Lagos (birni)

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Globe icon.svgLagos
Flag of Lagos.svg Lagos Seal.png
Lagos Island.jpg

Wuri
Location of Lagos.png
 6°27′N 3°24′E / 6.45°N 3.4°E / 6.45; 3.4
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaLagos
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 14,862,000 (2021)
• Yawan mutane 12,688.68 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Turanci
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 1,171.28 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 34 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1472
Tsarin Siyasa
• Shugaban gwamnati Babajide Sanwo-Olu
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo lagosstate.gov.ng
Jihar lagos mai yawan jama'a
chunkoson jama'a a garin Lagos
Bene na farko a Nigeria wanda ke birnin Badagry a Lagos
Babban filin jirgin sama dake Lagos wanda aka fi sani da "Murtala Muhammad International Airport"
Gabar Teku na Badagry wanda ke babban birnin Lagos
Babbab Asibitin EKO dake Victoria Island a Lagos

Birnin Legas, ko kuma Birnin Iko, ita ce babban birnin Jihar Legas da ke Najeriya. Legas tana daya daga cikin birane mafi girma da yawan jama'a a Afirka da ma duniya gabaki daya. Legas ita ce birni na biyu mafi girma a Afirka, kuma na bakwai a duniya.[1] Kimanin mutum miliyan 15.3 (a shekara ta 2022) ke rayuwa a Legas.[2] Garin Legas na da mutane kimanin 23.5 million a 2018, wanda ya maida shi babban birni mafi girma a nahiyar Afirka. Legas ta kasance cibiyar kasuwanci a jihar Legas da Najeriya gaba daya.[3][4] Legas tana daya daga cikin birane goma masu habaka da sauri a duniya[5][6]Babban birnin yana matsayin na hudu a kawo kudin shiga (GDP) a Afirka[7]kuma akwai daya daga cikin tashar jiragen ruwa mafi hada-hada Afirka.[8]Birnin Legas cibiya ne na ilimi, gargajiya a sassan Afirka da ke kudancin sahara.

Legas a da gida ne ga mutanen Awori, wani reshe ne na Yarbanci na yammacin Afirka. Amma yanzu ta zama birnin tashoshin jiragen ruwa wanda ya samo asali daga tsibirai dabam-dabam.[9]

Gwamnatin tarayya ke gudanar da harkokin wannan babban birni har izuwa shekarar 1967 lokacin da aka rarraba birnin zuwa kananan hukumomi 7 da muke da su a yau,[10][11] da kuma karin birane 3 wanda ya sa kananan hukumomin suka koma 13 wanda suka samar da jihar Legas na yau.[12][13]

Har wa yau, an mai da Ikeja ta zamo babban birnin jihar a shekara ta 1976, sannan Abuja ta koma babban birnin tarayya a shekarar 1991. Wuraren da ake kira birnin Legas watau "Lagos Metroplitan Area"[14] [15][16]sun hada da manyan biranen[17] jihar guda 16 har da Ikeja. Wannan manyan birane sun mamaye kashi 37% na fadin kasar Legas, sannan tana dauke da fiye da kaso 86% na mutanen jihar Legas.

Akwai rudani game da ainihin yawan mutane birnin Legas. A kidaya da akayi na shekara ta 2006 ya nuna cewa akwai adadin mutane miliyan 8 a birnin, sai dai gwamnatin jihar ta nuna rashin amincewa ga adadin kidayan inda ta daki nata adadin da kimanin mutane miliyan 16. A shekara ta 2015 wani kundi wanda gwamnati bata tantance shi ya sanya mutanen Legas har zuwa kusa da jihar Ogun kimanin mutum miliyan 21.[18][19][20]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lagos
Lagos

Mutanen Awori (reshen yaren yarbanci) ne suka fara zama a ainihin garin a karni na 15.[21][22][23] Daga baya mutanen Awori sun koma wani tsiburi da ake kira Iddo sannan sai kuma babban tsiburin Lagos.[24][25]A karni na 16, Daular Benin ta ci nasarar mutanen mamaye mutane Awori sannan tsibirin ya zama tushen yaki wanda ake kira Eko a karkashin Oba (sarki) na lokacin.[26][27] Har yanzu ana kiran garin Lagos Eko a gargajiyance. Lagos wanda ke nufin "tafki" (lakes) a harshen Portugal suna ne wanda mutanen Portugal suka baiwa wajen. A tarihance, garin ya kasance na yaruka daba daban wanda suke rayuwa a wajen. Bayan mutanen Awori da kuma mamaye ta daga jaruman mayakan Bini, jihar ta jawo ra'ayin turawan Portugal a karni na 15.[28]

Mai binciken kasashe dan Portugal ya ziyarci wajen a 1472, inda ya sanya wa wajen suna Lago de Curamo watau Tafkin Curamo.

A farkon karni na 19, Turawa sunyi kokarin kawo karshen cinikayyar bayi na "Transatlantic Slave Trade" ta hanyar kafa kungiyoyin "West Africa Squadron" ko kuma "Preventative Squadron" wanda sukayi ta bibiyar jiragen ruwa da ke daukan bayi daga yankunan da ke kusa da ruwa kama daga Sierra Leone har zuwa Kogin Niger Delta (watau Najeriya a yau) da kuma can nesa da kudancin yankin Congo don kafa dokaki da manyan mutane dake yankin Afurka ta yamma.[29]A shekara ta 1849 Turawa sun nada John Beecroft a matsayin karamin jakadan Benin da Biafra matsayin da ya rike (a karkashin gwamna Fernando Po) har zuwa mutuwarsa a 1854. An nada John Duncan a matsayin maitamakin karamin jakada kuma an maida shi Wydah. A lokacin da aka nada Beecroft, masarautar Lagos (a karkashin mulkin Oba Kosoko) tana yammacin yakin Benin da Biafra wanda daya ne daga cikin manyan tashoshin fataucin bayi a yankin.[30]A cikin shekara ta 1851 tare da matsi don tsaida cinikayyar bayi, turawa sun karbe Lagos wanda ake kiran lokacin da 'yantar da Lagos (Bombardment of Lagos ko Capture of Lagos),[31][32] inda aka sauke Kosoko kuma aka daura Oba Akitoye. Oba Akitoye ya sanya hannu a wata yarjejeniya tsakanin Turawa da Lagos don haramta kasuwanci bayi a yankin. Sanya hannu a yarjejeniyar na 1952 ya kawo natsuwa a Lagos inda turawa suka bada kariya ga mutanen Lagos.[33][34] Turawa sun fara mulkan Lagos a ran 5 March shekara ta 1962. An amso ragowar sashen Najeriya a shekara 1887, sannan kuma a lokacin da aka kaddamar yankin mulkin mallakan turawa na Najeriya a 1914, Lagos ta zamo babban birnin kasan, har zuwa farkon samun 'yancin kasar a 1960. Tun a karni na 19, Lagos ta zamo cibiyar hada-hada tsakaninta da turawa.[35][36][37] An samar da hanyoyin titunan jirgin kasa da wayoyin tarho da suke hada sadarwa tsakanin Najeriya da London 1886.[38][39][40]An kawo wutan lantarki a cikin gari 1898.[41][42]A cikin lokaci kankani, Lagos ta samu cigaba da bunkasa a dalilin ribar man-fetur a Njeriya.[43]

Kafin kirkirar jihar Lagos a 27 Mayu 1967, Lagos ta kasance babban birni mai cin gashin kanta wanda gwamnatin tarayya ta nata a karkashin Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs, a yayinda Lagos City Council (LCC) ke gudanar da harkokin gwamnatin jihar.[44]Lagos tare da sauran birane daga mulkin turawa (Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe da kuma Badagry), aka hada aka samar da jihar Lagos. An rarraba Birnin Lagos zuwa kananan hukumomi 7 da muke da su a yau, a yayinda sauran biranen suka rarrabu zuwa kananan hukumomi 13 na jihar. Birnin Lagos na taka rawa biyu a matsayin babban birnin jihar da kuma babban birnin Kasa har zuwa 1976 lokacin da aka maida Ikeja ta zamo babban birnin Jihar. Lagos ta sama sauye-sauye da yawa a lokacin mulkin sojojin Najeriya.[45]Har wayau, an canza babban birnin Najeriya daga Lagos zuwa Abuja a ranar 12 ga watan December 1991.[12]

Labarin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kasa Lagos zuwa kashi biyu, kasa (mainland) da kuma tsiburi (Island)

Sashin Birnin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gini mafi tsawo a Najeriya yana Lagos. A iya samun tsarin gine-gine na zamani na turawa iri-iri a birnin Lagos. Ana iya samun tsarin gine-ginen Brazil kamansu Water House da Shitta Bey Mosque.[46][47][48]Benaye na skyscrappers na nan a tsakiyar tsibirin sannan akwai gine-gine masu tsawo a sashen cikin gari (mainland).[49]A kwanan nan ne gwamnati ta tada tsofaffin wuraren shakatawa da kuma dazuka da nufin fadada filayen zaman al'umma. Akwai gine-gine na ado na ban sha'awa da kece raini da yawa a cikin birnin.[50][51][52][53][54]


Tsibiri (Island)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Island shine kalmar geography wacce ake amfani da ita wajen kiran wuraren da ke kan hanyoyin ruwan da suka hadu da tekun Atlantic Ocean wanda ya samar da bakin tekun Lagos, da waje mai turbaya a Lagos (mainland). Tsibirin din ya hada da tsibirai daban-daban wanda koramu ke tsakaninsu wanda aka hade su da gadoji. Wannan sashin na Lagos shine ainihin wurin kasuwanci da bushasha. Kuma a wannan yankin ne benaye na zamani suke. Kananan hukumomi dake cikin tsibirin sun hada da Lagos Island da Eti-Osa. Sannan kuma ainihin wuraren dake da manyan gidaje sun hada da Ikoyi da kuma Victoria Island.

Wani sashi mai mahimmanci na tsibirin Lagos shine Marina. yana nan dab da kasuwannin idumota da Balogun kuma a nan ne mafi akasarin bankuna da wuraren cinikayya suke. Gadoji guda uku suka hade tsibirin da kuma sashin doron kasa na Lagos. Sune gadar Carter Bridge wacce ta fara daga Iddo, gadar Eko Bridge wacce akafi sani da a da da gadar mainland ta biyu, sai kuma gada ta uku watau Third Mainland Bridge wacce ta taho daga sashin mai tarin jama'a zuwa koramar Lagos (Lagos lagoon). Akwai kuma gadar Ikoyi wanda ke cikin tsibirn, wacce ta hada Ikoyi da Lekki Phase 1.[55]Za'a fara ginin gada na hudu a shekara ta 2022 a cewar gwmanan Lagos, Babajide Sanwo-Olu.[56][57]

Lagos Island[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lagos Island shi ke dauke da cibiyar kasuwancin garin (central business district). Gundumar na dauke da manyan benaye. Wurin har wayau na dauke da manyan wararen kasuwanci kamar Idumota da kuma kasuwar Balogun.

Ikoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ikoyi wani yanki ne dake gabacin tsibirin Lagos. Har wayau, Ikoyi ta hade da Victoria Island ta gadar Falomo Brigde. Hedikwatocin gwamnatin tarayya da sauran wuraren gwamnatin kamar Federal secretariat Complex duk suna cikin Ikoyi. A cikin Ikoyi akwai barikin sojojin da na 'yan sanda da gidajen yari masu tsaro sosai.

Victoria Island[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsibirin Victoria Island na yankin kudancin Lagos Island. Tana da wuraren haya masu tsadan gaske da kuma wuraren holewa da shakatawa duk auna can. Wannan tsibiri tare da Ikoyi na da wuraren kasuwanci sannan kuma akwai gabar teku na shakatawa da aka tsara.

Ajah/Lekki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Itama Lekki tana da wurare masu alfarma kaman makwabtan ta Ikoyi da Victoria Island. Girman yankin ya fara daga Lekki toll gate, (inda nan ne aka gudanar da zanzangar #EndSars a watan October shekara ta 2019) har zuwa Ibeju-Lekki da sauran kananan yankuna da ke gefen ta. Akwai wurare na gani na fada acikin Lekki, kamar su Lekki Conservation Centre da Novare Mall daLekki Free Trade Zone – Dangote, Lagos Business School, Eleko Beach, Elegushi Beach, La Campaigne Tropicana – beach/tourist getaway, jami'ar Pan-Atlantic University. Har wayau wurin na takama da babban mutuware na Catholica dake Lekki.

Iddo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akan hanyar ruwa na tafkin tsibirin Lagos akwai wani karamin garin da ake kira Iddo. Iddo ta kasance akan hanyar titin jirgin kasa kuma tana karkashin karamar hukumar Lagos mainland[58]

MainLand[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai tarin mutanen Lagos a Lagos Mainland sannan mafi akasarin ma'aikatu suna can. An san yankin da mawaka da kuma wuraren rawa na dare kamar Yaba da Surulere.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lagos na da yanayi na tropical savanna climate (Aw) a tsarin rabon yanayi na "Köppen climate classification". Wato akwai ruwan sama na tsawon watanni hudu na ruwa mai karfi 60mm (2.4in). Damuna na farawa ne daga watan Aprelu zuwa October, a yayin da rani kan fara daga watan Nuwamba zuwa March. Watan da yafi kowanne ruwan sama mai karfi shine June akalla 315.5 mm ko kuma 12.42in a watan. Sannan kuma wata mafi karancin ruwan sama shine January wanda ke da kasa da 13.2 mm (0.52in).

Lagos na da yanayi na zafi/sanyi da ke tsakanin 28.3 zuwa 32.9°C (82.9 zuwa 91.2 °F). Lagos na da irin yanayi na Southern Hemisphere, da lokaci mafi zafi acikin watan March da kimanin 32.9 zuwa 24.1 °C (91.2 zuwa 75.4 °F). Sannan wata mafi karancin zafi shine August 28.3 to 21.8 °C (82.9 to 71.2 °F).

Climate data for Lagos (Murtala Muhammed International Airport) 1961–1990, extremes: 1886–present
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 40.0
(104.0)
37.1
(98.8)
37.0
(98.6)
39.6
(103.3)
37.0
(98.6)
37.6
(99.7)
33.2
(91.8)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.7
(92.7)
39.9
(103.8)
36.4
(97.5)
40.0
(104.0)
Average high °C (°F) 32.2
(90.0)
33.2
(91.8)
32.9
(91.2)
32.2
(90.0)
30.9
(87.6)
29.3
(84.7)
28.2
(82.8)
28.3
(82.9)
28.9
(84.0)
30.3
(86.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.8
(89.2)
30.8
(87.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.3
(81.1)
28.4
(83.1)
28.5
(83.3)
28.0
(82.4)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.2
(77.4)
25.0
(77.0)
25.5
(77.9)
26.4
(79.5)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
26.8
(80.2)
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
23.7
(74.7)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
21.9
(71.4)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
22.1
(71.8)
22.4
(72.3)
23.0
(73.4)
22.5
(72.5)
22.8
(73.0)
Record low °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
16.1
(61.0)
14.0
(57.2)
14.9
(58.8)
20.0
(68.0)
21.2
(70.2)
15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
13.0
(55.4)
17.9
(64.2)
11.1
(52.0)
11.6
(52.9)
11.1
(52.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.2
(0.52)
40.6
(1.60)
84.3
(3.32)
146.3
(5.76)
202.4
(7.97)
315.5
(12.42)
243.0
(9.57)
121.7
(4.79)
160.0
(6.30)
125.1
(4.93)
39.7
(1.56)
14.8
(0.58)
1,506.6
(59.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.5 2.8 6.6 9.0 12.5 16.2 13.2 11.6 12.7 11.2 4.9 2.1 104.3
Average relative humidity (%) 81 79 76 82 84 87 87 85 86 87 84 82 83
Average dew point °C (°F) 21
(70)
24
(75)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
24
(74)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 164.3 168.0 173.6 180.0 176.7 114.0 99.2 108.5 114.0 167.4 186.0 192.2 1,843.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 5.3 6.1 5.6 6.0 5.7 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.8 5.4 6.2 6.2 5.1
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst (humidity, 1952–1967),[59] NOAA (monthly sun hours)[60]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[61]

Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015)[62] Weather Atlas (daily sun hours)[63]


Al'umma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tattalin Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wuraren Shakatawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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