Krasnodar

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Hoton karni na 19 wanda ke nuna Kuban Cossacks obelisk a cikin Yekaterinodar.
Tram a cikin Krasnodar.

Krasnodar ( Russian ) birni ne, da ke a Kudancin Rasha, a kan Kogin Kuban, kusan 148 kilometres (92 mi) arewa maso gabashin tashar Bahar Maliya ta Novorossiysk .

Ita ce cibiyar gudanarwa ta Krasnodar Krai (wanda aka fi sani da Kuban ). Tana da yawan mutane Jumulla 744,900 a 2010, 646,175 a 2002 da 620,516 a 1989.

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa garin ne a watan Janairu 12, 1794 (kalandar Gregorian) a matsayin Yekaterinodar ( Екатеринода́р ). Sunan asalin yana nufin "Kyautar Catherine", duka don girmamawar kyautar da Catherine the Great ta bayar a yankin Kuban zuwa ga Black Sea Cossacks (daga baya Kuban Cossacks ), sannan kuma don girmama Saint Catherine, Shuhada, wanda ake wa kallon zama magajin birni. Bayan Juyin Juya Hali na Oktoba, Yekaterinodar aka sake masa suna zuwa Krasnodar (Disamba 1920). Akwai ma'anoni biyu masu yuwuwa ga sabon sunan garin: Krasno- (Красно-), ma'ana ko dai 'kyakkyawa' (wani tsohon tushe) ko 'ja' (musamman dacewa dangane da yanayin siyasar lokacin); da -dar (-дар), ma'ana 'kyauta'. Don haka, sunan birni yana nufin ko dai kyakkyawar kyauta ko kyautar ja (ma'ana 'kyautar ja'). .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yekaterinodar a farkon karni na 20

Asalin garin yana farawa ne da sansanin soja da Cossacks suka gina don kare iyakokin masarauta da neman mallakar Rasha akan Circassia, wanda Ottoman Turkey ta fafata . A farkon rabin ƙarni na 19 Yekaterinodar ya zama babban cibiyar Kuban Cossacks . An ba shi matsayin gari a cikin 1867. Zuwa shekarar 1888 kusan mutane 45,000 suka rayu a cikin garin kuma ya zama muhimmiyar cibiyar kasuwanci ta kudancin Rasha. A cikin 1897, an gina katafaren bikin tunawa da tsohon tarihin Kuban Cossack Host 200 a Yekaterinodar.

A lokacin Yaƙin basasa na Rasha garin ya canza hannaye sau da yawa tsakanin Red Army da Sojojin sa kai, yawancin Kuban Cossacks sun kasance masu adawa da Bolsheviks waɗanda ke goyan bayan Farar Fata .

A lokacin Yakin Patan Patasa (Yaƙin Duniya na II), Sojojin Jamusawa sun mamaye Krasnodar tsakanin 12 ga Agusta, 1942 da 12 ga Fabrairu, 1943. Garin ya sami asara mai yawa a cikin fadan amma an sake gina shi kuma an gyara shi bayan yakin.

A lokacin rani na 1943, Soviet ta fara gwaji, gami da na 'yan ƙasarsu, don haɗa kai da Nazis da shiga cikin laifukan yaƙi. An gudanar da irin wannan gwaji na farko a Krasnodar a ranakun 14-17, 1943 na Yuli. Wannan ita ce fitina ta farko a bainar jama'a game da kisan Yahudawa da yawa a lokacin Kisan kiyashi kan Yahudawa. Kotun Krasnodar ta yanke hukuncin kisa sau takwas, wadanda aka gudanar a dunkule a dandalin garin a gaban taron mutane kusan dubu talatin.

An haifi shahararren soprano 'yar Rasha Anna Netrebko, soprano Evgenia Kononova, cosmonaut Gennady Padalka, Andrei Shkuro mai sabawa ra'ayin juzu'i da motsa jiki mai motsa jiki Inna Zhukova an haife su a Krasnodar. Wani sananne 'yan qasar na Krasnodar ne Girka kwando na duniya Lazaros Papadopoulos, suka yi hijira zuwa ƙasar Girka tare da Pontic Greek iyaye lokacin da yake da shekaru 10 da haihuwa.

Shukhovs Hyperboloid Tower kusa da Krasnodars Circus
Titin Krasnaya

Manyan abubuwan gani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Krasnodar gida ne ga hasumiyar ƙarfe wanda injiniyan Rasha kuma masanin kimiyya Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov ya gina a 1928; yana kusa da Krasnodar Circus .

Sauran abubuwan jan hankali sun hada da Cathedral na St. Catherine, da Gidan Tarihi na Fasahar Jiha, wurin shakatawa da gidan wasan kwaikwayo mai suna Maxim Gorky, kyakkyawan zauren kade kade na Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, wanda ake ganin yana da wasu daga cikin mafi kyawun kyan gani a kudancin Rasha, State Cossack Choir da da krasnodar circus

Wurin da ya fi ban sha'awa na Krasnodar shine titin Krasnaya (wanda aka fassara shi da "Ja, Kyakkyawan Titi"). Akwai abubuwan gani da yawa a can. A farkon wannan titin mutum na iya ganin Babban Gidan Wasan Kere-Kere; a daya karshen kuma mutum zai iya ganin Avrora cinemacenter. "Arumpump Arch" yana tsakiyar titin Krasnaya.

Sufuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Krasnodar da kewayenta, Sentinel-2 tauraron dan adam hoto, 2018-09-18

Babban kamfanin jirgin saman shine Kuban Airlines (a Filin jirgin saman Krasnodar na Duniya ), kuma manyan otal-otal a cikin birni sun haɗa da Intourist, Hotel Moskva, da Hotel Platan. Krasnodar yana amfani da 220 V / 50 Hz samar da wutar lantarki tare da kantunan zagaye biyu, kamar yawancin ƙasashen Turai.

Jigilar jama'a a cikin Krasnodar ta ƙunshi bas ta birni, trolleybuses, trams, da marshrutkas . Trolleybuses da trams, dukansu suna da ƙarfi ta wayoyin lantarki, sune ainihin hanyar sufuri a Krasnodar. Ba kamar Moscow da Saint Petersburg ba, Krasnodar ba shi da tsarin birni.

Tambari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tambari na Yekaterinodar da aka gabatar a 1841 da Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. Harafin sarauta "E" a tsakiya na Ekaterina II ne (na Rasha don Catherine II ). Hakanan yana nuna ranar da aka kafa garin, Mikiya mai kai biyu (mai alamar Tsar na taimakon Black Sea Cossacks), bulawa na Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar sansanin soja, da tutoci masu haruffa "E", "P", "A ", da" N "tsaye ga Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I da Nicholas I. Taurari masu launin rawaya kewaye da garken suna misalta stanitsas na Bahar Maliya 59 a cikin garin.

Alakar duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tan tagwayen birane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Krasnodar yana tagwaye birane guda biyar, kamar yadda hukumar kula da ƴan uwan birane ta duniya ta tsara. (SCI):

Shahararrun mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Anna Netrebko (b. 1971), mawaƙin opera
  • Alexander Tamanian (1878-1936), Armenian neoclassical architect
  • Gennady Padalka (b. 1958), cosmonaut
  • Alexandre Bondar (b. 1972), marubuci kuma marubuci
  • Sergei Tiviakov (b. 1973), dara darakta Grandmaster
  • Eduard Kokcharov (b. 1975), dan wasan kwallon hannu
  • Natalia Chernova (b. 1976), mai wasan motsa jiki
  • Lazaros Papadopoulos (b. 1980), dan wasan kwallon kwando na Girka
  • Inna Zhukova (b. 1986), mai wasan motsa jiki mai motsa jiki

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]