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Jema el-Fnaa

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Jemaa el-Fnaa da yamma

Jemaa el-Fnaa ( Larabci: ساحة جامع الفناءSāḥat al-Fanāʾ, kuma Jemaa el-Fna, Djema el-Fna ko Djemaa el-Fnaa ) fili ne kuma,wurin,kasuwa, ne a cikin kwata, na madina, na Marrakesh, (tsohon birni).Ya kasance babban dandalin Marrakesh, wanda mazauna gida da masu yawon, bude ido ke amfani,

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Asalin sunansa ba a fayyace ba: jamaa na nufin “jama’a” ko “masallaci” a Larabci, ne mai yiwuwa yana nufin wani masallacn,i da aka rusa a wurin. Fnaʼ ko fanâʼ na iya nufin “mutuwa/kaɓawa” ko “ tsakar gida, sarari a gaban gini”. " finâʼ a Larabci yawanci yana nufin "bude wuri"; madaidaiciyar fassarar zai zama "yankin taro/ikilisiya". Sauran ma'anoni na iya zama "Majalisin mutuwa," ko "Masallaci a Ƙarshen Duniya". [1] Wani bayani kuma shi ne, yana nufin masallacin da ke da wani fili ko fili na musamman a gabansa. Fassara ta uku ita ce “taron matattu”, yana nufin kisa a fili a fili a wajen shekara ta 1050 AZ.

Duban iska na Jemaa el-Fnaa a cikin []1930-1931; katafaren katafaren katafaren dakin da ake gani a tsakiyar dama yana iya zama rugujewar masallacin Sadiya wanda ba a kammala ba wanda ya ba dandalin sunansa na yanzu

Wani takamaiman bayani da masana tarihi na zamani suka amince da shi ya fito ne daga rahotannin tarihi cewa sarkin Saadiya mai ƙarfi Ahmad al-Mansur (wanda ya yi mulki a shekara ta 1578-1603) ya fara aikin gina wani babban masallacin juma'a a tsakiyar ƙasar. murabba'i. Duk da haka, saboda tabarbarewar arziki (watakila barkewar annoba) Sultan ya tilasta wa sultan yin watsi da aikin. Ta haka ne masallacin ya kasance ba a gama shi ba ya fada kango. Rushewar bangon bangon ta a bayyane yake a bayyane a cikin karni na 19 kuma yayi daidai da wurin "Souk Jdid" na yanzu ("sabon souk" a arewacin wuraren abinci). [2] Ta wannan hanyar, " jama'a al-fna' " a fili yana nufin wurin "lalacewar masallacin". Sunan " Jama'al-Fna " ya bayyana a cikin tarihin tarihi a karon farko a cikin tarihin karni na 17 na masanin tarihin Afirka ta Yamma Abderrahman as-Sa'idi. As-Sa’idi ya yi da’awar cewa sunan masallacin al-Mansour da ba a gama shi ba shi ne jamaa al-hna, ma’ana “Masallacin natsuwa”, amma bayan watsi da shi ya zama sananne a matsayin “Masallacin rugujewa”. /hallaka", ko jamaa al-fana' [3] [2] (kalmar fana' a wannan yanayin ma'ana yanayin kashewa ko rugujewa gaba daya).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin farko: Zamanin Almoravid da Almohad[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daular Almoravid ce ta kafa Marrakesh a shekara ta 1070 ta hannun Abubakar ibn Umar, daga baya kuma ta hanyar magabatansa. <sup about="#mwt87" class="reference nowrap" data-cx="[{&quot;adapted&quot;:true,&quot;partial&quot;:false,&quot;targetExists&quot;:true,&quot;mandatoryTargetParams&quot;:[],&quot;optionalTargetParams&quot;:[]}]" data-mw="{&quot;parts&quot;:[{&quot;template&quot;:{&quot;target&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;Rp&quot;,&quot;href&quot;:&quot;./Template:Rp&quot;},&quot;params&quot;:{&quot;1&quot;:{&quot;wt&quot;:&quot;63&quot;}},&quot;i&quot;:0}}]}" data-ve-no-generated-contents="true" id="mwRg" typeof="mw:Transclusion"><span title="Page / location: 63"><span typeof="mw:Entity">:</span><span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span>63<span typeof="mw:Entity"> </span></span></sup> Da farko, manyan abubuwan tarihi guda biyu na birnin da wuraren da aka fi sani da suna Ksar el-Hajjar ("sansanin dutse") da kuma masallacin Juma'a na farko na birnin (wurin ginin masallacin Ben Youssef na gaba. ). Ksar el-Hajjar ya kasance a arewacin Masallacin Kutubiyya na yau. Manyan titunan souk (kasuwa) na birni ta haka suka ci gaba tare da hanyoyin da ke haɗa waɗannan mahimman wurare guda biyu kuma har yanzu suna daidai da babban axis na souks a yau. A wani gefen wannan kusurwoyi, kusa da Ksar el-Hajjar, akwai wani babban fili ga kasuwanni na wucin gadi da na mako-mako. An fara sanin wannan fili da Rahbat al-Ksar ("wurin kagara"). Sauran bayanan tarihi suna ambatonsa da as-Saha al-Kubra ("babban filin"), ko kuma a sauƙaƙe as-Saha ko ar-Rahba .

Sarkin' Almoravid Ali bn Yusuf (ya yi mulki 1106-1143) ba da dadewa ba ya gina wani fada kai tsaye kudu da kuma kusa da Ksar el-Hajjar, a daidai wurin da masallacin Kutubiyya na baya. Wani bangare na wannan fada shi ne wata babbar kofar dutse a gefenta ta gabas wadda ke fuskantar Rahbat al-Ksar . Ƙofar mai yiwuwa ta taka muhimmiyar rawa: ita ce ƙofar fadar ga waɗanda ke neman masu sauraro tare da sarki, kuma yana yiwuwa mai mulkin da kansa ya zauna, ya hau gadon sarauta, a gaban ƙofar kuma ya ba da gaskiya a bainar jama'a a kowane mako (al'adar da ta dace da ita). ya kasance a tsakanin sauran daulolin Moroko da Andalusia ). [4] Muhimmancin babban filin da ke gaban fadar sarki ya sa ta zama wurin aiwatar da kisan gilla, faretin sojoji, bukukuwa, da sauran tarukan jama'a har sai da dadewa.

Jema el-Fnaa

Bayan gwagwarmaya mai lalacewa, Marrakech ya fada hannun Almohad a cikin 1147, waɗanda suka gudanar da ayyukan gine-gine da yawa a cikin birnin. Wannan ya hada da gina masallacin Kutubiyya da ke kusa, wanda aka fara a shekara ta 1147, wanda aka yi nufin maye gurbin masallacin Ben Youssef da aka gina na Almoravid a matsayin babban masallacin birnin. Musamman ma, Ya'qub al-Mansur, ya gina sabon kasbah na sarauta a kudu bayan 1184. Yayin da sarakunan Almohad suka koma sabon kasbah, tsohon fadar Almoravid da kagara ya fadi ba a amfani da shi, kuma daga karshe aka ruguje (a wani bangare na gina sabon masallacin Kutubiyya). Daga baya, tare da arzikin birni, Jemaa el-Fna ya ga lokutan raguwa da sabuntawa.

Tarihi na baya: Zamanin Sadiya zuwa zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jema el-Fnaa

Duk da mamaye sabbin gine-ginen da aka yi a gefen dandalin na tsawon lokaci, bai taba bace ba saboda rawar da yake takawa a matsayin budaddiyar kasuwa da kuma wurin taron jama'a. Wani yunkuri na cike wani babban bangare na dandalin an ruwaito cewa Sarkin Sa’diya Ahmad al-Mansour ya yi yunkurin gina wani katafaren masallaci a dandalin. Da alama masallacin ya yi koyi da masallatan Bab Doukkala da Mouassine, wanda aka gina da gangan a tsakiyar manyan hanyoyin zirga-zirga a cikin birnin, kuma da an yi masa rakiya da damammakin gine-gine na jama'a da na addini. Masallacin bai taba gamawa ba, watakila saboda bala'o'i kamar annobar annoba a zamanin mulkin al-Mansour. An yi watsi da gine-gine ta hanyar da aka gina, kuma abin da aka gina ya rushe kuma an karbe shi daga rumfunan kasuwa da sauran jama'a. (Wataƙila kuma wurin wani rukunin shago ne na zamani, Souk Jdid, a arewa da wuraren sayar da abinci a yau, wanda tsarinsa yana da tsarin tafsiri iri ɗaya da masallatai na zamanin al-Mansour. ) Wataƙila wannan rugujewar masallacin ya bai wa dandalin sunansa na yanzu, Jemaa el-Fna ("Masallacin Ruins"). [2]

A ranar 24 ga watan Janairun shekarar 1864, an samu fashewar wani katon fashewa a yankin dandalin, wanda rahotanni suka ce, sakaci na wasu jami'ai na kokarin kaucewa binciken gwamnati. Wata gobara da ta tashi a wani wurin ajiyar kaya na funduq ta kone kuntatal 500 na foda da aka ajiye a wurin. Fashewar ta lalata gidaje da shaguna a cikin wani fili mai fadi inda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane kusan 300. :535

Jema el-Fnaa

Dandalin ya ci gaba da zama wurin taro a tsakiyar birnin duk da cewa ba shi da ƙayyadaddun tsarin gine-gine. Baya ga tsohuwar rawar da ta taka a matsayin wurin aiwatar da hukuncin kisa, ta kasance wurin da kasuwar Juma'a ta gargajiya ta kasance, wani mataki ne na nuna sha'awa, da kuma tsarin nishadantarwa a cikin maraice (kamar yau). A cikin 1922 gwamnati (ƙarƙashin gwamnatin Faransa a lokacin), ta zartar da dokoki na farko da nufin karewa da kiyaye sararin al'adu da abubuwan tarihi na dandalin. A shekara ta 2001 UNESCO ta ayyana filin a matsayin Gadon Al'adu mara-girma, kuma a cikin 2008 an saka shi cikin jerin abubuwan al'adun al'adun ɗan adam na UNESCO .

Dandalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Panoramic view of Jemaa el-Fnaa

A cikin rana galibi suna mamaye da wuraren sayar da ruwan lemu, masu sayar da ruwa tare da buhunan ruwa na fata na gargajiya da kofunan tagulla, matasa masu sarƙaƙƙiya na birai na Barbary da masu layya da maciji duk da kiyaye matsayin waɗannan nau'ikan a ƙarƙashin dokar Maroko. [5]

Yayin da rana ta ci gaba, nishaɗin da ake bayarwa yana canzawa: masu la'antar maciji suna tashi, kuma a ƙarshen ranar filin ya zama cunkoso, tare da raye- rayen Chleuh (zai zama saba wa al'ada ga 'yan mata su ba da irin wannan nishaɗin), masu ba da labari ( suna ba da tatsuniyoyinsu da harshen Berber ko Larabci, ga masu sauraron jama’a), masu sihiri, da dillalan magungunan gargajiya. Yayin da duhu ya faɗo, dandalin ya cika da ɗimbin rumfunan abinci yayin da adadin mutanen da ke dandalin ke ƙaru.

Turi yana tashi daga rumfunan abinci

Filin yana gefen gefe ɗaya ta Marrakesh souk, kasuwar gargajiya ta Arewacin Afirka da ke ba da buƙatun yau da kullun na mazauna gida, da kasuwancin yawon buɗe ido. A wasu ɓangarorin akwai otal-otal da lambuna da wuraren shaye-shaye, da ƴan ƙananan tituna suna kaiwa cikin lungu da sako na kwata na madina.

Da zarar tashar bas, an rufe wurin don zirga-zirgar ababen hawa a farkon 2000s. Hukumomi suna sane da mahimmancin sa ga kasuwancin yawon buɗe ido, kuma kasancewar 'yan sanda mai ƙarfi amma mai hankali yana tabbatar da amincin baƙi.

Babbar Jagorar UNESCO ta Baka da Gadon Dan Adam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tunanin aikin UNESCO Mabambantan Baka da Gadon Dan Adam sun fito ne daga mutanen da suka damu da Jamaa el Fna. An san wurin da yawan ayyukan al'ada ta masu ba da labari, mawaƙa da mawaƙa, amma yana fuskantar barazanar ci gaban tattalin arziki. A cikin gwagwarmaya don kare al'adu, mazaunan sun yi kira da a dauki mataki a matakin kasa da kasa don gane bukatar kare irin wadannan wurare - da ake kira "wuri na al'adu" - da sauran shahararrun kuma nau'o'in al'adun gargajiya.

UNESCO tana ƙarfafa al'ummomi don ganowa, rubutawa, kariya, haɓakawa da kuma farfado da irin wannan gado. Lakabin UNESCO yana da nufin wayar da kan jama 'a game da mahimmancin gado da na baka a matsayin wani muhimmin sashi na bambancin al'adu.

The spectacle of Jamaa el Fna is repeated daily and each day it is different. Everything changes — voices, sounds, gestures, the public which sees, listens, smells, tastes, touches. The oral tradition is framed by one much vaster — that we can call intangible. The Square, as a physical space, shelters a rich oral and intangible tradition.

— Juan Goytisolo, in a speech delivered at the opening meeting for the First Proclamation, 15 May 2001[6]

2011 bam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Café Argana washegarin tashin bam

Jim kadan da tsakar rana a ranar 28 ga Afrilu, 2011, fashewar wani abu da ya samo asali a wani wurin shan magani a dandalin ya kashe mutane 17 tare da jikkata wasu 25. Rahotannin farko sun dora alhakin fashewar iskar gas ta bazata, amma daga baya jami'ai sun zargi "masu aikata laifuka" da "'yan ta'adda".

Tambayoyi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jamaa El-Fnaa, babban filin wasa na Marrakesh, an nuna shi a kashi na biyar na 25th Season of the Amazing Race .
  • An nuna filin wasa a cikin fim din Alfred Hitchcock Mutumin da Ya Sani da yawa (1956).
  • Ana iya ganin wani labari mai ban sha'awa na wurin a cikin shekarun 1970 a cikin littafin Esther Freud Hideous Kinky .
  • Mawakan Jimmy Page da Robert Plant sun rubuta wasu waƙoƙi da DVD ɗin su "Babu Quarter - Unledded" a dandalin.
  • A matsayin Djemaa el-Fnaa, filin filin wuri ne da aka nuna a cikin littafin James Michener na 1971 The Drifters .
  • Juan Goytisolo ya zauna a Marrakesh kuma ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin rarraba Jamaa el Fna a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin Mafi kyawun Gadon Baka da Gadon Dan Adam.
  • An nuna dandalin a matsayin saitin daukar hoto a cikin jerin gaskiya na talabijin na Amurka na gaba Babban Model Cycle 16 .
  • Rahotannin da ba a tabbatar da su ba na cewa a wasu lokuta ana daure masu fafutukar siyasa da cin zarafi a gidan yarin ‘yan sanda da ke karkashin Jamaa el Fna.
  • Littafin "Shekara a Marrakesh" na marubucin balaguro na Burtaniya Peter Mayne ya haɗa da kwatancin filin a cikin 1950s.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. The Mosque at the End of the World, Tahir Shah, BBC Radio 3, 10 April 2010
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :222
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2
  5. Bergin and Nijman (2014) Open, Unregulated Trade in Wildlife in Morocco’s Markets. TRAFFIC Bulletin Available from researchgate.net, accessed Mar 23, 2015.
  6. Juan Goytisolo (2001-05-15). "Defending Threatened Cultures". Unesco.org. Retrieved 2009-09-07.
  • Jagoran Jagora zuwa Maroko, 2001. Buga Jagora Mai Kauri 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wikimedia Commons on Jema el-Fnaa  

Samfuri:Marrakesh