Mutuwar farar hula

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Mutuwar farar hula
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na hukuntarwa

Mutuwar jama'a (Latin)[1] shi ne asarar duk ko kusan duk wani haƙƙin ɗan adam da mutum ya yi saboda wani hukunci da aka yanke masa na aikata wani laifi ko kuma wani aiki da gwamnatin ƙasar ta yi wanda ke haifar da asarar haƙƙin ɗan adam. Yawanci ana yi wa mutanen da aka samu da laifin aikata laifuka ga gwamnati ko manya da kotu ta yanke cewa ba su iya aiki a shari'a saboda tawayar hankali.[2]

Turai ta Tsakiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin tsakiyar Turai, masu laifi sun rasa duk wani haƙƙin ɗan adam bayan yanke musu hukunci. Wannan mutuwar farar hula takan haifar da mutuwa ta gaske, tunda kowa na iya kashewa da raunata mai laifi ba tare da wani hukunci ba.[3] A ƙarƙashin Daular Roma Mai Tsarki, an kira mutumin da aka bayyana matattu a matsayin vogelfrei ('yantacce kamar tsuntsu') kuma ana iya kashe shi tun da yake sun kasance a waje da doka.[4]

A tarihi haramun, wato, ayyana mutum a matsayin haramtacciyar hanya, wani nau'i ne na mutuwar fararen hula.[4]

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙasar Amirka, ana kiran ba da izini ga masu aikata laifuka[5] nau'i na mutuwar jama'a, kamar yadda ake fama da sakamakon gaba ɗaya. Gabaɗaya masana shari'a ba su goyi bayan gardamar ba.[6] Mutuwar farar hula kamar haka ta kasance wani ɓangare na doka a New York, Tsibirin Rhode da Tsibirin Virgin.[7][8]

Tauye 'Yancin Siyasa (China, PRC)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tauye 'yancin siyasa wani ƙarin hukunci ne da aka ayyana a cikin dokar laifuka ta Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin (PRC) (Mataki na 34 na Babi na III), wanda za a iya aiwatar da shi kaɗai ko tare da babban hukunci (misali hukuncin kisa ko hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai) ga iyakance hakkin wanda aka yanke masa na shiga harkokin siyasa.[9] Ga waɗanda aka yanke wa hukuncin babban hukunci tare da tauye haƙƙin siyasa, tauyewa yana aiki a lokacin da ake tsare da su da kuma tsawon lokacin da aka yanke musu hukunci daga ranar da aka sake su ko aka yi musu afuwa. Sai dai kawai ana sanyawa ga waɗanda aka yanke wa hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai ko kuma hukuncin kisa. Idan aka sauya hukuncin ka'ida, yawanci haka za a tauye 'yancin siyasa. Ba a tauye haƙƙin siyasa kai tsaye ga fursunoni, kuma fursunonin da ba su da wannan rashi za su iya yin zabe kuma a ka'ida za a iya zabar su. PRC kasancewar kasar jam'iyya daya, wannan hukunci ba wani muhimmin abu bane.

Hakkokin siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda aka ayyana a cikin Dokar Laifuka, haƙƙoƙin siyasa na musamman sun haɗa da:[10]

  • 'yancin zabe da tsayawa takara;
  • 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki, 'yan jarida, na taro, na kungiya, da jerin gwano da zanga-zanga ;
  • 'yancin rike mukami a wata kungiya ta jiha; kuma
  • da hakkin ya rike wani babban matsayi a kowace jiha mallakar kamfani, sha'anin, ma'aikata ko jama'a kungiya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Asarar haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin haƙƙin mallaka
  • Rijistar masu laifin jima'i a Amurka
  • Mutuwar zamantakewa
  • Fatalwa… na Civil Dead
  • Homo Sacer, irin wannan matsayi a tsohuwar Dokar Romawa

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "CIVILITER MORTUUS : on Law Dictionary" . www.law-dictionary.org . Archived from the original on 2010-07-07. Retrieved 2008-12-16.
  2. See e.g. Interdiction of F.T.E., 594 So.2d 480 (La. App. 2d Cir. 1992).
  3. Manza, Jeff and Uggen, Christopher. Punishment and Democracy: Disenfranchisement of Nonincarcerated Felons in the United States. 'Perspectives on Politics.' Page 492. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3688812
  4. 4.0 4.1 Article "Death, Civil;" Encyclopædia Americana, 1830 ed, page 138
  5. Greenhouse, Linda (July 29, 2010). "Voting Behind Bars". The New York Times.
  6. Gabriel J. Chin, The New Civil Death: Rethinking Punishment in the Era of Mass Conviction, 160 U. Penn. L. Rev. 1789 (2012)
  7. Chin, Gabriel "Jack" (June 7, 2018). "Civil death lives!". Collateral Consequences Resource Center. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  8. "Civil Death Laws: When Life is Death | Criminal Legal News" . www.criminallegalnews.org . Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  9. "Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China" . www.china.org.cn . Retrieved 2018-03-04.
  10. "中华人民共和国刑法-英汉对照法律英 语" . www.chinalawedu.com . Retrieved 2019-05-28.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  •  "Civil Death" . New International Encyclopedia . 1905.