Manazarta

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Wikidata.svgManazarta
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na relation (en) Fassara

Manazarta ita ce dangantaka tsakanin abubuwa inda abu ɗaya ya tsara, ko kuma ya zama hanyar da za a haɗa ta ko danganta ta, da wani abin. Abu na farko a cikin wannan dangantakar ana cewa yana nufin abu na biyu. An kira shi suna don abu na biyu. Abu na biyu, shine wanda abu na farko yake nuni zuwa gareshi, ana kiran shi mai duba abu na farko. Suna yawanci magana ce ko magana, ko wasu wakilcin alama . Mai yin fassarar na iya zama komai - abu ne na abu, mutum, abin da ya faru, wani aiki, ko kuma ra'ayin da ba a fahimta.

References/Manazarta iya dauka a kan da yawa siffofin, ciki har da: a tunani, mai azanci shine ganewa cewa shi ne audible ( onomatopoeia ), gani (rubutu), olfactory, ko tactile, wani tunanin jihar, dangantaka tare da sauran, [1] spacetime daidaita, m, ko alpha-Tazarar, abu na zahiri ko samar da makamashi. A wasu lokuta, ana amfani da hanyoyi waɗanda suke ɓoye ambaton da gangan daga wasu masu lura, kamar yadda yake a cikin rubutun kalmomi .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Abubuwan da aka ambata a cikin fannoni da yawa na ayyukan ɗan adam da iliminsu, kuma kalmar tana ɗaukar tabarau na ma'ana musamman ga abubuwan da ake amfani da su. An bayyana wasu daga cikinsu a cikin sassan da ke ƙasa.

Etymology da ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar reference an samo ta ne daga Turancin Ingilishi na referren, daga Ma'anar Faransanci ta Tsakiya, daga Latin mai nunawa, "don ɗaukar baya", an ƙirƙira shi daga prefix re - da ferre, "don ɗaukar". [2] Da yawan kalmomi sun samo asali ne daga tushe guda, gami da miƙa wasiƙa, alƙali, mai ba da ra'ayi, rago, raba gardama .

Fi'ili da aka koma (zuwa) da maɓoɓansa na iya ɗaukar ma'anar "haɗi zuwa" ko "haɗa zuwa", kamar yadda yake a cikin ma'anonin isharar da aka bayyana a wannan labarin. Wata ma'anar ita ce "shawara"; wannan yana bayyana a cikin irin waɗannan maganganu kamar aikin tunani, teburin tunani, bayanin aiki, da dai sauransu

Semantics[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Triangle na tunani, daga littafi mai tasiri Ma'anar Ma'ana (1923) na CK Ogden da IA Richards .

A ilimantance, galibi ana fassarashi azaman dangantakar dake tsakanin sunaye ko karin magana da abubuwa waɗanda aka sanya musu suna. Saboda haka, kalmar "Yahaya" tana nufin mutumin Yahaya. Kalmar "shi" tana nufin wasu abubuwan da aka ambata a baya. Abin da ake magana a kai ana kiran shi mai duba kalmar. [3] Wasu lokuta ana kiran dangantakar kalma-abu " lalatawa "; kalmar tana nuna abu. Dangantaka ta hira, dangantakar daga abu zuwa kalma, ana kiranta " misali "; abun yana misalta abin da kalmar take nufi. A cikin nazarin aiki, idan kalma tana nufin kalmar da ta gabata, kalmar da ta gabata ana kiranta da " antecedent ".

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gottlob Frege yayi jayayya cewa ba za'a iya daukar isharar da ma'ana iri daya ba : " Hesperus " (tsohon sunan Girka ne ga tauraron maraice) da " Phosphorus " (tsohon sunan Helenanci na tauraron asuba) duk suna nufin Venus, amma gaskiyar taurari cewa '"Hesperus" shine "Phosphorus"' har yanzu yana iya zama mai ba da bayani, koda kuwa an riga an san ma'anar "Hesperus" da "Phosphorus". Wannan matsalar ta haifar da Frege don rarrabe tsakanin ma'ana da bayanin kalma. Wasu shari'o'in suna da kamar suna da rikitarwa da baza a sanya su cikin wannan tsarin ba; yarda da ra'ayi na tunani na biyu na iya zama dole don cike gibin. Duba kuma Yanayin magana

Alamar yare[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban ma'anar alamar harshe shine haɗuwa da abun ciki da bayyanawa, na farkonsu na iya koma wa ƙungiyoyi a cikin duniya ko kuma nuna ƙarin ra'ayoyi marasa ma'ana, misali tunani. Wasu sassa na magana suna wanzuwa ne kawai don isharar magana, watau anaphora kamar karin magana . Theungiyar rukunin abubuwan da ake nunawa suna nuna ishara game da mahalarta biyu a cikin jumla. Waɗannan na iya zama wakili (ɗan wasa) da haƙuri (aiki a kan su), kamar yadda yake a cikin "Mutumin ya wanke kansa", jigon da mai karɓa, kamar yadda yake a "Na nuna Maryamu ga kanta", ko wasu haɗuwa da dama da za a iya samu.

Kimiyyan na'urar kwamfuta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A kimiyyar kwamfuta, nassoshi sune nau'ikan bayanai waɗanda suke nuni zuwa wani abu a wani wuri a cikin ƙwaƙwalwa kuma ana amfani dasu don gina nau'ikan tsarin bayanai iri-iri, kamar jerin jeri . Gabaɗaya, tunani shine ƙimar da ke ba da damar shirin don kai tsaye ga takamaiman abun bayanan. Yawancin harsunan shirye-shiryen suna tallafawa wani nau'i na tunani. Don takamaiman nau'in bayanin da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin harshen C ++, duba bayanin (C ++) .

Maganar tunani tana da mahimmanci a cikin ka'idar bayanan bayanai ; duba mutuncin magana .

Laburare da kimiyyar bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayani game da nau'ikan buga abubuwa da yawa na iya zuwa ta hanyar lantarki ko kuma na'urar da ake iya karantawa. Ga littattafai, akwai ISBN kuma don labaran labarai, mai gano abu na Dijital (DOI) yana samun dacewa. Bayani akan Intanet na iya isar zuwa ga Mai gano Kayan Kayayyaki (URI) .

Ilimin halin dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin sharuddan shafi tunanin mutum aiki, a kai-reference aka yi amfani da tunani don kafa ganewa da kwakwalwar a lokacin kai-bincike. Wannan yana neman bawa mutum damar ci gaba da gabatar da kansa ta hanyar wayewar kai. Koyaya, hakanan yana iya haifar da tattaunawa mai zagayawa, yana hana canjin tunani. [4]

Dangane da Ka'idar Sarrafawa (PCT), yanayin tunani shine yanayin zuwa ga abin da tsarin sarrafa ke fitarwa ya canza adadin da ake sarrafawa. Babban batun shine cewa "Duk halayyar tana daidaitacce duk lokacin da yake kusa da kula da wasu adadi game da takamaiman yanayin ishara." [5]

Malanta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A malamai da kuma malanta, wani tunani ko bibliographical tunani ne wani yanki na bayanai bayar a wani Nisan ko bibliography wata rubuta aikin kamar wani littafi, labarin, muqala, rahoton, oration ko wani rubutu irin, tantancewa da aka rubuta aiki na wani mutum amfani da halittar wancan rubutu. Bayanin kundin adana bayanai galibi ya hada da cikakken sunan marubucin, taken aikinsu da shekarar da aka buga su. Babban dalilin nassoshi shine bawa masu karatu damar bincika tushen rubutu, ko don inganci ko kuma karin sani game da batun. Irin waɗannan abubuwa galibi ana lasafta su a ƙarshen aiki a ɓangaren da aka yiwa alama na Nassoshi ko Bibliography .

Nassoshi suna da mahimmanci musamman don amfani da ƙididdiga, tunda yin kwafin kayan ta wani marubuci ba tare da ishara mai kyau ba da / ko ba tare da izini da ake buƙata ana ɗauka sata ce, kuma yana iya zama daidai da keta haƙƙin mallaka, wanda zai iya zama batun batun shari'a . Wani sashin tunani ya ƙunshi waɗancan ayyukan waɗanda aka ambata a cikin ainihin matanin aiki. A bambanci, a bibliographical sashe sau da yawa ya ƙunshi ayyukansu ba kawo sunayensu by marubucin, amma amfani da bango karatu ko jera a matsayin yiwuwar amfani ga mai karatu.

Riƙe littafin rubutu yana bawa mutum damar amfani da nassoshi don ƙungiya ta kansa, ko waninsa ya fahimci tsarin isharar amfani. Koyaya, malamai sunyi nazarin hanyoyin ishara saboda babbar rawar da suke takawa wajen sadarwa da aiki tare tsakanin mutane daban-daban, da kuma rashin fahimtar juna da ka iya tasowa. Nazarin ilimin zamani na nassoshi na kundin tarihi ya bunkasa tun karni na 19.

Doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin dokar haƙƙin mallaka, ishara ita ce takaddar da za a iya amfani da ita don nuna yanayin ilimi a wani lokaci kuma saboda haka na iya sanya ƙirƙirar da'awar ta kasance bayyananne ko tsammani . Misalan nassoshi haƙƙin mallakar kowace ƙasa ne, tallan mujallu, Ph.D. takaddun da aka lissafa kuma ta haka ne masu sha'awar samun bayanai game da batun suke samunsu, kuma zuwa wani abu na Intanet wanda ake samun saukin hakan.

Zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin zane-zane, ma'ana abu ne wanda aka dogara da aiki. Wannan na iya haɗawa da:

  • wani zane mai zane
  • haifuwa (watau hoto)
  • wani abu da aka lura kai tsaye (misali, mutum)
  • ƙwaƙwalwar mai zane

Wani misalin abin misali shine samfuran ayyukan kide kide daban-daban ana hada su cikin sabo.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsoho (nahawu)
  • Kwatantawa
  • Hanyar gaba ɗaya
  • Hyperlink
  • Indexicality
  • ISO 690
  • Harafin Shawara
  • Alamar da alama

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Reference.com - sabis ne na neman kundin bayanai da yawa, da mai ba da samfuran bincike na yare
  •  
  • References.net - kundin adireshi na kayan aiki da yawa akan yanar gizo
  • Refmuseum.com - Gidan adana kayan tarihin kan nassoshi

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Treanor, Brian (2006). Aspects of alterity: Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate. Fordham University Press. p. 41.
  2. Klein, Ernest, A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language, Vol II, Elsevier publishing company, Amsterdam, 1969, p.1317
  3. Saeed, John (10 February 2003). Semantics. Blackwell. p. 12. ISBN 0-631-22693-1.
  4. Engle, Eric (2010). Lex Naturalis, Ius Naturalis: Law as Positive Reasoning & Natural Rationality. Melbourne, Australia: The Rlias Clark Group. p. 75.
  5. Powers, William (2005). Behavior: The Control of Perception (2nd ed.). New Canaan, Connecticut: Benchmark Publications. pp. 47 & 299.