Masallacin Shah (Isfahan)

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Masallacin Shah
Naghsh-e-jahan masjed-e-shah esfahan.jpg
Shah Mosque (Isfahan).jpg
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaIran
Province of Iran (en) FassaraIsfahan (Lardi)
County of Iran (en) FassaraIsfahan County (en) Fassara
Coordinates 32°39′19″N 51°40′41″E / 32.655256°N 51.677954°E / 32.655256; 51.677954
History and use
Ƙaddamarwa1630
Suna saboda Khomeini
Abbas the Great (en) Fassara
Karatun Gine-gine
Architect (en) Fassara Bahāʾ al-dīn al-ʿĀmilī (en) Fassara
Style (en) Fassara Safavid architecture (en) Fassara
Tsawo 54 m
Heritage

Masallacin Shah (Farisanci: مسجد شاه) masallaci ne da ke Isfahan, Iran. Tana gefen kudu na Naghsh-e Jahan Square. An gina shi a lokacin daular Safavid a ƙarƙashin umarnin Shah Abbas I na Farisa.

Duba Masallacin daga Dandalin Naqsh-e Jahan

An dauke ta a matsayin daya daga cikin fitattun gine -ginen Farisa a zamanin Musulunci. An yi wa Masallacin Masarautar rajista, tare da Dandalin Naghsh-e Jahan, a matsayin Cibiyar Tarihin Duniya ta UNESCO.[1] Gininsa ya fara ne a shekara ta 1611, kuma kyawunsa yafi yawa saboda kyawun fale-falensa mai launi bakwai da rubuce-rubucen kiraigraphic.

Masallacin ana misalta shi a bayan takardar kudin Iran rial 20,000.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dominicus Custos ya zana hoton Shah Abbas na Copper, daga mashahurin Atrium heroicum Caesarum. 1600–1602.

A shekara ta 1598, lokacin da Shah Abbas ya yanke shawarar kaura babban birnin daular Farisa daga garin Qazvin da ke arewa maso yammacin kasar zuwa tsakiyar birnin Isfahan, ya fara abin da zai zama daya daga cikin manyan shirye -shirye a tarihin Farisa; cikakken sake fasalin wannan tsohon birni. Ta hanyar zaɓar babban birnin Isfahan, wanda Kogin Zāyandeh ("Kogin mai ba da rai") ya haɗe shi, yana kwance a matsayin wurin noman ciyayi mai ƙarfi a tsakiyar babban yanki mai faɗi, duka ya nisanta babban birninsa daga duk wani hari na gaba. ta babban abokin adawar Iran, Ottomans, kuma a lokaci guda sun sami ƙarin iko akan Tekun Farisa, wanda kwanan nan ya zama muhimmiyar hanyar kasuwanci ga Kamfanonin Holland da Burtaniya ta Indiya ta Gabas.[3]

Babban mai tsara wannan aiki na tsara birane shi ne Shaykh Bahai (Baha 'ad-Din al-`Amili), wanda ya mai da hankali kan shirin kan muhimman abubuwa guda biyu na babban shirin Shah Abbas: hanyar Chahar Bagh, wacce ke gefen kowane gefe. manyan cibiyoyi na birni, kamar gidajen duk manyan baki na waje, da dandalin Naqsh-e Jahan ("Misalin Duniya").[4] Kafin hawan Shah zuwa madafun iko, Farisa tana da tsarin wutar lantarki mara iyaka, inda cibiyoyi daban -daban ke gwagwarmayar neman iko, gami da sojoji (Qizilbash) da gwamnonin larduna daban -daban da suka haɗa daular. Shah Abbas yana so ya ɓata wannan tsarin siyasa, kuma nishaɗin Isfahan, a matsayin Babban Babban birnin Farisa, wani muhimmin mataki ne na daidaita ikon.[5] Fassarar faifan, ko Maidān, ita ce, ta hanyar gina ta, Shah Abbas zai tattara manyan abubuwa uku na iko a Farisa a bayan gidansa; ikon limamai, wanda Masjed-e Shah ke wakilta, ikon 'yan kasuwa, wanda Bazaar Sarkin ya wakilta, kuma ba shakka, ikon Shah da kansa, yana zaune a Fadar Ali Qapu.

Kyautar kambi a cikin wannan aikin shine Masjed i Shah, wanda zai maye gurbin Masallacin Jameh mafi tsufa wajen gudanar da sallar Juma'a. Don cimma wannan, an gina Masallacin Shah ba kawai tare da hangen nesa ba, wanda ke da madaukaki mafi girma a cikin birni, amma Shaykh Bahai ya kuma shirya gina makarantun addini guda biyu da masallacin hunturu da aka manne a kowane gefensa.[6] Saboda burin Shah na ganin an kammala ginin a lokacin rayuwarsa, an dauki gajerun hanyoyi a cikin ginin; misali, Shah ya yi watsi da gargadin da ɗaya daga cikin masu zanen gine -ginen Abu'l Qasim ya yi game da haɗarin zama a cikin ginin masallacin, kuma ya ci gaba da ginin.[7] Ginin gine -ginen ya tabbatar da cewa ya cancanta, saboda a cikin 1662 dole ne a yi ginin sosai.[8] Hakanan, Farisawa sun yi wa masallacin ado da fale-falen bango mai launi guda bakwai wanda ya fi arha da sauri, kuma a ƙarshe ya hanzarta ginin. Wasu daga cikin ƙwararrun masu fasaha a ƙasar ne suka yi wannan aikin, kuma Jagora mai kira, Reza Abbasi ne ke kula da aikin gaba ɗaya. A ƙarshe, an taɓa taɓa masallacin a ƙarshen 1629, 'yan watanni bayan mutuwar Shah.

Hakanan, masana tarihi da yawa sun yi mamakin yanayin musamman na The Royal square (The Maidān). Ba kamar yawancin gine-gine masu mahimmanci ba, wannan dandalin bai yi daidai da Makka ba, don haka lokacin shiga ƙofar masallacin, mutum yana yin kusan ba tare da ya sani ba, juzu'i na dama, wanda ke ba babban kotun ciki damar fuskantar Makka. Donald Wilber ya ba da bayani mafi gamsarwa ga wannan; hangen Shaykh Bahai shine don a ga masallaci ya kasance a bayyane a duk inda a cikin maydān mutum yake. Da a ce gindin maydān ya yi daidai da gatan Makka, da ƙofar ƙofar da ke kaiwa zuwa gare ta za a ɓoye ɓoyayyen masallacin. Ta hanyar ƙirƙirar kusurwa a tsakanin su, ɓangarorin biyu na ginin, ƙofar ƙofar da dome, suna cikin cikakkiyar kallo don kowa a cikin dandalin ya yaba.[9]

Gine -gine da ƙira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iwan ƙofar tare da faɗinsa mai tsayi

Zane-salon iwan huɗu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Safavids sun kafa Masallacin Shah a matsayin tashar da za su iya bayyana kansu tare da dabarun gine -gine masu yawa. Siffar iwan guda huɗu, daular Seljuq ta kammala, kuma Safawiyya ta gaji, ta kafa facade na farfaɗo da irin waɗannan masallatai, tare da manyan ƙofofi a kowane gefe, suna da mahimmanci fiye da ainihin ginin kansa.[10] A lokacin mulkin Seljuq, yayin da sufancin Islama ke ƙaruwa kuma Farisawa suna neman sabon nau'in ƙirar gine-gine wanda ya jaddada asalin Farisa, tsarin iwan huɗu ya fara. Farisawa sun riga sun sami gadar gine-gine masu wadatar gaske, kuma ainihin an ɗauki siffar iwan daga farkon, ƙirar gidan sarautar Sassanid,[10] kamar Fadar Ardashir. Don haka, tsarin gine -ginen Musulunci ya shaida fitowar wani sabon salo wanda ya bambanta da ƙirar hypostyle na farkon, masallatan Larabawa, kamar Masallacin Umayyawa. Tsarin huɗu na iwan yawanci ya ɗauki siffar murabba'i, farfajiya ta tsakiya tare da manyan ƙofar a kowane gefe, yana ba da alamar kasancewa ƙofofi zuwa duniyar ruhaniya.

Hoton ranar Iwan. Masallacin Shah. Isfahan, 9 Oktoba 2019
Zane -zanen da masanin gine -ginen Faransa, Pascal Coste, ya ziyarci Farisa a 1841. Zane -zanen yana nuna babban farfajiyar gidan, tare da biyu daga cikin iwan. Iwan da ke hannun dama shine babban gwal, wanda a cikin masallatan Farisa da yawa sun maye gurbin aikin minarets.
Tsakar gida a 2016

Tsaye a dandalin jama'a, ko Maidan, ƙofar-iwan (ƙofar) zuwa masallaci tana ɗaukar sifar da'irar, mai kama da rabin wata da aka auna kuma tana auna tsayin mita 27, an tsara ƙofar ta kayan ado na turquoise kuma an yi mata ado da stalactite mai arziki. -kamar tile ɗin da ake kira muqarnas, fasali na musamman na gine -ginen Musulunci na Farisa. A ɓangarorin suna tashi minarets biyu, tsayin mita 42, saman da aka zana da kyau, baranda na katako tare da muqarnas suna gangarowa ta ɓangarorin. Babbar mai kiran kotun Royal, Reza Abbasi, ta rubuta ranar da aka fara ginin ginin, ban da shi kuma, ayoyin suna yabon Muhammad da Ali.[11] A tsakiya, a gaban ƙofar, an tsaya wani ɗan ƙaramin tafki da wurin hutawa ga dawakai, kuma a cikin masu bautar sun sami babban kwalin marmara da aka saita akan ƙafar ƙafa, cike da ruwa mai daɗi ko lemo. Wannan kwandon har yanzu yana tsaye kamar yadda ya yi shekaru ɗari huɗu, amma ba ya hidimar aikin samar da abin sha ga masu ibada a sallar Juma'a.

Lokacin wucewa ta ƙofar ƙofar, mutum yana isa babban farfajiyar, yana tsakiyar babban tafki. Ƙofofin ƙofa biyu (iwans) a ɓangarorin suna jawo hankalin mutane zuwa babban ƙofar a ƙarshen ƙarshen, ɗaya kawai tare da minarets, kuma a bayansa babban dome mai tsayi, tare da kayan adonsa masu launi.

Bambancin kowane masallaci shine minaret, kuma Masjed-e Shah yana da hudu. Duk da haka, a cikin masallatan Farisa, ana ganin minarets masu tsayi ba su dace da kiran sallah ba, kuma za su ƙara wani magani, wanda aka sani da Farisanci a matsayin gwal (bouquet) don wannan manufa ta musamman, wanda a cikin Masjed-e Shah ke tsaye a saman yamma iwan.[12]

Gine -ginen addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kallon cikin gida na masallacin hunturu, wanda aka gina azaman masallaci na al'ada.

A ciki, kaddarorin sautuka da tunani a tsakiyar tsakiyar ƙarƙashin dome abin sha'awa ne ga baƙi da yawa, kamar yadda ƙwarewar masu zanen gine -gine, lokacin ƙirƙirar dome, yana ba Imam damar yin magana da murya mai rauni kuma har yanzu kowa yana ji a sarari. cikin ginin.

Mihrab, babban kwamfutar marmara mai tsawon ƙafa goma da faɗin ƙafa uku a bangon kudu maso yamma, ya nuna alƙiblar Makka. A samansa mutanen Shah sun sanya kwandon katako na zinari. Ya ƙunshi kayan tarihi guda biyu: Al -Qur'ani, wanda aka ce Imam Reza ne ya kwafe shi, da rigar jinin Hussaini. Kodayake ba a nuna shi ba, an ce rigar tana da ikon sihiri; an ɗaga shi a ƙarshen matukin jirgin a fagen yaƙi, imanin shine cewa zai iya murkushe maƙiyi.[13]

Daga babban farfajiyar, iwan da ke nuni zuwa gabas ya ƙunshi makarantar addini, ko madrasa. Yana ɗauke da rubutu ta mai kiran hoto Muhammad Riza Imami yana yabon Mutum goma sha huɗu (watau Muhammad, Fatimah da Imamai goma sha biyu). Iwan da ke kusurwar yamma yana kaiwa zuwa wani madrasa da masallacin hunturu. A cikin nasa, farfajiyar mai zaman kansa, mutum zai iya samun shaharar faɗuwar rana da Shaykh Bahai ya yi.

Dome[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masjed-e Shah 0.JPG

Bayan shigar da gidaje a cikin zane -zanen gine -ginen Musulunci da Larabawa suka yi a karni na 7, gidaje suna bayyana akai -akai a cikin gine -ginen masallatai. Babban ginin Farisa wanda ke dauke da kumburi shine Babban Masallacin Zavareh, wanda aka gina a 1135.[14] Farisawa sun gina irin waɗannan gidaje tun ƙarni da yawa da suka gabata, kuma wasu daga cikin sanannun misalai na manyan gidaje a Duniya ana samun su a Iran, misali shine Masarautar Maza. Don haka, Musulman Safavid sun aro da yawa daga ilimin jahiliyya a cikin ginin gini, watau amfani da ƙanƙara don ƙirƙirar juzu'i daga tsarin octagonal, zuwa dome madauwari. Don rufe waɗannan yankuna na canji, Farisawa sun gina manyan hanyoyin sadarwa na muqarnas. Ta haka ne kuma aka shigo da wannan fasalin a cikin masallatan Farisa.

Safavids ne suka fara farfaɗo da ginin dome na Farisa. Siffar da ke cikin farmakin Farisa, wanda ya raba su da waɗancan gidajen da aka kirkira a duniyar Kiristanci ko kuma daular Ottoman da Mughal, ita ce fale -falen launuka masu launi, waɗanda suke rufe na waje na gidajensu, kamar yadda za su yi a ciki. Waɗannan gidajen ba da daɗewa ba sun ƙidaya adadi da yawa a Isfahan, kuma bambancin, launin launin shuɗi zai mamaye sararin samaniyar birni. Da yake nuna hasken rana, waɗannan gidaje sun bayyana kamar lu'ulu'u mai ƙyalƙyali kuma ana iya ganin su daga mil nesa da matafiya da ke bin hanyar siliki ta Farisa. Ya kai tsayin mita 53, dome na Masjed-e Shah zai zama mafi tsayi a cikin birni lokacin da aka gama shi a cikin 1629. An gina shi a matsayin kumburin harsashi biyu, tare da tsayin mita 14 tsakanin yadudduka biyu, kuma ya dora kan dakin dome na octagonal.[15]

Art[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cikakken bayanin Mosaic, kamar yadda aka samu a Masallacin Shah, yana nuna rubutun Al -Qur'ani da aka rubuta a rubutun Thuluth (hoton da aka ɗauka a Masallacin Lotfallah).
Kallon cikin gida na babban dome da aka rufe da fale -falen polychrome, wanda aka yi niyya don ba wa mai kallo jin tsinkayar sama.
Panorama 3D na ciki na babban zauren sallah.

Masjed-e Shah wani katafaren tsari ne, wanda aka ce yana dauke da tubali miliyan 18 da fale-falen bura guda 475,000, wanda ya kashe Shah 60,000 don ginawa.[16] Ya yi amfani da sabon salon haft rangi (launi bakwai) na mosaic tile. A cikin masallatan Iran na baya an yi tiles da mosaic faience, tsari mai sauƙi kuma mai tsada inda ake yanke kananun abubuwa daga fale -falen monochrome kuma aka haɗa su don ƙirƙirar kayayyaki masu rikitarwa. A cikin hanyar haft rangi, masu sana'a sun sanya dukkan launuka lokaci guda, sannan suka kori tayal. Mai rahusa da sauri, sabuwar hanyar ta ba da damar amfani da faɗin launuka daban -daban, ƙirƙirar samfura masu daɗi, masu daɗi ga ido.[8][17] A cewar Jean Chardin, karancin danshi a cikin iska a Farisa ne ya sanya launuka suka zama bayyanannu kuma bambance -bambancen da ke tsakanin sifofi daban -daban sun fi karfi fiye da abin da za a iya samu a Turai, inda launuka na fale -falen fale -falen suka juye suka rasa. bayyanarsa.[18] Har yanzu, yawancin marubutan zamani da na zamani suna ɗaukar aikin tayal na Masjed-e Shah a matsayin mafi ƙanƙanta a cikin inganci da ƙima idan aka kwatanta da waɗanda ke rufe Masallacin Lotfallah, wanda galibi masanan tarihi na Farisa, irin su Iskandar Munshi ke kiransa a matsayin masallaci na babban tsarki da kyawu.[19] Har ila yau, masu zanen gine -ginen sun yi amfani da marmara da yawa, wanda suka tattara daga wani wurin marmara a Ardestan da ke kusa.[8] A ko'ina cikin ginin, daga ƙofar ƙofar zuwa babban ginin, ƙananan mitoci biyu na bangon an rufe su da marmara mai launin shuɗi, tare da kyawawan sanduna da aka sassaka a kowane gefen kowace ƙofar kuma an sassaka rubuce -rubuce a ko'ina. Sama da wannan matakin ana fara fale -falen mosaic wanda ya rufe sauran ginin.

Portal ɗin ƙofar masallacin yana nuna adon ƙyalli mafi kyau a cikin ginin. An kashe shi gaba ɗaya a cikin mosaic tile a cikin cikakken palette na launuka bakwai (shuɗin Persian mai duhu, shuɗin Turkawa mai haske, fari, baƙi, rawaya, kore da bisquit). Ƙungiya mai faɗi mai faɗi tare da rubutun addini waɗanda aka rubuta da fararen rubutun thuluth akan ƙasa mai launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi. Fale-falen da ke cikin Masjed-e Shah galibi shuɗi ne, sai dai a cikin ɗakunan da aka rufe na ginin, waɗanda daga baya aka bayyana su a cikin fale-falen sanyaya, masu launin shuɗi-kore.[17]

Ana fuskantar arewa, tashar masjid ɗin zuwa Maidan galibi tana ƙarƙashin inuwa amma tunda an lulluɓe ta da mosaics mai ƙyalƙyali yana haskakawa da babban shuɗi mai tsananin haske. Kayan ado na tsarukan al'ada ce ta al'ada, yayin da ta sake kwato ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan fa'ida da inganci. A cikin tsaka -tsakin tsaka -tsaki da daidaitattun iwans, mutum yana nutsar da raƙuman ruwa mara iyaka na arabesque mai launin shuɗi mai launin shuɗi da shuɗi mai duhu, wanda ke sa wa mai kallo albarka da kwanciyar hankali na ciki.

Masu gine -gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wanda ya gina masallacin shine Ali Akbar Isfahani. Sunan sa ya bayyana a cikin wani rubutu a cikin masallaci sama da ƙofar ginin ƙofar iwan. Rubutun ya kuma ambaci mai kula da ginin a matsayin Muhibb 'Ali Beg Lala wanda shi ma babban mai ba da gudummawa ne ga masallacin. Wani mai zanen gine-gine Badi al-zaman-i Tuni ya kasance yana da hannu a cikin ƙirarsa ta farko.

Matakan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tashar tashar masallacin tana da tsayin mita 27 (89 ft), an yi mata kambi biyu da tsayi 42 m (138 ft). Masallacin yana kewaye da iwan hudu da arcades. Duk bangon an yi masa ado da tayal mosaic mai launi bakwai. Mafi girman iwan masallacin shine wanda ke fuskantar alƙibla mai girman mita 33 (108 ft). Bayan wannan iwan akwai sarari wanda aka lulluɓe da babban dome a cikin birni a tsayi 53 m (174 ft). Dome ya kasu kashi biyu. Dukan ginin yana auna mita 100 zuwa mita 130 (330 ft × 430 ft), tare da tsakar gida mai auna 70 zuwa 70 (230 ft × 230 ft).

Gidan hoton[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Meidan Emam, Esfahan".
  2. Central Bank of Iran.
  3. Savory, Roger; Iran under the Safavids, p. 155.
  4. Sir Roger Stevens; The Land of the Great Sophy, p. 172.
  5. Savory; chpt: The Safavid empire at the height of its power under Shāh Abbas the Great (1588–1629)
  6. Blake, Stephen P.; Half the World, The Social Architecture of Safavid Isfahan, 1590–1722, p. 143–144.
  7. Savory, p. 162
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Blake; p. 144
  9. Wilber, Donald; Aspects of the Safavid Ensemble at Isfahan, in Iranian Studies VII: Studies on Isfahan Part II, p 407–408.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "THE ROYAL MOSQUE (MASJED-e-EMAM) in Isfahan, Iran".
  11. Blake; p. 143
  12. Hattstein M., Delius P.; Islam, Art and Architecture; p. 513
  13. Blake, p. 143
  14. "FRIDAY MOSQUE in Zavareh, Iran".
  15. Hattstein M., Delius P.; p. 513–514
  16. Pope; Survey, p. 1185–88
  17. 17.0 17.1 Hattstein M., Delius P.; p. 513
  18. Ferrier, R. W.; A Journey to Persia, Jean Chardin's Portrait of a Seventeenth-century Empire, chpt: Arts and Crafts
  19. Blake; p. 149

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Goudarzi, Masoumeh; Bemanian, Mohammadreza; Leylian, Mohammadreza (2020). "Geometrical analysis of architectural drawnings in the Shah-mosque Isfahan". Curved and Layered Structures. 7 (1): 68–79. Bibcode:2020CLS.....7....7G. doi:10.1515/cls-2020-0007.
  • Stephen P. Blake: Half the World. The Social Architecture of Safavid Isfahan, 1590–1722. Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Pub., 1999.
  • Roger Savory: Iran Under the Safavids. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
  • A Journey to Persia. Jean Chardin's Portrait of a Seventeenth-century Empire; transl and ed. by R. W. Ferrier. New York: I.B. Tauris Publishers, 1996.
  • Michael Axworthy: A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. New York: Basic Books, 2008.
  • L. Golombek: ‘Anatomy of a Mosque: The Masjid-i Shāh of Iṣfahān’, Iranian Civilization and Culture, ed. C. J. Adams (Montreal, 1972), pp. 5–11