Hagia Sophia

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Hagia Sophia
Αγία Σοφία
Ayasofya
Wuraren Tarihi na Istanbul
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaTurkiyya
Province of Turkey (en) FassaraIstanbul Province (en) Fassara
Million city (en) FassaraIstanbul
District of Turkey (en) FassaraFatih (en) Fassara
Coordinates 41°00′30″N 28°58′48″E / 41.0083°N 28.98°E / 41.0083; 28.98
Map
History and use
Opening23 ga Faburairu, 532
Ƙaddamarwa1054
Shugaba Justinian I (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Holy Wisdom (en) Fassara
Addini Musulunci
Eastern Orthodoxy (en) Fassara
Suna Holy Wisdom (en) Fassara
Karatun Gine-gine
Zanen gini Isidore of Miletus (en) Fassara
Anthemius of Tralles (en) Fassara
Trdat the Architect (en) Fassara
Mimar Sinan (en) Fassara
Style (en) Fassara Byzantine architecture (en) Fassara
basilica (en) Fassara
Heritage
Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia wani masallaci ne a kasar Turkiya. An gina Hagia Sophia ne tun farko a matsayin cocin kimanin shekaru 1,500 baya. An fara mayar da gini masallaci ne tun bayan mamayar da Daular Usmaniyya ta yi wa yankin, amma tun daga shekarun 1930 ta koma gidan tarihin da ba na wani addini ba. Shugabannin addinin kirista sun ta sukar matakin shugaban kasar Turkiyya Recep Tayyip Erdogan, haka ma Tarayyar Turai da UNESCO ba su ji dadin matakin ba.[1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Cocin farko da ke wurin an san shi da Magna Ecclesia 'Great Church' saboda girmanta idan aka kwatanta da girman majami'u na zamani a cikin birni.[13] A cewar Chronicon Paschale, an keɓe cocin a ranar 15 ga Fabrairu 360, lokacin mulkin sarki Constantius II (r. 337–361) ta Bishop na Arian Eudoxius na Antakiya. An gina shi kusa da yankin da ake gina Babban Fada.[2] A cewar masanin tarihi na coci na ƙarni na 5 Socrates na Konstantinoful, sarki Constantius ya c. 346 "ya gina Babban Coci tare da wanda ake kira Irene wanda saboda ƙanƙanta ne, mahaifin sarki Constantine ya ƙara girma kuma ya ƙawata". Wata al'adar da ba ta girmi ƙarni na 7 ko 8 ba ta ba da rahoton cewa mahaifin Constantius, Constantine Great (r. 306–337) ne ya gina ginin. Hesychius na Miletus ya rubuta cewa Constantine ya gina Hagia Sophia da rufin katako kuma ya cire mutum-mutumi 427 (mafi yawan arna) daga wurin. Marubuci na ƙarni na 12 Joannes Zonaras ya daidaita ra'ayoyin biyu, yana rubuta cewa Constantius ya gyara ginin da Eusebius na Nicomedia ya keɓe, bayan ya ruguje. Tun da Eusebius shine bishop na Konstantinoful daga 339 zuwa 341, kuma Constantine ya mutu a shekara ta 337, da alama Constantius ne ya gina cocin farko.[3]

Bayanai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hagia Sophia masallaci ne kuma babban wurin al'adu da tarihi a Istanbul, Turkiyya. Ya kasance na Ƙarshen gine-ginen coci guda uku da Masarautar Gabashin Roma ta gina a jere, an kammala shi a shekara ta 537 AD. Wurin ya kasance cocin Orthodox na Gabas daga 360 AD zuwa 1204, lokacin da aka canza shi zuwa cocin Katolika bayan yakin Crusade na hudu. An sake karbe shi a cikin 1261 kuma ya kasance Ortodoks na Gabas har zuwa lokacin da Ottoman ya mamaye Constantinoful a 1453. Ya yi aiki a matsayin masallaci har zuwa 1935, lokacin da ya zama gidan tarihi. A cikin 2020, wurin ya sake zama masallaci.[4]

Sarkin Byzantine Justinian I ne ya gina tsarin na yanzu a matsayin babban cocin Kirista na Constantinople na daular Byzantine tsakanin 532 da 537, kuma Greek geometers Isidore na Miletus da Anthemius na Tralles ne suka tsara shi. An kira ta a ƙa'ida ta Coci na Hikimar Allah ya zama mafi girma a cikin sararin samaniya: Naòs tês Hagías to sararin samaniya na farko da ya yi amfani da cikakken kubba mai ɗaukar nauyi. Ana la'akari da shi a matsayin misalin gine-ginen Byzantine kuma an ce ya "canza tarihin gine-gine". Ginin na Justinian na yanzu shine coci na uku mai suna iri daya da ya mamaye wurin, saboda wanda ya gabata an lalata shi a tarzomar Nika. Kamar yadda Episcopal ya ga shugaban Ecumenical na Constantinople, ya kasance babban majami'a mafi girma a duniya kusan shekaru dubu, har sai da aka kammala Cathedral na Seville a cikin 1520. Da fara da gine-ginen Byzantine na gaba, Hagia Sophia ta zama sigar majami'u ta Orthodox, Ottoman Mosques sun yi koyi da shi shekaru dubu bayan haka. An bayyana shi a matsayin "riƙe matsayi na musamman a duniyar Kiristanci" kuma a matsayin gunkin gine-gine da al'adu na Byzantine da wayewar Orthodox ta Gabas.[5]

Cibiyar addini da ta ruhaniya na Cocin Orthodox na Gabas na kusan shekaru dubu ɗaya, cocin ta keɓe ga Hikima Mai Tsarki. A nan ne aka fitar da fadakar sarki Michael I Cerularius a hukumance ta Humbert na Silva Candida, wakilin Paparoma Leo IX a cikin shekarar 1054, wani doka da aka yi la'akari da farkon Schism na Gabas-Yamma. A cikin 1204, an mayar da ita a lokacin Crusade na huɗu zuwa majami'ar Katolika a ƙarƙashin daular Latin, kafin a mayar da ita zuwa Cocin Orthodox na Gabas a kan maido da daular Byzantine a shekara ta 1261. Enrico Dandolo, doge na Venice wanda ya jagoranci yaƙin yaƙi na huɗu An binne buhun Konstantinoful na 1204, a cikin cocin.[6]

Bayan faduwar Konstantinoful zuwa Daular Usmaniyya a shekara ta 1453, Mehmed Mai nasara ya mayar da shi zuwa masallaci kuma ya zama babban masallacin Istanbul har zuwa lokacin da aka gina masallacin Sultan Ahmed a shekara ta 1616. an cire ambo, da baftisma an cire , yayin da shamaki, kamar sifofin mosaic na Yesu, Maryamu, Waliyai Kirista da mala’iku an cire ko shafe su. Ƙididdigar gine-ginen Islama sun haɗa da minare huɗu, minbar da mihrab. Tsarin gine-ginen Byzantine na Hagia Sophia ya zama abin zuga ga sauran gine-ginen addini da suka hada da Hagia Sophia a cikin Thessaloniki, Panagia Ekatontapiliani, Masallacin Şehzade, Masallacin Süleymaniye, Masallacin Rüstem Pasha da Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex. Uban sarki ya koma Cocin Manzanni Mai Tsarki, wanda ya zama babban cocin birni.[7][8]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia
  2. https://books.google.com/books?id=buQRK64RlPgC
  3. https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s001781600002664x
  4. https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/ayasofya
  5. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia
  6. https://islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/ayasofya
  7. https://www.livescience.com/27574-hagia-sophia.html
  8. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardner%27s_Art_Through_the_Ages