Molière

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Molière
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
Haihuwa Faris, 15 ga Janairu, 1622
ƙasa Kingdom of France (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Faransanci
Mutuwa Faris, 17 ga Faburairu, 1673
Makwanci Père Lachaise Cemetery (en) Fassara
Cimetière Saint-Joseph de Paris (en) Fassara
Museum of French Monuments (en) Fassara
Molière's tomb (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (tibi)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Jean Poquelin
Abokiyar zama Armande Béjart (en) Fassara  (20 ga Faburairu, 1662 -  17 ga Faburairu, 1673)
Ma'aurata Madeleine Béjart (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Lycée Louis-le-Grand (en) Fassara
Q23197733 Fassara
University of Orléans (en) Fassara
Harsuna Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a marubucin wasannin kwaykwayo, stage actor (en) Fassara, maiwaƙe, satirist (en) Fassara, mai bada umurni na gidan wasan kwaykwayo, gwanin wasan kwaykwayo, marubuci da theatre manager (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Scapin the Schemer (en) Fassara
Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (en) Fassara
The Imaginary Invalid (en) Fassara
The Misanthrope (en) Fassara
Tartuffe (en) Fassara
Dom Juan (en) Fassara
The School for Wives (en) Fassara
The Imaginary Cuckold (en) Fassara
Psyché (en) Fassara
Pastorale comique (en) Fassara
Mélicerte (en) Fassara
Monsieur de Pourceaugnac (en) Fassara
The Blunderer, or the Counterplots (en) Fassara
The School for Husbands (en) Fassara
L'Impromptu de Versailles (en) Fassara
The Miser (en) Fassara
L'Amour médecin (en) Fassara
Les Précieuses ridicules (en) Fassara
Les Fâcheux (en) Fassara
Les Femmes Savantes (en) Fassara
Les amants magnifiques (en) Fassara
Le Sicilien ou l'Amour peintre (en) Fassara
Le Médecin volant (en) Fassara
Le Médecin malgré lui (en) Fassara
Marriage by Compulsion (en) Fassara
Lovers' quarrels (en) Fassara
Princess of Elis (en) Fassara
La jalousie du barbouillé (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Plautus (en) Fassara da commedia dell'arte (en) Fassara
Fafutuka classicism (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Molière
Artistic movement barkwanci
farce (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0596942

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin (lafazin French pronunciation: ​ [ʒɑ̃ batist pɔklɛ̃], [pɔkəlɛ̃]; 15 ga watan Janairu 1622 (baptised) – 17 ga watan Fabrairu 1673), wanda kuma akafi sani da sunansa na mataki Molière (UK:/ˈmɒliɛər, ˈmoʊl-/,US:/moʊlˈjər,ˌmoʊli ˈər/, French: [mɔljɛʁ), marubucin wasan kwaikwayo ne na Faransa, ɗan wasan kwaikwayo, kuma mawaƙi, wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin a ɗaya daga cikin manyan marubuta a cikin yaren Faransanci da adabin duniya. Ayyukansa na baya sun haɗa da wasan kwaikwayo, tragicmmedies, faces, comedie-balets, da sauransu. An fassara wasan kwaikwayonsa zuwa kowane babban harshe mai rai kuma ana yin su a Comedie-Française fiye da na kowane marubucin wasan kwaikwayo a yau. [1] Tasirinsa ya kai har ana kiran harshen Faransanci a matsayin "harshen Molière".

An haife shi a cikin dangi mai wadata kuma ya yi karatu a Collège de Clermont (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand ), Molière ya dace da fara rayuwa a gidan wasan kwaikwayo. Shekaru goma sha uku a matsayin ɗan wasan tafiye-tafiye ya taimaka masa ya goge kwarewarsa ta ban dariya yayin da ya fara rubutu, yana haɗa abubuwan Commedia dell'arte tare da ingantaccen wasan barkwanci na Faransa. [2]

Ta hanyar taimakon manyan ’yan kasuwa da suka hada da Philippe I, Duke na Orléans—ɗan’uwan Louis XIV—Molière ya ba da umarni a gaban Sarki a Louvre. Yin wasan kwaikwayo na gargajiya na Pierre Corneille da farce na kansa, The Doctor in Love, Molière an ba shi damar yin amfani da salle du Petit-Bourbon kusa da Louvre, ɗakin daki mai faɗi da aka nada don wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo. Daga baya, an ba shi damar yin amfani da gidan wasan kwaikwayo a cikin Palais-Royal. A cikin wurare biyu, Molière ya sami nasara a tsakanin 'yan Parisiya tare da wasanni irin su 'yan matan da suka shafa, Makarantar Maza, da Makarantar Mata. Wannan tagomashin sarauta ya kawo fensho na sarauta ga ƙungiyarsa da take Troupe du Roi ("Kungiyar Sarki"). Molière ya ci gaba a matsayin mawallafin nishaɗin kotu. [3]

Duk da sha'awar kotu da 'yan Parisiya, Molière's satires sun jawo zargi daga wasu da'irori. Don rashin adalcin Tartuffe, Cocin Katolika a Faransa ta yi Allah wadai da wannan binciken na munafunci na addini, wanda majalisar dokokin ta hana shi, yayin da aka janye Don Juan kuma Molière bai sake dawo da shi ba. Ayyukansa mai wuyar gaske a cikin ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo da yawa sun yi tasiri ga lafiyarsa kuma, a shekara ta 1667, an tilasta masa ya huta daga matakin. A cikin karni na 1673, a lokacin da ake samar da wasansa na ƙarshe, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, wanda ke fama da tarin fuka, an kama shi ta hanyar tari da kuma zubar da jini yayin wasa da hypochondriac Argan. Ya gama wasan amma ya sake rugujewa ya mutu bayan ‘yan sa’o’i. [3]

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton Molière na Nicolas Mignard

An haifi Molière a birnin Paris jim kadan kafin a yi masa baftisma a matsayin Jean Poquelin a ranar 15 ga watan Janairun 1622. Wanda aka sani da Jean-Baptiste, shi ne ɗan fari na Jean Poquelin da Marie Cressé, waɗanda suka yi aure a ranar 27 ga watan Afrilu 1621. [4] Mahaifiyarsa 'yar gidan bourgeois ce mai wadata. Da ganinsa a karon farko, wata kuyanga ta ce, "Le nez!", mai nuni ga babban hancin jariri. An kira Molière "Le Nez" ta danginsa tun daga lokacin. Ya rasa mahaifiyarsa yana ɗan shekara 10, [5] kuma da alama bai kasance kusa da mahaifinsa ba. Bayan mutuwar mahaifiyarsa, ya zauna tare da mahaifinsa a sama da Pavillon des Singes a rue Saint-Honoré, wani yanki mai wadata na Paris. Wataƙila iliminsa ya fara ne tare da karatu a makarantar firamare ta Paris, [6] sannan ya shiga cikin babbar jami'ar Jesuit Collège de Clermont, inda ya kammala karatunsa a cikin yanayi mai tsauri na ilimi kuma ya sami ɗanɗanar rayuwa a matakin farko.

A shekara ta 1631, mahaifinsa Jean Poquelin ya saya daga kotu na Louis XIII posts na "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi" ("valet of the King Chamber and keeper of carpets and upholstery"). Ɗansa ya ɗauki wannan matsayi a cikin shekarar 1641. [7] Taken yana buƙatar aikin watanni uku kawai da farashin farko na 1,200; lakabin yana biyan kuɗi 300 a shekara kuma ya ba da kwangiloli masu yawa. Molière ya kuma yi karatu a matsayin lauya na lardin wani lokaci a kusa da 1642, mai yiwuwa a Orléans, amma ba a rubuta cewa ya taba cancanta ba. Ya zuwa yanzu ya bi tsare-tsaren mahaifinsa, wanda ya yi masa aiki da kyau; ya haɗu da manyan mutane a Collège de Clermont kuma da alama yana son yin aiki a ofis.

A cikin watan Yuni 1643, lokacin da Molière ya kasance 21, ya yanke shawarar yin watsi da zamantakewarsa kuma ya yi aiki a kan mataki. Da yake karbar izinin mahaifinsa, ya shiga 'yar wasan kwaikwayo Madeleine Béjart, wanda ya ketare hanya a baya, kuma ya kafa Illustre Théâtre tare da 630. Daga baya aka haɗa su da kanin Madeleine da ƙanwarsa.

Misali bayan Pierre Brissart don buga rubutun L'Étourdi ou les Contretemps.

Ƙungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta yi fatara a 1645. Molière ya zama shugaban kungiyar, saboda wani bangare, watakila, ga iyawar sa da kuma horar da shari'a. Koyaya, ƙungiyar ta sami manyan basusuka, galibi don hayar gidan wasan kwaikwayo (kotu don jeu de paume ), wanda bashin 2000 livres. Masana tarihi sun bambanta a kan shin mahaifinsa ko mai son wani dan kungiyarsa ya biya bashinsa; ko ta yaya, bayan ya shafe sa’o’i 24 a gidan yari ya koma da’ira mai aiki. A wannan lokacin ne ya fara amfani da pseudonym Molière, mai yiwuwa ya yi wahayi zuwa ga wani ƙaramin ƙauye mai suna a cikin Midi kusa da Le Vigan. Wataƙila ya canza sunansa don kare mahaifinsa kunya na samun ɗan wasan kwaikwayo a cikin iyali ('yan wasan kwaikwayo, kodayake ba a ci gaba da zagi da jihar a ƙarƙashin Louis XIV ba, har yanzu ba a yarda a binne su a ƙasa mai tsarki ba).

Bayan da aka ɗaure shi, shi da Madeleine sun fara wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo na larduna tare da sabon rukunin wasan kwaikwayo; Wannan rayuwa za ta kasance kusan shekaru goma sha biyu, a lokacin da ya fara wasa a cikin kamfanin Charles Dufresne, kuma daga baya ya ƙirƙiri kamfani na kansa, wanda ya sami isasshen nasara kuma ya sami tallafin Philippe I, Duke na Orléans. Wasan kwaikwayo kaɗan ne ke tsira daga wannan lokacin. Mafi mahimmanci shine L'Étourdi ou les Contretemps (The Bungler) da Le Docteur Amoureux (Likita a Ƙauna); tare da waɗannan wasanni biyu, Molière ya ƙaura daga tasirin Italiyanci na Commedia dell'arte, kuma ya nuna basirarsa don izgili. A cikin tafiyarsa ya sadu da Armand, Yariman Conti, gwamnan Languedoc, wanda ya zama majiɓincinsa, kuma ya sa wa kamfaninsa suna. Wannan abota daga baya ta ƙare lokacin da Armand, bayan da ya kamu da syphilis daga mai ladabi, ya juya zuwa ga addini kuma ya shiga maƙiyan Molière a cikin Parti des Dévots da Compagnie de Saint Sacrement.

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin tare da iyalai

A Lyon, Mademoiselle Du Parc, wanda aka sani da Marquise, ya shiga kamfanin. An yi wa Marquise zarafi, a banza, ta hanyar Pierre Corneille kuma daga baya ya zama masoyin Jean Racine. Racine ya bai wa Molière tragedies Théagène et Chariclée (daya daga cikin ayyukan farko da ya rubuta bayan ya yi watsi da karatun tauhidi), amma Molière ba zai yi ba, kodayake ya ƙarfafa Racine ya ci gaba da aikinsa na fasaha. An ce ba da daɗewa ba Molière ya yi fushi da Racine lokacin da aka gaya masa cewa ya gabatar da tragedies a ɓoye ga kamfanin Hotel de Bourgogne kuma.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. "...one of the theatre's greatest comic artists".
  2. Roy, p. 756.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Roy, p. 756–757.
  4. Gaines 2002, p. 383 (birthdate); Scott 2000, p. 14 (names).
  5. Marie Cressé died on 11 May 1632 (Gaines 2002, p. xi).
  6. Scott 2000, p. 16.
  7. Alfred Simon, Molière, une vie (Lyon: La Manufacture, 1988), pp. 520-21.