Kalaba

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Globe icon.svgKalaba
Flago-de-Calabar.PNG
Calabar.jpg

Suna saboda Calabar River (en) Fassara
Wuri
Locator Map Calabar-Nigeria.png
 4°57′00″N 8°19′30″E / 4.95°N 8.325°E / 4.95; 8.325
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaCross River
Babban birnin
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 604 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 32 m
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Calabar a karni na sha tara.

Kalaba ko ( Callabar, Calabari, Calbari,Calabar)[1] itace babban birnin jihar Cross River, Nijeriya. A da ana kiranta da Akwa Akpa, daga harshen Efik.[2] Birnin na daura da rafin Calabar da kuma rafin Great Kwa River da kuma creek na jihar Cross Rivers. Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekara ta 2006, akwai jimillar mutane 371,022 a jihar sannan garin na da fadin 406kmsq (157 sq mi).[3] An gina birnin Calabar a karni na sha shida. A gwamnatance, an raba garin zuwa akashi biyu; Calabar Municipal da kuma karamar hukumar Calabar ta kudu.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Calabar suna ne da mutanen Portugal suka baiwa wannan wurin a karni na a loacin da suka iso wannan yankin. Sai izuwa karni na 18 mutanen Efik da Ibibiyo sukayo hijira daga yankunan kogin Niger suka dawo gabar rafin Calabar.[4]

A ranar 10 ga watan Satumban shekara ta 1884 ne Sarauniya Victoria ta rattaba hannu a wata yarjejeniya don kare yankin da turawa suka sani a lokacin da tsohuwar Kalaba. Wannan dalilin ya bawa gwamnati daman gudanar da harkokinta har a yankunan kusa da ita wanda suka hada da Bakassi.[5] Kalaba ta kasance hedikwatan gudanarwa na turawa har zuwa shekara ta 1906, lokacin da kejerar mulki ta koma Lagos.[4]

A yau Kalaba babban birni ne da birane kamar su Akim, Ikot Ansa, Ikot Ishie, Kasuk, Duke Town, Henshaw Town, Cobham Town, Ikot Omin da kuma Obutong.[6]

Tashar Jiragen ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun a karni na 16, Kalaba ta kasance babban tashar jiragen ruwa na kasashe (International Seaport), tana jigilar kaya zuwa kasashen waje kamar man-ja.[7] Kalaba ta kasance kafar jigilar bayi a lokacin cinkayyar bayi na "Atlantic slave trade". Inyamurai suka kasance mafi akasarin mutanen da aka fi saidawa a matsayin bayi duk da sun kasance tsiraru a wancan lokacin.[8]

A tsakanin shekara ta 725 har zuwa 1750, akalla mutanen Afurka 17,000 aka saida a matsayin bayi daga Calabar zuwa kasashen Turai.[9]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A kasafin yanayi na Koppen's Climatic Classfication, Calabar tana da tropical monsoon climate (Köppen: Am) da damuna mai tsawo na kusan watanni goma (10) da gajeren lokacin rani dake da watanni biyu kacal. Akwai karanci na lokacin sanyi a garin. Yanayi na zafi/sanyi baida bambamci sosai, da akasarin sanyi da zafi kimanin 25 to 28 degrees Celsius. Sannan kuma bambamcin yanayi na zafi/sanyi baida bambamci sosai a tsakanin dare da kuma wuni kasancewa ragin degrees kadan ne da dare. Matsakaicin ruwan sama a Calabar yana tsakanin millimita 3,000 (120 in)

Climate data for Calabar
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
(93.0)
36.1
(97.0)
37.2
(99.0)
35.0
(95.0)
33.9
(93.0)
32.8
(91.0)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
32.3
(90.1)
32.1
(89.8)
31.4
(88.5)
30.9
(87.6)
29.2
(84.6)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
28.2
(82.8)
29.4
(84.9)
30.4
(86.7)
31.0
(87.8)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.2
(81.0)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
25.2
(77.4)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
26.6
(79.9)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
22.8
(73.0)
23.1
(73.6)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72.0)
22.2
(72.0)
22.2
(72.0)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
16.7
(62.1)
20.0
(68.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
17.7
(63.9)
16.7
(62.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 38
(1.5)
76
(3.0)
158
(6.2)
218
(8.6)
313
(12.3)
411
(16.2)
455
(17.9)
419
(16.5)
421
(16.6)
328
(12.9)
191
(7.5)
48
(1.9)
3,076
(121.1)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.3 mm) 3 4 11 14 17 20 22 24 22 19 12 5 173
Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 85 87 88 90 92 92 92 90 89 85 88
Mean monthly sunshine hours 167.4 146.9 108.5 135.0 136.4 129.0 55.8 49.6 60.0 105.4 135.0 176.7 1,405.7
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.4 5.2 3.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 1.8 1.6 2.0 3.4 4.5 5.7 3.9
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[10]

Siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Calabar tana da marautu uku masu karfi, Masarautar Qua Kingdom na Ejagham (Ekoi)/asalin Bantu, Masarautar Efut da kuma Masarautar Efik. Masarautar Qua tana da sarautar Ndidem, Masarautar Efut kuma sarautar Muri munene, shi kuma sarautar Efik ana kiransa da Obong.

Sarautar Gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka, Calabar wanda a da anfi saninta da Akwa Akpa masarauta ce mai zaman kanta tare da birnin Kalaba a matsayin gwamnatin garin. Calabar tana da sarakuna guda uku. Masarautar Obong na Efik (Obong of Calabar) wacce keda kungiyar asiri ta Ekpe a matsayin kujerar sarkin Obong ke zama. Sai kuma kujerar Ndidem wacce aka fi sanida Ndidem of Calabar wanda shine sarkin Qua a matsayin sarauta mafi daraja na birnin Calabar. Sai kuma sarautar Muri munene na Efut wanda shine sarkin Efut kuma sarauta mafi daraja a kudancin Kalaba.

Mutanen Kalaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Kalaba sun kasance mutane ne daga tshohuwar gundumar Calaba ta kudu, babban birnin Calabar, Akpabuyo, Bakassi, Biase, Odukpani da kuma Akamkpa. Amma a yadda akafi amfani da kalmar, kalmar "Mutanen Kalaba" na iya nufin asalin mutanen Kalaba na yankin Kudu-maso-Gabacin jihar da watau wanda suke a yau a jihohin Akwa Ibom State da Cross River State.

Sojin-ruwan Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalaba itace hedikwatan sojojin ruwa na Eastern Naval Command.[11] Akwai makarantun horar yara na Nigerian Navy Secondary School, wanda ke nan a Akpabuyo, wanda tafiyar minti goma ne daga Tashar jirgin sama. Wannan makaranta yana dauke da sashin Nigerian Navy Primary School da kuma Naval Officers Wives Association Primary School, wanda duka suna nan a Kot-Ansa, Calabar.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara Dubawa a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Banknotes of Scotland
  • Kalabari tribe
  • Efik people

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Falola, Toyin; Amanda Warnock (2007). Encyclopedia of the Middle Passage: Greenwood Milestones in African American History. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-313-33480-1.
  2. Afigbo, Adiele Eberechukwu (1987). The Igbo and their neighbours: inter-group relations in southeastern Nigeria to 1953. University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-154-583-6.
  3. "Simon O. Ering (2010). "The Population Situation in Cross River State of Nigeria and Its Implication for Socio-Economic Development: Observations from the 1991 and 2006 Censuses" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calabar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 962.
  5. "Brief History of Cross-River State:: Nigeria Information & Guide". nigeriagalleria.com. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  6. "Seven Reasons Why Calabar is the Cradle of Nigeria's Civilization - Opera News". ng.opera.news. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  7. Iliffe, John (1995). Africans: The History of a Continent (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-521-48422-7.
  8. "Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia(illustrated ed.). Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 22. ISBN 1-57806-706-5.
  9. Sparks, Randy J. (2004). The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-century Atlantic Odyssey. Harvard University Press. p. 39. ISBN 0-674-01312-3.
  10. "Klimatafel von Calabar / Nigeria" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in Jamusanci). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  11. Hackett, Rosalind I. J. (1989). Religion in Calabar: The Religious Life and History of a Nigerian Town. Walter de Gruyter. p. 180. ISBN 3-11-011481-X.