Masallacin Süleymaniye

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Masallacin Süleymaniye
Süleymaniye Camii
Historic Areas of Istanbul
Istanbul asv2020-02 img49 Süleymaniye Mosque.jpg
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaTurkiyya
Province of Turkey (en) FassaraIstanbul Province (en) Fassara
Million city (en) FassaraIstanbul
District of Turkey (en) FassaraFatih (en) Fassara
Neighborhood (en) FassaraEminönü (en) Fassara
Coordinates 41°00′58″N 28°57′50″E / 41.016111111111°N 28.963888888889°E / 41.016111111111; 28.963888888889
History and use
Opening1550 (Gregorian)
Shugaba Suleiman the Magnificent (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Suleiman the Magnificent (en) Fassara
Addini Musulunci
Karatun Gine-gine
Architect (en) Fassara Mimar Sinan (en) Fassara
Style (en) Fassara Ottoman architecture (en) Fassara
Tsawo 53 m
Heritage

Masallacin Süleymaniye

(Baturke: Süleymaniye Camii, furta [sylejˈmaːnije]) masallaci ne na daular Usmaniyya da ke kan Tudun Uku na Istanbul, Turkiyyah. Suleiman Mai Girma ne ya ba da umarnin masallacin kuma masanin gine - gine na Mimar Sinan ne ya tsara shi. Wani rubutu ya bayyana ranar kafuwar a matsayin 1550 da ranar da za a kaddamar da ita a matsayin 1557. Bayan bangon alkibla na masallacin akwai wani fili mai dauke da kabilu daban -daban na Suleiman Mai Girma da na matarsa ​​Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana). Tsawon shekaru 462, Masallacin Süleymaniye shine masallaci mafi girma a cikin birni, har zuwa lokacin da Masallacin Çamlıca ya zarce shi a shekarar 2019. Masallacin Süleymaniye yana daya daga cikin sanannun abubuwan gani na Istanbul, kuma daga inda yake akan Tudun Uku, shi yana ba da umarni ga ra'ayi mai faɗi game da garin kusa da ƙahon zinare.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haɓakawa da shirin da Cornelius Gurlitt ya buga a 1912

Masallacin Süleymaniye, an gina shi ne bisa umurnin Sultan Süleyman (Süleyman the Magnificent), kuma masanin gine -gine na Mimar Sinan ne ya tsara shi. Rubutun harsashin Larabci da ke saman ƙofar arewa na masallacin an zana shi a rubutun thuluth akan bangarori uku na marmara. Yana ba da ranar kafuwar shekara ta 1550 da ranar kaddamar da 1557. A zahirin gaskiya an fara shirin masallacin kafin shekarar 1550 kuma ba a kammala sassan ginin ba sai bayan 1557.[1]

Tsarin S theleymaniye kuma yana wasa akan wakilcin Süleyman na kansa a matsayin 'Sulemanu na biyu.' Ya ambaci Dome na Dutsen, wanda aka gina a wurin Haikalin Sulemanu, da kuma alfahari da Justinian bayan kammala Hagia Sophia: "Sulemanu, na zarce ku!".[2] Süleymaniye, mai kama da ƙima ga sifofin da suka gabata, yana tabbatar da mahimmancin tarihin Süleyman. Duk da haka tsarin yana da ƙanƙanta da girma fiye da tsoffin archetype, Hagia Sophia.

Süleymaniye ya lalace a cikin babban gobara na 1660 kuma Sultan Mehmed IV ya maido da shi.[3] Wani ɓangare na kumburin ya rushe yayin girgizar ƙasa na 1766. Gyaran gyare -gyare na gaba ya lalata abin da ya rage na asalin adon Sinan (tsaftacewa na baya -bayan nan ya nuna cewa Sinan ya gwada farko da shuɗi, kafin ya sanya ja ya zama babban launi na dome).[4]

A lokacin yakin duniya na 1 an yi amfani da farfajiyar a matsayin wurin ajiye makamai, kuma lokacin da wasu harsasai suka kunna wuta, masallacin ya sake samun wata gobara. Ba har zuwa 1956 aka sake dawo da shi cikakke.

Gine -gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fuskar arewa tare da gaban farfajiya da tsakiyar maɓuɓɓugar ruwa

Kamar sauran masallatan masarautar da ke Istanbul, ƙofar Masallacin da kanta an riga ta gaban ƙofar tare da maɓuɓɓugar ruwa ta tsakiya. Farfajiyar gidan tana da girma na musamman tare da madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya tare da ginshiƙan marmara, granite da porphyry. An yi wa facade na arewa maso yamma na masallaci ado da kayan cin abinci na fale -falen fale -falen fale -falen buraka na Iznik.[5] Masallaci shine gini na farko inda fale -falen Iznik suka haɗa da yumbu mai launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi ƙarƙashin gilashi.[6]

A kusurwoyi huɗu na farfajiyar akwai minare huɗu. Manyan minarets biyu masu tsayi suna da tashoshi uku (serifes) kuma suna hawa sama da 63.8 m (209 ft) ba tare da murfin jagoran su da 76 m (249 ft) gami da iyakoki.[7] An yi amfani da ministoci guda huɗu don masallatan da sarkin musulmi ya ba su (sarakuna da sarakuna za su iya gina minina biyu; wasu guda ɗaya). Minarets ɗin suna da manyan gidajen tarihi 10, waɗanda bisa ga al'ada suna nuna cewa Suleiman I shine sarkin Ottoman na 10.[8]

Babban dome yana da tsayin mita 53 (ƙafa 174) kuma yana da diamita na mita 26.5 (ƙafa 86.9) wanda shine daidai rabin tsayinsa.[9] A lokacin da aka gina shi, dome ya kasance mafi girma a Daular Usmaniya, lokacin da aka auna shi daga matakin teku, amma har yanzu yana ƙasa daga gindinsa kuma ƙaramin diamita fiye da na Hagia Sophia.

Ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ciki yana kallon mihrab

Ciki na masallacin kusan murabba'i ne, tsayin mita 59 (ƙafa 194) da faɗin mita 58 (ƙafa 190), yana yin sarari guda ɗaya. Ƙananan gidaje suna gefen dome, kuma zuwa arewa da kudu arches tare da tagogin tympana, waɗanda ke tallafawa da manyan rufin asiri. Sinan ya yanke shawarar yin wani sabon tsarin gine-gine don rufe manyan buttresses na arewa-kudu da ake buƙata don tallafawa waɗannan ginshiƙan tsakiyar. Ya shigar da bututresses ɗin a cikin bangon ginin, tare da rabi yana yin ciki ciki kuma rabi yana nunawa a waje, sannan kuma ya ɓoye tsinkayen ta hanyar gina manyan ɗakuna. Akwai taswirar guda ɗaya a cikin tsarin, da gidan mai hawa biyu a waje.

An ƙawata kayan ado na ciki tare da tagogin gilashi masu ƙyalli waɗanda aka ƙuntata ga bangon alƙibla. Ana amfani da murfin tile Iznik kawai a kusa da mihrab.[10] Fale-falen faranti masu maimaitawa suna da tsarin fure kamar stencil akan farar ƙasa. Furannin galibi shuɗi ne tare da turquoise, ja da baƙi amma ba a amfani da kore.[11] A kowane gefe na mihrab akwai manyan da'irar kiran kira ta Iznik tayal tare da rubutu daga suratul Al-Fatiha na Alqur'ani (1:1-7).[12] Farin marmara mihrab da mimbar suma suna da sauƙi a ƙira, kuma an ƙuntata aikin katako, tare da zane mai sauƙi a cikin hauren giwa da uwar lu'u -lu'u.

Makabartu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mausoleum na Suleiman Mai Girma

A cikin katangar bango a bayan bangon alƙibla na masallacin akwai mausoleums daban -daban (türbe) na Sultan Suleiman I da matarsa ​​Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana). An binne kabarin Hurrem Sultan a ranar 1558, shekarar mutuwarta.[13] An ƙawata ciki mai gefe 16 tare da fale -falen Iznik. Gilashin kusurwoyi guda bakwai an mamaye su da fale -falen buraka da faranti. Tsakanin tagogin akwai wasu alfarma huɗu irin na mihrab.[14] Rufin rufin yanzu an yi masa farar fata amma wataƙila an taɓa fentin shi cikin launuka masu haske.[15]

Babban kabarin da ya fi girma na Suleiman Mai Girma yana ɗauke da ranar 1566, shekarar mutuwarsa, amma wataƙila ba a kammala ba sai shekara ta gaba. Mausoleum yana kewaye da peristyle tare da rufi mai goyan bayan ginshiƙai 24 kuma yana da ƙofar yana fuskantar gabas maimakon arewa da aka saba.[16] A ƙarƙashin baranda a kowane gefen ƙofar akwai bangarori masu tayal na Iznik.[14] Waɗannan su ne fale -falen faranti na farko waɗanda aka yi wa ado da launin koren emerald mai haske wanda zai zama fasali na kayan yumɓun Iznik.[17] Ciki yana da dome na ƙarya da aka tallafa a kan ginshiƙai takwas a cikin harsashin waje. Akwai tagogi 14 da aka saita a matakin ƙasa da ƙarin windows 24 tare da gilashin da aka saka a cikin tympana ƙarƙashin arches. An rufe ganuwar da abin rufe fuska da fale -falen polychrome Iznik. A kusa da ɗakin sama da tagogin akwai ƙyallen fale -falen buraka.[15] Nassin ya kawo ayar Al'arshi da ayoyi biyu masu zuwa daga Al-Qur'ani (2: 255-58).[2][14] Baya ga kabarin Suleiman mai girma, kabarin yana binne kaburburan 'yarsa Mihrimah Sultan da na sarakuna biyu daga baya: Suleiman II (wanda ya yi mulkin 1687 - 1691) da Ahmed II (wanda ya yi mulkin 1691–1695).[15][18]

Hadaddun[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran masallatan masarautu a Istanbul, Masallacin Süleymaniye an ƙera shi azaman külliye, ko hadaddun tare da tsarin kusa don biyan bukatun addini da al'adu. Ginin na asali ya ƙunshi masallacin da kansa, asibiti (darüşşifa), makarantar firamare, wanka na jama'a (hamam), caravanserai, makarantun Kur'ani huɗu (medrese), makarantar musamman ta koyon hadisi, kwalejin likita, da kicin na jama'a (imaret) wanda ke ba wa talakawa abinci. Yawancin waɗannan gine -ginen har yanzu suna nan, kuma tsohon imaret yanzu sanannen gidan abinci ne. Tsohuwar asibitin yanzu ita ce masana'antar buga littattafai mallakar Sojojin Turkiyya.

Kusa da bangon masallacin, a arewa akwai kabarin masanin gine -ginen Sinan.[19] An maido da shi gaba daya a 1922.[20]

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Necipoğlu 2005, p. 208.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Neci̇poğlu-Kafadar 1985, p. 103.
  3. Baer 2004.
  4. Goodwin 2003, p. 235.
  5. Necipoğlu 2005, p. 217.
  6. Denny 2004, p. 79.
  7. Goodwin 2003, p. 226.
  8. Neci̇poğlu-Kafadar 1985, pp. 105-106.
  9. Goodwin 2003, p. 231.
  10. Necipoğlu 2005, p. 216.
  11. Denny 2004, pp. 86, 209.
  12. Necipoğlu 2005, p. 219 fig 183.
  13. Goodwin 2003, p. 237.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Necipoğlu 2005, p. 220.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Goodwin 2003, p. 238.
  16. Goodwin 2003, pp. 237-238.
  17. Atasoy & Raby 1989, p. 230.
  18. Sumner-Boyd & Freely 2010, p. 202.
  19. Necipoğlu 2005, pp. 150, 205 Fig. 167 (13).
  20. Goodwin 2003, p. 222.

Majiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Atasoy, Nurhan; Raby, Julian (1989). Petsopoulos, Yanni (ed.). Iznik: The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey. London: Alexandria Press. ISBN 978-1-85669-054-6.
  • Baer, Marc David (2004). "The great fire of 1660 and the Islamization of Christian and Jewish space in Istanbul". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 36 (2): 159–181. doi:10.1017/S002074380436201X. JSTOR 3880030. S2CID 161640738.
  • Denny, Walter B. (2004). Iznik: the Artistry of Ottoman Ceramics. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-51192-3.
  • Goodwin, Godfrey (2003) [1971]. A History of Ottoman Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 215–239. ISBN 978-0-500-51192-3.
  • Neci̇poğlu-Kafadar, Gülru (1985). "The Süleymaniye Complex in Istanbul: an interpretation". Muqarnas. 3: 92–117. doi:10.2307/1523086. JSTOR 1523086.
  • Necipoğlu, Gülru (2005). The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-253-9.
  • Sumner-Boyd, Hilary; Freely, John (2010). Strolling through Istanbul. London: Tauris Parke. pp. 199–208. ISBN 978-1-84885-154-2.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]