Suleiman Mai Girma

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Suleiman Mai Girma
EmperorSuleiman.jpg
sultan of the Ottoman Empire (en) Fassara

10 Oktoba 1520 - 17 Satumba 1566
Selim I (en) Fassara - Selim II (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Trabzon (en) Fassara, 6 Nuwamba, 1494
Mazauni Topkapı Palace (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Szigetvár (en) Fassara, 6 Satumba 1566 (Gregorian)
Makwanci Masallacin Süleymaniye
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Kashin jini)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Selim I
Mahaifiya Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Abokiyar zama Gülfem Hatun (en) Fassara
Fülane Hatun (en) Fassara
Mahidevran Gülbahar Hatün (en) Fassara  (1514 -  7 Satumba 1566)
Hürrem Sultan (en) Fassara  (1531 (Gregorian) -  15 ga Afirilu, 1558 (Gregorian))
Ma'aurata Fülane Hatun (en) Fassara
Gülfem Hatun (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Hatice Sultan (en) Fassara, Beyhan Sultan (en) Fassara, Sah Sultan (en) Fassara, Fatma Sultan (en) Fassara da Hafize Sultan (en) Fassara
Yare Ottoman dynasty (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Turkanci
Sana'a
Sana'a maiwaƙe, ruler (en) Fassara, legislator (en) Fassara, Shugaban soji da ɗan/'yar siyasa
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Tughra of Suleiman I the Magnificent.svg

Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish; Turkish: I. Süleyman; 6 Nuwamba 1494 – 6 Satumba 1566), wanda aka fi sani da Suleiman Mai Girma a Yamma da Suleiman Mai Ba da Doka (Ottoman Turkish) a mulkinsa, shi ne Sarkin Musulmi na goma kuma mafi dadewa a kan daular Usmaniyya daga 1520 har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekara ta 1566. :541–45A karkashin gwamnatinsa, daular Usmaniyya ta yi mulki sama da akalla 25 mutane miliyan.[1]

Suleiman ya gaji mahaifinsa, Selim I, a matsayin sarki a ranar 30 ga watan Satumbar 1520 kuma ya fara mulkinsa tare da yakin adawa da ikon Kirista a tsakiyar Turai da Bahar Rum. Belgrade ya fada masa a 1521 da tsibirin Rhodes a 1522-23. A Mohács, a cikin watan Agusta 1526, Suleiman ya karya ƙarfin soja na Hungary.

Suleiman ya zama fitaccen sarki a Turai a karni na 16, wanda ya jagoranci kolin daular Usmaniyya ta tattalin arziki, soja da siyasa. Suleiman da kansa ya jagoranci sojojin daular Usmaniyya wajen cin galaba a kan matsugunan Kiristoci na Belgrade da Rhodes da kuma mafi yawan kasar Hungary kafin a duba yakinsa a kewayen Vienna a shekara ta 1529. Ya mamaye gabas ta tsakiya da yawa a cikin rikicinsa da Safawiyawa da manyan yankuna na Arewacin Afirka har zuwa yammacin Aljeriya. A karkashin mulkinsa, rundunar Ottoman ta mamaye tekuna daga Bahar Rum zuwa Bahar Maliya da kuma ta Tekun Fasha. [2] :61

A jagorancin daula mai faɗaɗawa, Suleiman da kansa ya kafa manyan sauye-sauye na shari'a da suka shafi al'umma, ilimi, haraji da kuma dokokin laifuka. Gyaran da ya yi, wanda aka yi tare da babban jami'in shari'a na daular Ebussuud Efendi, ya daidaita dangantakar da ke tsakanin nau'o'i biyu na dokokin Ottoman: Sultan (Kanun) da na addini (Shari'a). Ya kasance fitaccen mawaki kuma maƙerin zinariya; ya kuma zama babban majibincin al'adu, yana kula da zamanin "Golden" na Daular Usmaniyya a fannin fasaha, adabi da raya gine-gine. [3]

Da yake karya al'adar Ottoman, Suleiman ya auri Hürrem Sultan, wata mace daga cikin 'ya'yansa, Kiristan Orthodox 'yar Ruthenia wanda ya karbi Musulunci, kuma wanda ya shahara a Yamma da sunan Roxelana, saboda jajayen gashinta. Ɗansu, Selim II, ya gaji Suleiman bayan mutuwarsa a shekara ta 1566 bayan shekaru 46 yana mulki. Sauran magada Suleiman, Mehmed da Mustafa, sun rasu; Mehmed ya mutu a shekara ta 1543 daga cutar sankarau, kuma Mustafa an shake shi har lahira a shekara ta 1553 bisa umarnin sarkin musulmi. An kashe dansa Bayezid a 1561 bisa umarnin Suleiman, tare da ’ya’yan Bayezid hudu, bayan tawaye. Ko da yake malamai yawanci suna ɗaukar lokacin bayan mutuwarsa a matsayin tashin hankali da daidaitawa maimakon raguwa mai sauƙi, ƙarshen mulkin Suleiman ya zama ruwan dare a tarihin Ottoman. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata bayan Suleiman, daular ta fara samun sauye-sauye na siyasa, hukumomi, da tattalin arziki, al'amarin da aka fi sani da Canji na Daular Ottoman. :11

Madadin sunaye da lakabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sulaiman Mai Girma ( محتشم سليمانMuḥteşem Suleyman), kamar yadda aka san shi a Yamma, ana kuma kiran sa Suleiman na Farko ( سلطان سليمان أولSulṭān Süleymān-ı Evvel), and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( قانونی سلطان سليمانḲānūnī Sulṭān Suleymān ) don gyara tsarin shari'ar Ottoman.

Ba a san lokacin da ainihin kalmar Kanunî (Mai ba da doka) ta fara amfani da ita a matsayin abin koyi ga Suleiman ba. Ba ya nan gaba ɗaya daga tushen Ottoman na ƙarni na sha shida da na sha bakwai kuma yana iya kasancewa tun farkon ƙarni na 18.

Akwai al’adar asalin yammaci, wanda a cewar Suleiman Mai Girma shine “Suleiman II”, amma wannan al’adar ta ginu ne a kan kuskuren zaton cewa za a amince da Suleyman Çelebi a matsayin halaltaccen sarki.[4]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Suleiman Nakkaş Osman.

An haifi Suleiman a Trabzon a kudancin bakin tekun Black Sea zuwa Şehzade Selim (daga baya Selim I), mai yiwuwa a ranar 6 gawatan Nuwamba 1494, kodayake ba a san wannan kwanan wata da cikakkiyar tabbaci ko shaida ba.[5] Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Hafsa Sultan, musuluntar da ba a san asalinta ba, wadda ta rasu a shekara ta 1534. :9A lokacin yana dan shekara bakwai, Suleiman ya fara karatun kimiyya, tarihi, adabi, tiyoloji da dabarun soja a makarantun fadar Topkapı da ke Konstantinoful. Sa’ad da yake matashi, ya yi abota da Pargalı Ibrahim, bawan ƙasar Girka wanda daga baya ya zama ɗaya daga cikin mashawarta da ya fi amincewa da shi (amma daga baya aka kashe shi bisa umarnin Suleiman). Yana da shekaru goma sha bakwai, an nada shi a matsayin gwamnan Kaffa na farko (Theodosia), sannan Manisa, tare da ɗan gajeren lokaci a Edirne.[6]



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Süleyman I". In Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire .
  2. Hüseyin Odabaş; Coşkun Odabaş (2015). Manuscript and Ferman Ornamentation Art in the Ottoman Empire . p. 123.Empty citation (help)
  3. Mansel, Philip (1998). Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924 .Empty citation (help)
  4. Woodhead, Christine (2011). "Introduction". In Woodhead, Christine (ed.). The Ottoman World . p. 5. "Ottomanist historians have largely jettisoned the notion of a post-1600 'decline'"
  5. Kafadar, Cemal (1993). "The Myth of the Golden Age: Ottoman Historical Consciousness in the Post- Süleymânic Era". In İnalcık, Halil; Cemal Kafadar (eds.). Süleyman the Second [i.e. the First] and His Time . Istanbul: The Isis Press. p. 41. ISBN 975-428-052-5 .
  6. Lowry, Heath (1993). "Süleymân's Formative Years in the City of Trabzon: Their Impact on the Future Sultan and the City". In İnalcık, Halil; Cemal Kafadar (eds.). Süleyman the Second [i.e. the First] and His Time . Istanbul: The Isis Press. p. 21. ISBN 975-428-052-5