen ƙasashe kaɗan a ƙasa:

  • Ostiraliya - Thorpe-Bowker
  • Brazil – The National Library of Brazil ; (Har zuwa 28 ga Fabrairu, 2020)
  • Brazil - Câmara Brasileira do Livro (Daga 1 ga Maris 2020) [7]
  • Kanada - Laburare na Turanci da Archives Kanada, hukumar gwamnati; Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec</link> ;
  • Colombia – Cámara Colombiana del Libro, kungiya ce mai zaman kanta
  • Hong Kong - Ofishin Rajistan Littattafai (BRO), a ƙarƙashin Laburaren Jama'a na Hong Kong
  • Iceland - Landsbókasafn ( Laburaren Ƙasa da Jami'ar Iceland )
  • Indiya – Hukumar Raja Rammohun Roy ta kasa ta ISBN (Rashin Inganta Littattafai da Haƙƙin mallaka), ƙarƙashin Sashen Ilimi mai zurfi, wani yanki na Ma’aikatar Raya Albarkatun Bil Adama
  • Isra'ila - Cibiyar dakunan karatu na Isra'ila
  • Italiya – EDISER srl, mallakar Associazione Italiana Editori (Ƙungiyar Mawallafa ta Italiya)
  • Kenya - National Library na Kenya
  • Lebanon - Hukumar ISBN ta Lebanon
  • Maldives - Ofishin Rabe-rabe na Kasa (NBC)
  • Malta - Majalisar Littattafai ta Kasa ( Maltese: </link>
  • Maroko - National Library of Morocco
  • New Zealand - Laburaren Ƙasa na New Zealand
  • Najeriya – National Library of Nigeria
  • Pakistan – National Library of Pakistan
  • Philippines - Laburaren Kasa na Philippines
  • Afirka ta Kudu - National Library na Afirka ta Kudu
  • Spain - Hukumar ISBN ta Spain - Agencia del ISBN
  • Turkiyya - Babban Darakta na Laburare da wallafe-wallafe, reshe na Ma'aikatar Al'adu
  • Ƙasar Ingila da Jamhuriyar Ireland - Nielsen Book Services Ltd, wani ɓangare na Nielsen Holdings NV
  • Amurka - RR Bowker

Rukunin rukunin rajista[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rukunin rukunin rajista na ISBN lamba ce mai lamba 1 zuwa-5 wacce ke aiki a cikin sigar gaba ɗaya (watau ɗaya daga cikin 978 ko 979), :11kuma za a iya raba tsakanin saƙo, kamar "978-1-..." . An keɓe ƙungiyoyin yin rajista da farko a cikin ɓangaren prefix 978. Ƙungiyoyin rajista masu lamba ɗaya a cikin kashi 978-prefix sune: 0 ko 1 don ƙasashen masu magana da Ingilishi; 2 ga ƙasashen Faransanci; 3 ga ƙasashen Jamusanci; 4 ga Japan; 5 ga ƙasashen Rashanci; da 7 na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin. Misali ƙungiyoyin rajista masu lamba 5 sune 99936 da 99980, na Bhutan. Kungiyoyin rajista da aka ware sune: 0–5, 600–631, 65, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9910–9989, da 99901–99993. [8] Littattafan da aka buga a cikin yarukan da ba kasafai ba yawanci suna da dogon abubuwan rukuni.

A cikin ɓangaren prefix na 979, ƙungiyar rajista 0 an tanada don dacewa da Lambobin Kiɗa na Ƙasashen Duniya (ISMNs), amma irin wannan kayan ba a sanya ISBN a zahiri ba. Ƙungiyoyin rajista a cikin prefix kashi 979 waɗanda aka ba su sune 8 don Amurka ta Amurka, 10 don Faransa, 11 na Jamhuriyar Koriya, da 12 na Italiya.

Asalin daidaitaccen lambar littafin mai lamba 9 (SBN) ba shi da mai gano ƙungiyar rajista, amma ƙaddamar da sifili zuwa SBN mai lamba 9 yana ƙirƙirar ISBN mai lamba 10 mai inganci.

Abun rajista[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar ISBN ta kasa tana ba wa mawallafin sashin rajista ( cf. Category: ISBN hukumomin ) da jerin masu rakowa na ISBN a cikin wannan kashi na rejista ga mawallafin; sai mawallafin ya ware ɗaya daga cikin ISBN ga kowane littafinsa. A yawancin ƙasashe, ba a buƙatar mai buga littafi bisa doka don sanya ISBN, kodayake yawancin manyan shagunan sayar da littattafai kawai suna gudanar da wallafe-wallafen da ISBNs aka ba su.

Hukumar ISBN ta kasa da kasa tana kula da cikakkun bayanai sama da miliyan daya ISBN prefixes da mawallafa a cikin Rajista na Mawallafa na Duniya . Ana iya bincika wannan bayanan ta hanyar intanet kyauta.

Masu bugawa suna karɓar tubalan ISBNs, tare da manyan tubalan da aka ware wa masu wallafa suna tsammanin buƙatar su; ƙaramin mawallafi na iya karɓar ISBN na lambobi ɗaya ko fiye don gano ƙungiyar rajista, lambobi da yawa don mai rijista, da lamba ɗaya don ɓangaren ɗaba'ar. Da zarar an yi amfani da wannan toshe na ISBNs, mawallafin na iya karɓar wani toshe na ISBNs, tare da wani ɓangaren rejista na daban. Saboda haka, mai wallafa yana iya samun nau'ikan masu rajista daban-daban da aka ware. Hakanan ana iya samun alamar ƙungiyar rajista fiye da ɗaya da ake amfani da ita a cikin ƙasa. Wannan na iya faruwa da zarar an keɓe duk abubuwan masu yin rajista daga wata ƙungiyar rajista ga masu wallafawa.

ISBN Kasa ko yanki Mawallafi
99921-58-10-7 Qatar NCCAH, Doha
9971-5-0210-0 Singapore Kimiyyar Duniya
960-425-059-0 Girka Sigma Publications
80-902734-1-6 Jamhuriyar Czech; Slovakia Taita Publishers
85-359-0277-5 Brazil Companhia das Letras
1-84356-028-3 Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Simon Wallenberg Press
0-684-84328-5 Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Marubuci
0-8044-2957-X Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Frederick Ungar
0-85131-041-9 Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi JA Allen & Co.
93-86954-21-4 Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.
0-943396-04-2 Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Willmann - Bell
0-9752298-0-X Yankin masu magana da Ingilishi Bugawa KT

Tsarin harshen Ingilishi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan rukunin rajista na harshen Ingilishi sune 0 da 1 (2 na fiye da abubuwan rukunin rajista sama da 220). Wadannan rukunonin rukunin rajista guda biyu sun kasu kashi-kashi na masu rajista a cikin tsari mai tsari, wanda ke ba da damar tantance tsawon su, kamar haka:

Bugawa



</br> tsawon kashi
0 – rukunin rukunin rajista 1 - Rukunin rajista Jimlar



</br> Masu rijista
Daga Zuwa Masu rijista Daga Zuwa Masu rijista
6 lambobi 0-00-xxxxxx-x 0-19-xxxxxx-x 20 1-01-xxxxxx-x



</br> 1-05-xxxxxx-x
1-02-xxxxxx-x



</br> 1-05-xxxxxx-x
3 23
lambobi 5 0-200-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-229-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-370-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-640-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-646-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-649-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-656-xxxxx-x
0-227-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-368-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-638-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-644-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-647-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-654-xxxxx-x



</br> 0-699-xxxxx-x
494 1-000-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-030-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-040-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-100-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-714-xxxxx-x
1-009-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-034-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-049-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-397-xxxxx-x



</br> 1-716-xxxxx-x
326 820
4 lambobi 0-2280-xxxx-x



</br> 0-3690-xxxx-x



</br> 0-6390-xxxx-x



</br> 0-6550-xxxx-x



</br> 0-7000-xxxx-x
0-2289-xxxx-x



</br> 0-3699-xxxx-x



</br> 0-6397-xxxx-x



</br> 0-6559-xxxx-x



</br> 0-8499-xxxx-x
1,538 1-0350-xxxx-x



</br> 1-0700-xxxx-x



</br> 1-3980-xxxx-x



</br> 1-6500-xxxx-x



</br> 1-6860-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7170-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7620-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7900-xxxx-x



</br> 1-8672-xxxx-x



</br> 1-9730-xxxx-x
1-0399-xxxx-x



</br> 1-0999-xxxx-x



</br> 1-5499-xxxx-x



</br> 1-6799-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7139-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7319-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7634-xxxx-x



</br> 1-7999-xxxx-x



</br> 1-8675-xxxx-x



</br> 1-9877-xxxx-x
2,867 4,405
lambobi 3 0-85000-xxx-x 0-89999-xxx-x 5,000 1-55000-xxx-x



</br> 1-68000-xxx-x



</br> 1-74000-xxx-x



</br> 1-76500-xxx-x



</br> 1-77540-xxx-x



</br> 1-77650-xxx-x



</br> 1-77830-xxx-x



</br> 1-80000-xxx-x



</br> 1-83850-xxx-x



</br> 1-86760-xxx-x
1-64999-xxx-x



</br> 1-68599-xxx-x



</br> 1-76199-xxx-x



</br> 1-77499-xxx-x



</br> 1-77639-xxx-x



</br> 1-77699-xxx-x



</br> 1-78999-xxx-x



</br> 1-83799-xxx-x



</br> 1-86719-xxx-x



</br> 1-86979-xxx-x
22,010 27,010
2 lambobi 0-900000-xx-x



</br> 0-900372-xx-x
0-900370-xx-x



</br> 0-949999-xx-x
49,999 1-869800-xx-x



</br> 1-916506-xx-x



</br> 1-916908-xx-x



</br> 1-919655-xx-x



</br> 1-987800-xx-x



</br> 1-991200-xx-x
1-915999-xx-x



</br> 1-916869-xx-x



</br> 1-919599-xx-x



</br> 1-972999-xx-x



</br> 1-991149-xx-x



</br> 1-998989-xx-x
113,741 163,740
lamba 1 0-6398000-xx



</br> 0-6450000-xx



</br> 0-6480000-xx



</br> 0-9003710-xx



</br> 0-9500000-xx
0-639999-xx



</br> 0-645999-xx



</br> 0-6489999-xx



</br> 0-9003719-xx



</br> 0-999999-xx
522,010 1-0670000-xx



</br> 1-7320000-xx



</br> 1-7635000-xx



</br> 1-7750000-xx



</br> 1-7764000-xx



</br> 1-7770000-xx



</br> 1-8380000-xx



</br> 1-9160000-xx



</br> 1-9168700-xx



</br> 1-9196000-xx



</br> 1-9911500-xx



</br> 1-9989900-xx
1-069999-xx



</br> 1-739999-xx



</br> 1-764999-xx



</br> 1-7753999-xx



</br> 1-7764999-xx



</br> 1-7782999-xx



</br> 1-8384999-xx



</br> 1-9165059-xx



</br> 1-9169079-xx



</br> 1-9196549-xx



</br> 1-9911999-xx



</br> 1-999999-xx
164,590 686,600
Jimlar 579,061 Jimlar 303,537 882,598

Lambar cak wani nau'i ne na rajistan sakewa da aka yi amfani da shi don gano kuskure, ma'auni na goma daidai da bit check bit . Ya ƙunshi lambobi ɗaya da aka lissafta daga sauran lambobi a cikin lambar. Hanyar ISBN mai lamba 10 ita ce fadada wancan ga SBNs, don haka tsarin biyu sun dace; SBN da aka yi prefixed tare da sifili (ISBN mai lamba 10) zai ba da cak ɗin lamba ɗaya da SBN ba tare da sifili ba. Lambar cak ɗin tushe goma sha ɗaya ce, kuma tana iya zama lamba tsakanin 0 da 9, ko 'X'. Tsarin ISBN mai lamba 13 bai dace da SBN ba kuma, gabaɗaya, zai ba da lamba ta daban daga ISBN mai lamba 10, don haka ba ya ba da kariya iri ɗaya daga juzu'i. Wannan saboda ana buƙatar lambar lambobi 13 don dacewa da tsarin EAN, don haka ba zai iya ƙunsar 'X' ba.

ISBN-10 duba lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bisa ga bugu na 2001 na littafin jagorar mai amfani da Hukumar ISBN ta kasa da kasa, lambar rajistan ISBN-10 (wanda shine lambobi na karshe na ISBN mai lamba 10) dole ne ya kasance daga 0 zuwa 10 (ana amfani da alamar 'X' don 10), kuma dole ne ya zama adadin adadin lambobi goma, kowannen da aka ninka da nauyinsa (integer), wanda ya sauko daga 10 zuwa 1, shine ma'auni na 11. Wato, idan x i shine lambar i, to dole ne a zaɓi x 10 kamar haka:   Misali, don ISBN-10 na 0-306-40615-2:   A bisa ka'ida, ta amfani da lissafi na zamani, ana yin wannan   Hakanan gaskiya ne ga ISBN-10 s cewa jimillar duk lambobi goma, kowannen da aka ninka ta nauyinsa a cikin tsari mai hawa daga 1 zuwa 10, shine maɓalli na 11. Ga wannan misali:   A bisa ƙa'ida, ana yin wannan   Sabanin haka, yana yiwuwa ga wasu nau'ikan kurakurai, kamar lambobi biyu waɗanda ba a canza su ba, ko lambobi uku da aka canza, su haifar da ingantaccen ISBN (ko da yake har yanzu yana da wuya).

ISBN-10 duba lissafin lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kowanne daga cikin lambobi tara na farko na ISBN mai lamba 10 – ban da rajistan lamba kanta - ana ninka ta ta (integer) nauyinsa, yana saukowa daga 10 zuwa 2, da jimlar waɗannan samfuran tara da aka samu. Darajar lambar cak ita ce kawai lamba ɗaya tsakanin 0 da 10 wanda idan aka haɗa shi zuwa wannan jimlar, yana nufin jimillar ta 11.

Misali, lambar rajistan ISBN-10 na 0-306-40615- ? ana lissafta kamar haka:   Ƙara 2 zuwa 130 yana ba da yawa na 11 (saboda 132 = 12 × 11) - wannan ita ce kawai lamba tsakanin 0 da 10 wanda ke yin haka. Don haka, lambar rajistan dole ta zama 2, kuma cikakken jerin shine ISBN 0-306-40615-2 . Idan darajar da ake buƙata don gamsar da wannan yanayin shine 10, sannan a yi amfani da 'X'.

A madadin, ƙididdiga na yau da kullun ya dace don ƙididdige lambar rajista ta amfani da modulus 11. Ragowar wannan jimlar idan aka raba ta da 11 (watau ƙimar sa modulo 11), ana lissafta shi. Wannan ragowar da lambar rajistan dole ne yayi daidai da 0 ko 11. Saboda haka, lambar rajistan shine (11 a debe ragowar jimlar samfuran modulo 11) modulo 11. Ɗaukar ragowar modulo 11 a karo na biyu yana lissafin yiwuwar cewa saura na farko shine 0. Idan ba tare da aiki na modulo na biyu ba, lissafin zai iya haifar da ƙima mai ƙima na 11 − 0 = 11, wanda ba shi da inganci. (A zahiri, ba a buƙatar "modulo 11" na farko, amma ana iya la'akari da shi don sauƙaƙe lissafin.)

Misali, lambar rajistan ISBN-13 na 978-0-306-40615- ? ana lissafta kamar haka:

// Returns ISBN error syndrome, zero for a valid ISBN, non-zero for an invalid one.
// digits[i] must be between 0 and 10.
int CheckISBN(int const digits[10]) {
 int i, s = 0, t = 0;

 for (i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
  t += digits[i];
  s += t;
 }
 return s % 11;
}

Don haka lambar cak ɗin shine 2.

Yana yiwuwa a guje wa haɓakawa a cikin aiwatar da software ta amfani da tarawa guda biyu. Yawan ƙara t cikin s akai-akai yana ƙididdige adadin da ake buƙata:   Ana iya yin ragi na modular sau ɗaya a ƙarshen, kamar yadda aka nuna a sama (a cikin abin da yanayin s zai iya riƙe ƙima mai girma kamar 496, don ISBN 99999-999-9-X mara inganci), ko s kuma t za a iya rage shi ta hanyar ragi na sharaɗi bayan kowace ƙari.

ISBN-13 duba lissafin lambobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A bisa ka'ida, ta amfani da ilmin lissafi na zamani, ana fassara wannan:   For example, the check digit for the ISBN of 0-306-40615-? is calculated as follows:

Don haka, lambar rajistan shine 7, kuma cikakken jerin shine ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7 .

Gabaɗaya, ana ƙididdige lambar rajistan ISBN kamar haka.

Bari   Bugu da ƙari, idan jimlar lambobi na 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, da 12th aka ninka sau uku sannan a ƙara su zuwa sauran lambobi (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), jimlar zata kasance koyaushe. wanda za'a iya raba ta 10 (watau ƙare a 0).

  1. Occasionally, publishers erroneously assign an ISBN to more than one title – the first edition of The Ultimate Alphabet and The Ultimate Alphabet Workbook have the same ISBN, 0-8050-0076-3. Conversely, books are published with several ISBNs: A German second-language edition of Emil und die Detektive has the ISBNs 87-23-90157-8 (Denmark), 0-8219-1069-8 (United States), 91-21-15628-X (Sweden), 0-85048-548-7 (United Kingdom) and 3-12-675495-3 (Germany).
  2. In some cases, books sold only as sets share ISBNs. For example, the Vance Integral Edition used only two ISBNs for 44 books.
  3. Publishers were required to convert existing ISBNs from the 10-digit format to the 13-digit format (in their publication records) by 1 January 2007. For existing publications, the new 13-digit ISBN would only need to be added if (and when) a publication was reprinted. During the transition period, publishers were recommended to print both the 10-digit and 13-digit ISBNs on the verso of a publication's title page, but they were required to print only the 13-digit ISBN after 1 January 2007.[1]
  4. Some books have several codes in the first block: e.g. A. M. Yaglom's Correlation Theory..., published by Springer Verlag, has two ISBNs, Samfuri:ISBNT. Though Springer's 387 and 540 codes are different for English (0) and German (3); the same item number 96331 produces the same check digit for both (6). Springer uses 431 as the publisher code for Japanese (4), and 4-431-96331-? also has a check digit of 6. Other Springer books in English have publisher code 817, and 0-817-96331-? would also have a check digit of 6. This suggests that special considerations were made for assigning Springer's publisher codes, as random assignments of different publisher codes would not be expected to lead by coincidence to the same check digit every time for the same item number. Finding publisher codes for English and German, say, with this effect would amount to solving a linear equation in modular arithmetic.Samfuri:Original research inline
  5. The International ISBN Agency's ISBN User's Manual says: "The ten-digit number is divided into four parts of variable length, which must be separated clearly, by hyphens or spaces", although omission of separators is permitted for internal data processing. If present, hyphens must be correctly placed.[6] The actual definition for hyphenation contains more than 220 different registration group elements with each one broken down into a few to several ranges for the length of the registrant element (more than 1,000 total). The document defining the ranges, listed by agency, is 29 pages.

Wannan tsarin dubawa - kama da dabarar lambobi ta UPC – baya kama duk kurakurai na jujjuya lambobi kusa. Musamman, idan bambanci tsakanin lambobi biyu maƙwabta ya kasance 5, lambar rajistan ba za ta kama su ba. Misali, misalin da ke sama yana ba da damar wannan yanayin tare da 6 da 1 ya biyo baya. Daidaitaccen tsari yana ba da gudummawar 3 × 6 + 1 × 1 = 19 zuwa jimlar; yayin da, idan an canza lambobi (1 bi da 6), gudunmawar waɗannan lambobi biyu za su zama 3 × 1 + 1 × 6 = 9 . Koyaya, 19 da 9 sun haɗa da modulo 10, don haka suna samar da sakamako iri ɗaya, sakamako na ƙarshe: duka ISBNs za su sami lamba ta 7. Ƙididdigar ISBN-10 tana amfani da modul modules 11 wanda ke guje wa wannan makaho, amma yana buƙatar fiye da lambobi 0-9 don bayyana lambar rajistan.

ISBN-10 zuwa ISBN-13[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana canza ISBN mai lamba 10 zuwa ISBN mai lamba 13 ta hanyar shirya "978" zuwa ISBN-10 da kuma sake ƙididdige ƙididdiga na ƙarshe ta amfani da ISBN-13 algorithm. Hakanan za'a iya aiwatar da tsarin jujjuyawar, amma ba don lambobi waɗanda suka fara da prefix banda 978, waɗanda basu da lambobi 10 daidai.

Kurakurai a cikin amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mawallafa da ɗakunan karatu suna da manufofi daban-daban game da amfani da lambar rajistan ISBN. A wasu lokuta mawallafa sun kasa bincika rubutun sunan littafin da ISBN kafin su buga shi; gazawar ta haifar da matsalolin tantance littattafai ga ɗakunan karatu, masu sayar da littattafai, da masu karatu. Misali,  an raba ta littattafai guda biyu - Ninja gaiden: wani labari wanda ya danganci mafi kyawun sayar da wasan Tecmo (1990) da dokokin Wacky (1997), duka biyun Scholastic ne suka buga.

Yawancin ɗakunan karatu da masu sayar da littattafai suna nuna rikodin littafin don ISBN mara inganci daga mawallafin. Katalojin Laburaren Majalisa ya ƙunshi littattafan da aka buga tare da ISBNs marasa inganci, waɗanda galibi yakan sanya su da kalmar "An soke ISBN". Kundin Kundin Laburare na Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya (aka, WorldCat OCLC - Tsarin Cibiyar Laburare ta Kan layi) sau da yawa tana bayyani ta ISBNs marasa inganci, idan ɗakin ɗakin karatu na memba ya yi lissafin littafin ta wannan hanya.

eISBN[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sai kawai a yi amfani da kalmar "ISBN"; kalmomin "eISBN" da "e-ISBN" a tarihi sun kasance tushen rudani kuma ya kamata a kauce masa. Idan littafi ya kasance a cikin nau'i ɗaya ko fiye na dijital ( e-book ), kowane ɗayan waɗannan sifofin dole ne ya sami ISBN na kansa. A takaice dai, kowane ɗayan EPUB guda uku daban-daban, Amazon Kindle, da tsarin PDF na wani littafi zai sami takamaiman ISBN nasa. Kada su raba ISBN na sigar takarda, kuma babu wani “eISBN” wanda ya ƙunshi duk tsarin e-littafi don take.

Tsarin EAN da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin barcodes, da haɓakawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Barcodes a kan murfin baya na littafi (ko a cikin babban littafin takarda na kasuwa na kasuwa) sune EAN-13 ; suna iya samun keɓan lambar barcode mai ɓoye lambobi biyar da ake kira EAN-5 don kuɗin kuɗi da farashin dillalan da aka ba da shawarar . Don ISBN mai lamba 10, lambar "978", Littafin "lambar ƙasa", an riga an sanya shi zuwa ISBN a cikin bayanan barcode, kuma ana sake ƙididdige lambar rajistan bisa ga tsarin EAN-13 (modulo 10, 1 × da 3). × ma'auni akan lambobi dabam-dabam).

Wani ɓangare saboda ƙarancin da ake sa ran a wasu nau'ikan ISBN, Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya (ISO) ta yanke shawarar yin ƙaura zuwa ISBN mai lamba 13 ( ISBN-13 ). An fara aikin ne a ranar 1 ga Janairun 2005 kuma an shirya kammala shi a ranar 1 ga Janairu 2007. As of 2011 </link></link> , duk ISBN masu lamba 13 sun fara da 978. Yayin da isar 978 ISBN ya ƙare, an gabatar da prefix 979. Wani ɓangare na prefix 979 an tanada shi don amfani tare da lambar Musicland don maki na kiɗa tare da ISMN . Lambobin ISMN mai lamba 10 sun bambanta a gani yayin da suka fara da harafin "M"; lambar mashaya tana wakiltar "M" a matsayin sifili, kuma don dalilai na checksum an ƙidaya shi azaman 3. Duk ISMNs yanzu lambobi goma sha uku ne ke farawa 979-0 ; ISBN za ta yi amfani da 979-1 zuwa 979-9 .

Lambobin lambar tantance mawallafa da wuya su kasance iri ɗaya a cikin 978 da 979 ISBNs, haka nan, babu tabbacin cewa lambobin yankin harshe za su kasance iri ɗaya. Haka kuma, lambar rajistan ISBN mai lamba 10 gabaɗaya baya ɗaya da lambar rajistan ISBN mai lamba 13. Domin GTIN-13 wani bangare ne na tsarin lambar ciniki ta duniya (GTIN) (wanda ya hada da GTIN-14, GTIN-12, da GTIN-8), ISBN mai lamba 13 ta fada cikin filin bayanai mai lamba 14. iyaka.

Ana kiyaye daidaituwar tsarin tsarin barcode, saboda (banga ƙungiyar karya) tsarin barcode ISBN-13 yayi daidai da tsarin lambar lambar EAN na ISBNs mai lamba 10 data kasance. Don haka, ƙaura zuwa tsarin tushen EAN yana ba masu siyar da littattafai damar yin amfani da tsarin lamba ɗaya don littattafai da samfuran littattafan da ba na littafi waɗanda suka dace da tushen bayanan ISBN da ke akwai, tare da ƙaramin canje-canje ga tsarin fasahar bayanai . Don haka, yawancin masu siyar da littattafai (misali, Barnes &amp; Noble ) sun yi ƙaura zuwa lambobin EAN a farkon Maris 2005. Kodayake yawancin masu sayar da littattafan Amurka da Kanada sun sami damar karanta lambobin EAN-13 kafin 2005, yawancin dillalai na gabaɗaya ba su iya karanta su ba. Haɓaka tsarin lambar lambar UPC zuwa cikakken EAN-13, a cikin 2005, ya sauƙaƙa ƙaura zuwa ISBN a Arewacin Amurka.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • ASIN (Lambar Shaida ta Amazon)
  • BICI (Kayan Littattafai da Mai Gano Ƙarfafa)
  • Binciken tushen littafin – tushen Wikipedia wanda ke ba da damar bincika ISBNs
  • CODEN (mai gano ɗab'i a halin yanzu da ɗakunan karatu ke amfani da shi; ISSN ta maye gurbinsa don sabbin ayyuka)
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
  • ESTC (Turanci Short Take Catalogue)
  • ISAN (Lambar Maɗaukakin Maɗaukaki na Ƙasashen Duniya)
  • ISRC (Lambar Rikodi ta Duniya)
  • ISTC (Lambar Rubutun Ƙasa ta Duniya)
  • ISWC (Lambar Ayyukan Kiɗa na Ƙasashen Duniya)
  • ISWN (Lambar Madaidaicin Wine na Duniya)
  • LCCN (Lambar Kula da Laburaren Majalisa)
  • License number (East German books) [de] (Tsarin gano littafin da aka yi amfani da shi tsakanin 1951 da 1990 a cikin tsohon GDR)
  • Jerin lambobin rukuni-0 ISBN
  • Jerin lambobin rukuni-1 ISBN masu wallafawa
  • Jerin kungiyoyin rajista na ISBN
  • SICI (Serial Abu da Mai Gano Gudunmawa)
  • VD 16 .
  • VD 17 .

Bayanin bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  6. "ISBN Ranges". International ISBN Agency. 2014. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named isbn-international.org
  8. Ranges updated on 2023-11-03

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:ISO standards