Masallacin Jameh na Isfahan

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Masallacin Jameh na Isfahan
مسجد جامع اصفهان
World Heritage Logo global.svg UNESCO World Heritage Site
20180301124354 IMG 4179And6more Interior 3.jpg
Gran Mezquita de Isfahán, Isfahán, Irán, 2016-09-20, DD 49-51 HDR.jpg
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaIran
Province of Iran (en) FassaraIsfahan (Lardi)
County of Iran (en) FassaraIsfahan County (en) Fassara
Coordinates 32°40′11″N 51°41′07″E / 32.6697°N 51.6853°E / 32.6697; 51.6853
Ƙaddamarwa8 century
Shugaba Banu Taym (en) Fassara
Nizam al-Mulk (en) Fassara
Taj al-Mulk (en) Fassara
Karatun Gine-gine
Material(s) brick (en) Fassara, mortar (en) Fassara da tile (en) Fassara
Style (en) Fassara Abbasid architecture (en) Fassara
Seljuk architecture (en) Fassara
Ilkhanid architecture (en) Fassara
Timurid architecture (en) Fassara
Safavid architecture (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 2.0756 ha
UNESCO World Heritage Site (en) Fassara
Criterion World Heritage selection criterion (ii) (en) Fassara
Reference 1397
Region[upper-roman 1] Asia and Oceania
Registration 2012 (XXXVI. )
  1. According to the UNESCO classification

Masallacin Jāmeh na Isfahān ko Masallacin Jāme 'na Isfahān (Farisanci: مسجد جامع اصفهان Masjid-e-Jāmeh Isfahān), wanda kuma aka sani da Masallacin Atiq (مسجد عتیق) da Masallacin Juma'a na Isfahān (مسجد جمعه), taro ne mai tarihi masallaci (Jāmeh) na Isfahan, Iran. Masallacin ya kasance sakamakon ci gaba da gine -gine, sake ginawa, ƙari da sabuntawa a wurin daga kusan 771 zuwa ƙarshen ƙarni na 20. Ana iya samun Babbar Bazaar Isfahan zuwa reshen masallacin kudu maso yamma. Ta kasance cibiyar rabon kayan tarihi ta UNESCO tun daga shekarar 2012.[1] Tana daya daga cikin manya -manyan kuma muhimman abubuwan tarihi na gine -ginen Musulunci a Iran.[2].

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Misalin zauren zane a cikin masallaci a yau

An gina masallaci na farko a wannan wuri wajen shekara ta 771, a zamanin halifan Abbasiyawa Al-Mansur.[2] Wannan ginin na farko ya kasance ƙarami kaɗan, yana auna kimanin 52 zuwa 90 mita.[2] An gina shi a cikin bulo-bulo kuma yana da kayan ado na stucco a cikin salon Syro-Mesopotamian na gine-ginen Abbasid.[3]

Daga nan aka maye gurbin babban masallacin a 840-841 lokacin mulkin Al-Mu'utasim.[2][3] Wannan sabon ginin ya auna kusan 88 da mita 128 kuma yana da alkibla daban -daban fiye da ta farko.[2] Tana da babban farfajiya ta tsakiya da ke kewaye da gidan arcade da zauren zane -zane na ginshiƙan bulo da aka gasa wanda ke tallafawa ko dai rufin lebur[2] ko rufin bulo.[3] Zauren hypostyle, ya kasance mai zurfi biyu a gefen bangarorin, zurfin bisan huɗu a gefe daura da alƙibla (arewa maso yamma), da zurfin rufa'i shida a gefen alƙibla inda babban ɗakin sallah yake. Titin da ke jagorantar mihrab na masallacin ya dan fi sauran hanyoyin rataya.[3] Babu wata alama da ke nuna cewa sabon masallacin yana da minaret, duk da kasancewar wannan fasali a sauran masallatan wannan lokacin.[3]

A ƙarƙashin ikon daular Buyid (ƙarni na 10 zuwa 11) an ƙara wani gidan kayan gargajiya na bulo na polylobed kewaye da farfajiyar, a gaban farfajiyar farfajiyar gidan data kasance. Maimakon kayan adon stucco na baya, an yi wa sabbin abubuwan ƙarin ado tare da ƙirar da aka ƙera da tubalin da aka shimfida a cikin da'irori, sifofin lu'u -lu'u, zigzags, da sauran ƙirar geometric mai kama da aikin tubalin da aka samu a cikin wasu abubuwan tarihi daga lokacin Buyid.[3][2] Ba a tabbatar da takamaiman ranar da za a yi wannan gyaran[3] ba amma wasu na kimantawa da shi a kusa da 975 ko ƙarshen karni na 10.[4][2]

Lokacin Seljuk[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dome na kudancin (a gaban mihrab), wanda aka gina a 1086-87 a ƙarƙashin tallafin Nizam al-Mulk

Babban gyare -gyare na masallaci na gaba ya faru a ƙarƙashin tallafin Seljuks. Isfahan ya zama babban birni na farko na Daular Seljuk bayan cin nasararsa a 1050.[2] Seljuks sun canza madaidaicin daidaituwa da daidaiton tsarin ginin hypostyle, da farko ta maye gurbin ginshiƙai a gaban mihrab (a gefen kudu na masallacin) tare da babban ɗaki a cikin 1086 - 87.[5][2] Anyi hakan ne a ƙarƙashin tallafin Nizam al-Mulk, sanannen vizier na Malik Shah.[5] Sabuwar kumburin ita ce mafi girman rumbu a cikin duniyar Islama a lokacin.[6] Yana da hakarkarinsa guda takwas kuma ana tallafa masa akan manyan katako.[6][5] Har ila yau, ta gabatar da wani sabon salo, wanda ya kunshi rumfar ganga da aka sanya sama da gidaje biyu na kwata, wanda aka kwafa a wasu masallatai jim kadan bayan haka.[6] Wataƙila an yi niyyar sararin samaniya don yin aiki azaman maksura, yankin da aka keɓe ga sarkin musulmi da mukarrabansa yayin sallah.[5]

Dome na Arewa, wanda aka gina a 1088-89 a ƙarƙashin tallafin Taj al-Mulk

A shekara ta 1088–89 abokin hamayyar Nizam al-Mulk Taj al-Mulk ne ya gina wani rumbu a arewacin masallacin.[5][6] Ayyukan wannan ɗaki mai ɗaki ba shi da tabbas. Kodayake yana gefen arewa zuwa kudu, yana waje da iyakokin masallacin.[5][6] An dauki dome a matsayin fitaccen tsarin gine -ginen Iran na da.[5][6] Sabanin dome mai sauƙaƙƙiya mai ƙyalli guda takwas na Nizam al-Mulk, dome na arewa yana haɗe haƙarƙarin haƙarƙarin da pentagons da alamu tauraro biyar da ke nuna kumbon, babban ci gaban fasaha da na ado.[6] Ƙananan bangon ɗakin suna da haske da kyan gani, yayin da abubuwa daban-daban na bango da kumburi suma sun fi dacewa a tsaye, suna kai duban mutum sama.[5][6]

Babban matakin canji na gaba ya faru a farkon karni na 12, wataƙila bayan wuta ta lalata masallacin a 1121-22.[5] Don haɓaka kusanci zuwa ɗakin da aka mamaye na mihrab, wanda ke tsaye a keɓe a cikin babban zauren hypostyle, an maye gurbin sararin da ke tsakanin kumburin da farfajiyar da babban iwan (babban zauren da ke buɗe gefe ɗaya). Wannan babban zauren da aka ajiye ganga yana buɗewa zuwa farfajiyar a gefe ɗaya kuma yana kaiwa zuwa madaidaicin zauren ta wata ƙofar a gefe ɗaya. Don yabawa, masu ginin sun ƙirƙira wasu manyan iwan guda uku a tsakiyar junan farfajiyar. Iwan kudancin farfajiyar (wanda ke kaiwa ga mihrab) an rarrabe shi da sauran iwans ta hanyar girma da ƙawata da manyan matakan muqarnas (abun da ke daɗaɗaɗaɗaɗaɗɗen geometrical na alkuki). Waɗannan sauye-sauyen sun haifar da ba wa masallacin fasali na iwan huɗu na yanzu, nau'in shimfida wanda daga baya ya zama ruwan dare a Iran da sauran sassan duniyar Musulunci.[5] Baya ga iwan huɗu, an gyara ragowar bayin tsoffin dakunan da aka yi amfani da su da kayan kwalliya. Akwai kusan 200 na waɗannan ƙananan ramuka kuma dukkansu suna da zane -zane daban -daban kuma suna nuna nau'ikan kayan adon geometric iri -iri.[5][6] Wataƙila wasu daga cikin wannan aikin an yi su ne a ƙarshen ƙarni na 11 ko farkon ƙarni na 12, amma tsarin gine -ginen anan ba a sani ba kuma da yawa tasoshin na iya zuwa daga lokuta daban -daban na gyara da gyara.[2][5][7]

Canje -canje da ƙari daga baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan wannan, canje -canjen da aka yi a baya zuwa masallaci sun fi iyaka. Duk da haka, kusan kowane lokaci ana ganin wasu ayyukan da aka yi akan masallacin, wanda ke nuna canjin buƙatun al'umma da sauye -sauyen sabbin sarakuna.[2][5] A ƙarƙashin sarkin Ilkhanid Uljaytu (r. 1304–1317), an raba gidan arcade kusa da farfajiyar gidan a tsaye zuwa matakai biyu, kamar yadda ya bayyana a yau.[2] Uljaytu kuma ya ƙirƙiri wani ɗakin sallah mai kusurwa huɗu ko “zauren hunturu” da ke gefen arewa na yammacin masallacin. An rufe wannan zauren da jerin manyan ramuka masu wuce gona da iri, yayin da bangonsa na kudu ke da siffa ta stucco mihrab mai tsawon shekaru 1310.[2][5] A karkashin Muzaffarids an saka madrasa, wanda aka fi sani da Madrasa Muzaffarid, a gabashin masallacin da wani dakin addu’a a yamma, duka bayan tsohon bangon masallacin na waje.[2][8] Qutb al-Din Shah Mahmud, gwamnan Isfahan (r. 1358–1375) ne ya yi wannan aikin wanda ya yi jayayya da kursiyin tare da ɗan'uwansa Shah Shuja.[2][9]

A cikin karni na 15 canje -canje sun iyakance ga gyare -gyare daban -daban. An sake gina rufin rufin ɗakin addu'ar Uljaytu kuma da yawa daga cikin ƙananan ramuka da rumfunan zauren na iya farawa daga wannan lokacin.[2] An kara sabon zauren sallah a kusurwar kudu maso gabas. Façade na farfajiyar farfajiyar gidan kuma an ci gaba da yin ado da aikin tile. Musamman, kayan aikin katako mai ɗimbin yawa wanda ke rufe facade na kudancin iwan a yau an ƙara shi a ƙarƙashin tallafin masarautar Aq Qoyunlu Uzun Hasan a 1475-6.[2]

Yawancin sarakunan Safawiyya sun yi aiki a kan masallacin, ban da Shah Abbas na I wanda ya shagala da sabbin gine-ginensa a kewayen Dandalin Naqsh-e Jahan. A cikin wannan lokacin an fadada wasu sassan dakunan addu'o'in kuma an kara sabon tukunyar tayal da minarets. An maye gurbin zauren sallar Muzaffarid da ke gefen yamma tare da babban “zauren sallar hunturu” a wannan lokacin, wanda aka bambanta ta da fadi -fadi.[2][8] An yi ƙarin gyare -gyare da sabuntawa a ƙarƙashin sarakunan Afsharid da Qajar daga baya har zuwa zamani.[2]

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Na yanzu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masallaci a yau yana hade da salo daban -daban da lokutan da aka haɗe cikin gini guda ɗaya, wanda ba za a iya yin cikakken bayani a koyaushe ba.[10] Yankinsa yanzu ya cika sosai da abubuwan da ke kewaye da kasuwar bazara da tsohon birni, wanda hakan yana ba da façade na waje kaɗan.[8]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, Iran". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 M. Bloom, Jonathan; S. Blair, Sheila, eds. (2009). "Isfahan". The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195309911.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Blair, Sheila; Bloom, Jonathan (2011). "Iraq, Iran, and Egypt: The Abbasids". In Hattstein, Markus; Delius, Peter (eds.). Islam: Art and Architecture. h.f.ullmann. pp. 109–110. ISBN 9783848003808.
  4. M. Bloom, Jonathan; S. Blair, Sheila, eds. (2009). "Architecture". The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195309911.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Blair, Sheila; Bloom, Jonathan (2011). "The Friday Mosque at Isfahan". In Hattstein, Markus; Delius, Peter (eds.). Islam: Art and Architecture. h.f.ullmann. pp. 368–369. ISBN 9783848003808.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 O'Kane, Bernard (1995). Domes. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  7. Archnet Digital Library Archived 11 ga Maris, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Masjid-i Jami' (Isfahan)". Archnet. Retrieved 2021-09-01.
  9. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press.
  10. Ettinghausen, Richard; Grabar, Oleg; Jenkins, Marilyn (2001). Islamic Art and Architecture: 650–1250 (2nd ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300088670.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • A. Gabriel: 'Le Masdjid-i Djum‛a d’Isfahān', A. Islam., ii (1935), pp. 11–44
  • A. Godard: 'Historique du Masdjid-i Djum‛a d’Isfahan', Āthār-é Īrān, i (1936), pp. 213–82
  • André Godard, "La mosquée du vendredi." L'Oeil revue d'art. No. 19/20. July/August 1956. p. 45.
  • E. Galdieri: Iṣfahān: Masǧid-i Ǧum‛a, 3 vols (Rome, 1972–84)
  • E. Galdieri: 'The Masǧid-i Ǧum‛a Isfahan: An Architectural Façade of the 3rd Century H.', A. & Archaeol. Res. Pap., vi (1974), pp. 24–34
  • U. Scerrato: 'Notice préliminaire sur les recherches archéologiques dans la Masgid-i Jum‛a d’Isfahan', Farhang-i mi‛mārī-yi Īrān, iv (1976), pp. 15–18
  • O. Grabar: The Great Mosque of Isfahan (New York,1990)
  • S.S.Blair: The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana (Leiden, 1992), pp. 160–67

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]