Kungiyar Kasuwanci ta Duniya

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Group half.svgKungiyar Kasuwanci ta Duniya
World Trade Organization (logo and wordmark).svg
Fourth Global Review of Aid for Trade 1691 (9237986689).jpg
(2013)
Bayanai
Gajeren suna OMC, OMC da WTO
Iri international organization (en) Fassara da ma'aikata
Ƙasa Switzerland
Aiki
Member count (en) Fassara 164
Ƙaramar kamfani na
Ma'aikata 640 (2018)
Mulki
Shugaba Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Hedkwata Geneva (en) Fassara
Subdivisions
WTO members and observers.svg
Financial data
Budget (en) Fassara 197,200,000 Fr (2018)
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1 ga Janairu, 1995
1995

wto.org


Facebook icon 192.pngTwitter Logo.pngYoutube-variation.png
Group half.svgWorld Trade Organization
World Trade Organization (logo and wordmark).svg
Fourth Global Review of Aid for Trade 1691 (9237986689).jpg
(2013)
Bayanai
Gajeren suna OMC, OMC da WTO
Iri Intergovernmental organization
Ƙasa Switzerland
Aiki
Mamba na 164 members (160 UN member states, the European Union, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan)[1]
Member count (en) Fassara 164
Ƙaramar kamfani na
Ma'aikata 640 (2018)
Mulki
Shugaba Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
Hedkwata Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland
Subdivisions
WTO members and observers.svg
Financial data
Budget (en) Fassara 197.2 million Swiss francs (approx. 220 million US$) in 2020.[2]
Tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1 ga Janairu, 1995
1995

wto.org


Facebook icon 192.pngTwitter Logo.pngYoutube-variation.png

Kungiyar Kasuwanci ta Duniya (WTO) kungiya ce ta gwamnatoci da ke tsarawa da sauƙaƙe kasuwancin duniya. Tare da ingantacciyar haɗin gwiwa a cikin Tsarin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, gwamnatoci suna amfani da ƙungiyar don kafawa, sake dubawa, da kuma tilasta dokokin da ke tafiyar da kasuwancin duniya. Ta fara aiki a hukumance a ranar 1 ga watan Janairu 1995, bisa ga Yarjejeniyar Marrakesh ta 1994, don haka ya maye gurbin Babban Yarjejeniyar Tariffs and trade (GATT) wacce aka kafa a 1948. WTO ita ce babbar kungiyar tattalin arziki ta duniya, tare da kasashe mambobi 164 da ke wakiltar sama da kashi 98% na cinikin duniya da GDP na duniya.

WTO tana saukaka kasuwanci a cikin kayayyaki, ayyuka da kuma ikon tunani tsakanin kasashe masu shiga ta hanyar samar da tsarin yin shawarwari kan yarjejeniyoyin ciniki, wanda yawanci ke da nufin ragewa ko kawar da haraji, kaso, da sauran hani; wakilan gwamnatocin membobi ne suka sanya hannu kan waɗannan yarjejeniyoyin :fol.9–10kuma majalisarsu ta amince da su. Har ila yau, WTO tana gudanar da warware takaddama mai zaman kansa don tabbatar da bin yarjejeniyoyin kasuwanci da mahalarta taron da kuma warware takaddamar da suka shafi kasuwanci. Ƙungiyar ta hana nuna bambanci tsakanin abokan ciniki, amma tana ba da keɓancewa don kare muhalli, tsaron ƙasa, da sauran mahimman manufofi.

WTO tana da hedikwata a birnin Geneva na kasar Switzerland. Babban hukumar da ke yanke shawara ita ce taron Ministoci, wanda ya ƙunshi dukkan ƙasashe mambobi kuma yawanci ana taruwa a kowace shekara; An jaddada ijma'i a duk yanke shawara. Babbar majalisa ce ke gudanar da ayyukan yau da kullun, wanda ta ƙunshi wakilai daga dukkan membobi. Sakatariya mai ma'aikata sama da 600, karkashin jagorancin Darakta-Janar da wakilai hudu, tana ba da sabis na gudanarwa, ƙwararru, da fasaha. Kasafin kudin WTO na shekara ya kai dala miliyan 220, wanda mambobi ke ba da gudummawar su bisa la'akari da adadin kasuwancin duniya.

Bincike ya nuna cewa WTO ta inganta harkokin kasuwanci da rage shingen kasuwanci. Har ila yau, ya yi tasiri ga yarjejeniyar ciniki gabaɗaya; Wani bincike da aka yi a shekarar 2017 ya gano cewa, mafi yawan yarjejeniyoyin kasuwanci na fifiko (PTAs) har zuwa wannan lokacin suna magana a sarari a kan WTO, tare da kaso mai tsoka na rubutu da aka kwafi daga yarjejeniyar WTO. Buri na 10 na muradun ci gaba mai dorewa na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya kuma yi nuni da yarjejeniyar WTO a matsayin kayan aikin rage rashin daidaito. Sai dai masu sukar sun ce ba a raba fa'idar ciniki cikin 'yanci da WTO ke samu.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Masana tattalin arziki Harry White (hagu) da John Maynard Keynes a taron Bretton Woods.[3]

Yarjejeniya ta farko ta WTO kan haraji da ciniki (GATT), an kafa ta ne ta hanyar yerjejeniyar kasashe 23 a shekara ta 1947 bayan yakin duniya na biyu bayan wasu sabbin cibiyoyi masu zaman kansu da suka sadaukar da hadin gwiwar tattalin arzikin kasa da kasa-kamar bankin duniya (kafa 1944) ) da Asusun Ba da Lamuni na Duniya (wanda aka kafa 1944 ko 1945). Kwatankwacin cibiyar kasuwanci ta duniya, mai suna Ƙungiyar Ciniki ta Duniya ba ta fara kamar Amurka ba. da sauran masu rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar ba su amince da yarjejeniyar kafawa ba, [4] [5] don haka a hankali GATT ta zama kungiyar ta kasa da kasa. [6]




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Members and Observers Archived 10 Satumba 2011 at the Wayback Machine at WTO official website
  2. "WTO Secretariat budget for 2020". WTO official site. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  3. A.E. Eckes Jr., US Trade History, 73
    * A. Smithies, Reflections on the Work of Keynes, 578–601
    * N. Warren, Internet and Globalization, 193
  4. P. van den Bossche, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, 80
  5. Palmeter-Mavroidis, Dispute Settlement, 2
  6. It was contemplated that the GATT would apply for several years until the ITO came into force.