Majiya

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Wikidata.svgKididdiga
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Manazarta
Hannun riga da uncitedness (en) Fassara

Subscript text

xkcd webcomic mai taken "Mai zanga-zangar Wikipedian". Alamar tana cewa: "[ MAGANAR BUKATA ]".

Majiya na nufin madogara ta bayani ko labari wato inda aka jiyo labari.[1] Majiya itace take nuna gaskiyar labari ko batu. Ana saka majiya ne a cikin rubutu kamar na Littafi, Jarida ko Maƙala domin gamsar da mai karatu ya nutsu da abin da aka faɗa ko gaskiya ne. A Gabaɗaya haɗuwar duka rubutun da ke cikin jiki da kuma rubutun litattafan ya zama abin da yawancin mutane ake ɗauka azaman ƙira (alhali kuwa shigar da bibliographic da kansu ba). Abubuwan da aka ambata game da maganganu guda ɗaya, wanda za'a iya karantawa a cikin labaran kimiyya na lantarki ana kiran su nanopublications, wani nau'i na rarraba of microattribution.[2]

A Kididdiga suna da mahimman dalilai masu yawa gaske: don tabbatar da gaskiya ta ilimi (ko guje wa satar fasaha ),[3] don danganta aiki na farko daya samo asali da ra'ayoyi zuwa ingantattun tushe, don bawa mai karatu damar yanke hukunci da kansa ko bayan da aka ambata suna tallafawa ra'ayin marubuci a cikin da'awar hanya, kuma don taimaka wa mai karatu ya auna ƙarfi da ingancin abin da marubucin ya yi amfani da shi. [4]

A Abubuwan da aka ambata a gaba ɗaya suna biyan kuɗi ne ga ɗayan tsarin ambaton da aka yarda da su gaba ɗaya, kamar su Oxford,[5] Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), da sauran tsarin ambaton, saboda taronsu na haɗin gwiwa sanannen abu ne kuma mai sauƙin fassarawa daga masu karatu. Kowane ɗayan waɗannan tsarin lissafin yana da fa'ida da amfani. ga Editoci galibi suna ayyana tsarin amfani da su.

Bididdiga, da sauran jerin abubuwa kwatankwacin nassoshi, galibi ba a daukar ambaton saboda ba su cika hakikanin kalmar ba: ba a yardaba da gangan kadau ko rahoto daga wasu mawallafa game da fifikon ra'ayin mutum.

Ra'ayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Bididdigar kundin tarihi na nufin littafi, ko labarin, shafin yanar gizo, ko wani abu da aka buga. yakamata subi daki-daki don gano abu musamman.[6] Ana amfani da tsarin gudanar da salona daban a cikin ambaton kimiyya, ambaton shari'a, fasaha ta farko, zane-zane, da kuma ' yan Adam .

Abun ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Abubuwan da aka ambata na iya bambanta dangane da nau'in tushe kuma suna iya haɗawa da:

  • Littafin: marubuta (s), taken littafi, wurin bugawa, mai bugawa, ranar fitowar sa, da lambar shafi (idan) ya dace.[7]
  • Jarida: marubuci (s), taken labarin, taken jarida, ranar da aka buga shi, da lambar shafi (s).
  • Jarida: marubuta (s), taken labari, sunan jarida, taken yanki da lambar shafin take (idan) da kuma, ranar da aka buga.
  • Shafin yanar gizo: marubuta (s), Labari da taken bugawa a inda ya dace, kazalika da URL,da kwanan wata lokacin da aka saka shafin.
  • Kunna: ambaton layi da suna ba da ɓangare, na yanayi, da lambobin layi,ba na biyun an raba shi da lokaci: 4.452 yana nufin yanayi na 4, layi na 452. Misali, "A cikin Eugene Onegin, Onegin cire Tanya lokacin da ta sami 'yanci ya zama nasa, kuma sai kawai ya yanke shawarar yana son ta lokacin da ta riga ta yi aure" (Pushkin 4.452-53).[8]
  • Waka: ana amfani da irin wannan don nuna layi daban na waƙa, kuma ƙididdigar zance yawanci sun haɗa da lambar layi (s). Misali: "Don dole ne in yi soyayya saboda ina raye  / Kuma rayuwa a cikina abin da kuka bayar ne. " (Brennan, layi 15-16).[9]
  • Ganawa: sunan mai tambaya, mai ba da labari (tsohon hirar sirri) da ranar hira.

Musamman masu ganowa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Tare da bayanai kamar marubuta (s), ranar da aka buga, take da lambobin shafi, ƙididdigar na iya haɗawa da masu ganowa na musamman dangane da nau'in aikin da ake magana a kai.

Tsarin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A maganar gabaɗaya, akwai nau'ikan tsarin faɗakarwa iri biyu, tsarin Vancouver da ambaton manazarta[10]Majalisar Editocin Kimiyya wato (CSE)dake nufin Council of Science Editors tana saka ma kididdigar, na tsarin sunan-ambato . [11]

Tsarin Na Vanco[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin Vanco yana nufin amfani da lambobi daki daki a cikin rubutu, ko kuma mai sakaci acikin duka biyun Lambobin suna nufin ko dai bayanan rubutu (bayanan kula a ƙarshen shafin) ko bayanan ƙarshe (bayanan kula a shafi a ƙarshen takardar) waɗanda ke ba da cikakken Bayani. A Tsarin bayanan kula na iya buƙatan cikakken littafin tarihin ba, ya danganta da ko marubucin yayi amfani da fom na cikakken bayanin kula ko kuma taƙaitaccen bayanin kula.

Misali, wani yanki na takarda na amfani da tsarin bayanin kula ba tare da cikakken littafin tarihi ba zai iya zama kamar:

"Matakai guda biyar na bakin ciki sune musantawa, fushi, sasantawa, damuwa, da kuma yarda." 1

Bayanin cewa, wanda yake a ƙasan shafin (ƙarancin rubutu) ko a ƙarshen takardar (ƙarshen rubutun) zai yi kamar wannan:

1. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Akan Mutuwa da Mutuwa (New York: Macmillan, 1969) 45-60.

A cikin takarda tare da cikakken littafin tarihin, a gajeren bayanin kula na iya zama kamar:

1. Kübler-Ross, Kan Mutuwa da Mutuwa 45-60.

Shigar da littafin, wanda ake buƙata tare da taƙaitaccen bayanin kula, zai yi kamar wannan:

Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth. Akan yana mutuwa da kuma mutuwa . New York: Macmillan, 1969.

A cikin ɗabi'un ɗan adam, marubuta da yawa suna amfani da bayanan ƙafa ko mahimman bayanai don samar da wani labari na ɗan lokaci. Ta wannan hanyar, abin da yayi kama da takaddama shine ainihin ƙarin kayan aiki, ko shawarwari don ƙarin karatu.[12]

Rubutun iyaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nunawa ga iyaye, wanda aka fi sani da Harvard nakaltowa, yana da cikakke ko na juzu'i, a cikin rubutu, bayanan ambaton da ke kunshe a cikin madafan madauwari kuma an saka su a sakin layi.[13]

Misali na bayanin iyaye:

"Matakai guda biyar na baƙin ciki sune ƙi, fushi, ciniki, damuwa, da yarda" (K acceptancebler-Ross, 1969, shafi na 45-60).

Dogaro da zaɓin salon, nassoshi masu mahimmancin kalmomi na iya buƙatar sashin ƙarshe. Sauran salo sun haɗa da jerin amsoshin, tare da cikakkun bayanan nassoshi, a cikin ɓangaren ƙarshe, wanda marubucin ya tsara su bisa haruffa. Galibi ana kiran wannan ɓangaren "Bayani", "Bibliography", "Ayyukan da aka ambata" ko "An nemi shawarwari".

Nassoshi a cikin rubutu don wallafe-wallafen kan layi na iya bambanta da kuma nusar da . Cikakken bayani akan abu, kawai za a iya nuna shi lokacin da mai karatu ke so, a cikin sifofin kayan aiki . [14] Wannan salon yana sa ambaton ya zama da sauƙi kuma yana inganta ƙwarewar mai karatu.

Tsarin sunan-ambato[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An saka wasu manyan lambobi a wurin magana, kamar dai yadda yake a cikin tsarin jerin sunayen, amma an kirga ambaton gwargwadon tsarin ayyukan da aka kawo a karshen takarda ko littafin; wannan jerin galibi ana tsara shi ta jerin haruffa ta hanyar marubuci.

Salo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Salon kididdiga za'a iya rarraba shi zuwa salon da ya dace da Ilimin ɗan Adam yafa idantu, kodayake akwai ɗan abin da zai daidaita. Wasu jagororin salo, kamar su the Chicago Manual of Style, suna da sauƙin canzawa kuma suna rufe tsarin magana da rubutu. Sauran, kamar salon kuma sun hada da MLA da kuma APA, suna ayyana fasali a cikin tsarin rubutu guda ɗaya. Wadannan ana iya kiran su tsarin tsaruka da kuma salon kira.[15][16][17]Hakanan jagororin daban-daban suna ƙayyade tsarin bayyana, misali, kwanan watan fitarwa, take, da lambobin shafi na bin sunan marubucin, da tarun alamomina rubutu, amfani da rubutun, girmama, zance, alamun ambato, da sauransu, musamman ga salo.kungiyoyi da yawa sun ƙirƙiri salona dacewa da buƙatun su; saboda haka, akwai jagororin da yawa. Masu wallafa kowane ɗayansu suna da nasu bambancin a cikin gida kuma, kuma wasu ayyukan suna da daɗewa don suna da nasu hanyoyin ambaton kuma: Stephanus pagination ko Plato; Bekker numbers ko kuma Aristotle; saka Littafi Mai-Tsarki ta hanyar littafi, babi da aya; ko Shakespeare da kuma wasa.

Harshena Salon Maganan Citation Style Language wato (CSL) yaren budewa ne na XML don bayyana tsarin yadda ake kawo ƙira da litattafan tarihi.

'Yan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsarin salona Chicago Style (CMOS) an kirkireshi kuma jagorar sa shine Chicago Manual of Style . Anfi amfani dashi sosai a tarihi da tattalin arziki harma da wasu ilimin kimiyyar zamantakewa. Salon alaƙar Turabiya mai alaƙa da juna — wanda ya samo asali daga gare ta - don nassoshin ɗalibai ne, kuma an bambanta ta daga CMOS ta hanyar ƙin ambaton alamomi a cikin jerin bayanai, da kuma faɗakarwar samun damar dole.
  • Tsarin Columbia an kirkireshi ne Janice R. Walker da Todd Taylor don bayar da cikakkun bayanai game da ambaton hanyoyin intanet. Yanayin Columbia yana ba da samfuran samfuran ɗan Adam da na kimiyya.
  • Bayanin: Bayyana Tushen Tarihi daga Abubuwan Tarihi zuwa Gidan yanar gizo na Elizabeth Shown Mills sun hada da manyan hanyoyin da ba a haɗa su a cikin CMOS ba, kamar ƙidaya, kotu, ƙasa, gwamnati, kasuwanci, da kuma bayanan coci. Ya haɗa da tushe cikin tsarin lantarki. Masana tarihi da tarihi suka yi amfani da shi. [18]
  • Rubutun Harvard (ko tsarin kwanan wata) wani nau'i ne na takamaiman magana na iyaye .British Standards Institution da kumaModern Language Association sukan yi amfani da su wajen shawarar yin nuni ga iyaye. Nuna fassarar Harvard ya ƙunshi ɗan gajeren lokacin kwanan wata, misali, "(Smith, 2000)", ana saka shi bayan rubutun da aka ambata a cikin maganan da kuma cikakken bayanin tushen da aka jera a ƙarshen labarin.
  • Salona MLA style ya haɓaka ta Modern Language Association Harshe ta Zamani kuma ana amfani dashi mafi yawa a cikin zane-zane da ɗabi'un ɗan adam, musamman a cikin karatun Ingilishi, sauran karatun adabi, gami da adabin kwatanta da sukar adabi a cikin yaren Ingilishi (" harsunan waje "), kuma wasu karatun bambance-bambance, kamar karatun al'adu, wasan kwaikwayo da wasan kwaikwayo, fim, da sauran kafofin watsa labarai, gami da talabijin . Wannan salon ambaton da tsarin rubutun yana amfani da rubutacciyar magana tare da shafi na marubuci (Smith 395) ko kuma wani shafi mai suna [short] (Smith, Contingencies 42) Acikin wannan aikin na mawallafin nan yake a tsakanin magana cikin rubutuna. The MLA Style Manual zuwa jerin haruffa na tushe a shafi na "The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers" a ƙarshen Citation and bibliography format.[lower-alpha 1]da kuma bayanan kula (alamomi ko ƙarin bayani).Littafin Jagora na MLA don Marubuta na Takardun Bincike, musamman Tsarin Magana da tsarin littafin tarihi
  • MHRA Style Guide an buga shi ne ta Modern Humanities Research Association(MHRA) kuma mafi yawan amfani da shi a cikin zane-zane da ɗabi'un ɗan adam A MHRA. Ana iya samun abun siyarwa a Birtaniya dana Amurka. Ya yi daidai da salona MLA style, amma yana da wasu bambance-bambance. Misali, salon MHRA yana amfani da bayanan ƙasa wanda ke nuni da cikakkun bayanai yayin kuma samar da kundin tarihin rayuwa. Wasu masu karatu suna ganin yana da fa'ida ga cewa bayanan suna bukatan cikakkun bayanai, maimakon takaitaccen nassoshi, don haka ba sa bukatar yin nazarin tarihin yayin karatun sauran bayanan da aka buga.[19]

A wasu yankuna na 'Yan Adam, ana amfani da bayanan ƙafa don kawai nassoshi, kuma an guji amfani da su don bayanan kafa na yau da kullun (bayani ko misalai). Awa Innan yankuna, ana amfani da kalmar "alamar ƙafa" a matsayin ma'anar "tunani", kuma dole ne editoci da masu rubuta abubuwa su kula sosai don tabbatar da cewa sun fahimci yadda marubutan suke amfani da kalmar.

Doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bluebook tsari ne na ambaton gargajiya da ake amfani da shi a rubuce-rubuce na ilimin Amurka, kuma kotuna da yawa suna amfani da Bluebook (ko makamancin tsari da aka samo shi).[20] A halin yanzu, labaran doka na ilimi koyaushe suna da tushe, amma motsin da ake gabatarwa ga kotuna da ra'ayoyin kotu a al'adance suna amfani da ambaton layi, waɗanda maƙalar jumla ce daban ko ɓangarori daban.na Bayanan da ke acikin layi suna ba masu karatu damar tantance karfin tushe ta hanzari, misali, kotun da aka yanke hukunci a ciki da shekarar da aka yanke hukunci.
  • Salon ambaton doka da aka yi amfani da shi kusan a ko'ina cikin Kanada ya dogara ne da Jagoran Kanada don Bayyana Dokar Kaya (AKA McGill Guide ), wanda aka wallafa ta McGill Law Journal . [21]
  • Bayyanar da doka ta Burtaniya kusan ta duniya gaba ɗaya tana bin a Tsarina. Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA)

Kimiyya, lissafi, injiniyanci, ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, da magani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Salon Kamfanin American Chemical Society, ko kuma salo na ACS style, ana amfani da shi sau da yawa a cikin Chemistry da wasu kimiyyar jiki . A cikin salon salon ACS an ƙidaya su a cikin rubutu da jerin abubuwan tunani, kuma ana maimaita lambobi a cikin rubutun yadda ake buƙata.
  • A cikin salon American Institute of Physicsa(salon AIP), ana kuma ƙididdige nassoshi a cikin rubutu da cikin jerin bayanai, tare da lambobin da aka maimaita a cikin rubutun kamar yadda ake buƙata.
  • Salon da aka kirkira wato American Mathematical Society (AMS), ko kuma nau'ikan AMS, irin su AMS-LaTeX, ana aiwatar da su ta hanyar amfani da kayan aikin BibTeX a cikin tsarina LaTeX .Ana saka shi tare da alamun rubutu na farko da shekara a cikin rubutun da farkon ambaton. Ana lissafin ƙididdiga na al'ada cikin layi tare da tsarin lakabin harafi, misali [AB90]. Wannan nau'in salone ake kiran sa da " Tasirin marubuta. "
  • Tsarin Vancouver system, wanda Majalisar Editocin Kimiyya wato Council of Science Editors (CSE) ta ba da shawara, ana amfani da shi a cikin likitanci da takardun kimiyya da bincike.
    • A cikin wani babban bambance-bambance, wanda wata kungiya da Ake cema American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) ta Amurka ke amfani da shi, an haɗa lambobin faɗakarwa a cikin rubutun a cikin madafun iko ba kamar na babban rubutun ba. Duk bayanan kundin tarihi an hada su ne a cikin jerin nassoshi a karshen takaddar, kusa da lambar ambaton su.
    • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) ita ce asalin kwayar wannan salon ƙirar, wanda ya samo asali daga taron editocina Vancouver 1978. [22] Bayanan MEDLINE/PubMed yana amfani da wannan salon faɗakarwa na National Library of Medicine providesasa yana ba da " Kaya wato (ICMJE) nanufin Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals -Samfuran Misali". [23]
  • Salon AMA.
  • Salon Cibiyar Injin wato Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE), ko salona IEEE style, ya ƙunshi lambobin ambato a cikin manyan kusoshin murabba'i da lambobi a jere, tare da maimaita lambobi a cikin rubutun yadda ake buƙata.[24]
  • A bangarorin ilimina kimiyyar halittu wadanda suka fada a cikin ICNafp (wanda shi kansa yake amfani da wannan salon ambaton a ko'ina), wani nau'I daban-daban na ambaton taken marubuci shi ne hanya ta farko da ake amfani da ita yayin yin ambaton kuma wasu lokuta an ambace su gaba daya (misali a cikin shawarwarin da suka shafi lambar da aka buga a Taxon ), tare da ayyukan da ake magana a kansu waɗanda ba a ambata a cikin littafin tarihin ba sai dai idan an ambace su a cikin rubutun. Take suna amfani da daidaitattun taƙaitattun kalmomi masu zuwa bayan Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum don abubuwan zamani da Littattafan Haraji 2 (daga baya IPNI ) don littattafai.
  • Salon Kiran Pechenik wani salo ne wanda aka bayyana a cikin A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, 6th ed. (2007), na Jan A. Pechenik . [25]
  • A cikin 1955, Eugene Garfield ya gabatar da tsarin kundin tarihi don adabin kimiyya wato bibliographic system for scientific literature, don inganta mutuncin scientific publications[26] .

Kimiyyar zaman jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Batutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin binciken da suka yi a kan bayanan kafa a cikin mujallu na ilimi a fagen sadarwa, Michael Bugeja da Daniela V. Dimitrova sun gano cewa ambato ga kafofin yanar gizo suna da saurin lalacewa (kamar yadda aka saukar da shafukan da aka ambata), wanda suke kira "rabin-rai ", wanda ke samar da bayanan kaɗan a waɗancan mujallu marasa amfani ga ƙwarewar karatu a kan lokaci.[29]

Sauran masana sun gano cewa abubuwan da aka buga ba su da alamun ambato kamar ɗabi'un asali.[30]

Wani mahimmin batun shine kuskuren lafazi, wanda yawanci ke faruwa saboda rashin kulawa kan ɓangaren mai binciken ko editan jarida a cikin hanyar bugawa. Masana sun gano cewa kariya mai sauƙi, kamar tuntuɓar marubucin wata hanyar da aka ambata game da ambaton da ya dace, yana rage yiwuwar kuskuren faɗakarwa kuma hakan yana ƙara ingancin bincike.[31]

Bincike yana nuna tasirin labarin na iya zama, a wani ɓangare, ya bayyana ta abubuwan da ke sama kuma ba wai kawai cancantar ilimin labarin ba. [32] Abubuwan da suka dogara da filin galibi ana lasafta su azaman batun da za a magance ba kawai lokacin da aka kwatanta kwatankwacin fannoni daban-daban da, har ma yayin da ake kwatanta bangarori daban-daban na bincike na horo ɗaya.[33]Misali, a likitanci, a tsakanin sauran dalilai, yawan marubuta, yawan nassoshi, tsayin labarin, da kasantuwar babban a cikin taken suna tasiri tasirin; yayin fadita hanyar ilimin halayyar dan adam yawan nassoshi, tsayin labarin, da tsawon take suna daga cikin abubuwan.[34]

Yanayin fahimtar cewa ambaton suna zama masu rikitarwa kuma amma masu mahimmanci ma'auni ga masana. [35]Sun bayar da rahoton hanyoyi guda biyar don haɓaka ƙididdigar ambato: (1) kalli tsawon take da alamun rubutu; [36] (2) fitar da sakamako da wuri azaman masu gabatarwa;[37](3) guji ambaton wata ƙasa a cikin take, aciki ko kuma abudin hariffa; [38] (4) danganta labarin zuwa bayanan tallafi a cikin ma'aji; [39] da (5) guji ɓarna a cikin taken abubuwan bincike.[40]

Hakanan sanannun alamu ne waɗanda halayen marubuta da ma'aikatan jarida ke shafar su. Irin wannan halayyan. ana kiranta tasirin haɓaka, kuma an bayar da rahoton ya ƙunshi har ma da manyan mujallu. Musamman ma manyan mujallu na kimiyyar likitanci, gami da ,The Lancet, JAMA, da ,The New England Journal of Medicine, ana tsammanin suna da alaƙa da irin wannan ɗabi'ar, har zuwa kusan kashi 30% na alamomin waɗannan mujallu ana samar da su ne ta hanyar tallan ra'ayi.[41] A gefe guda, lamarin da ke nuna alamun kira yana tashi. yana Kwatanta. bayyana su a matsayin ƙungiyoyin marubuta waɗanda ke ambaton juna ba daidai ba fiye da sauran rukunin marubutan da ke aiki a kan wannan batun.[42]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. The field of Communication (or Communications) overlaps with some of the disciplines also covered by the MLA and has its own disciplinary style recommendations for documentation format; the style guide recommended for use in student papers in such departments in American colleges and universities is often The Publication Manual of the APA (American Psychological Association); designated for short as "APA style".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. Journal Development, Yakkaldevi, A., 08033994793.ABA
  3. "What Does it Mean to Cite?". MIT Academic Integrity.
  4. Association of Legal Writing Directors & Darby Dickerson, ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation, 4th ed. (New York: Aspen, 2010), 3.
  5. "Oxford Referencing System". Retrieved 18 January 2011.
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  8. "How to cite sources in the body of your paper". BYUI.edu. 2008. Archived from the original on November 13, 2011. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
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  13. libguides, liu.cwp. "Parenthetical Referencing". liu.cwp.libguides.com. liu.cwp.libguides.com. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  14. Live Reference Initiative. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
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Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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