Daular Roma Mai Tsarki

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Daular Roma Mai Tsarki
Sacrum Imperium Romanum (la)

Take Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (en) Fassara (1797-1806)

Suna saboda Roman Empire (en) Fassara
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Daular Roma Mai Tsarki wata ƙungiya ce ta siyasa a Yammacin Turai, central, da Kudancin Turai wacce ta haɓaka a lokacin early middle ages kuma ta ci gaba har zuwa rushewarta a cikin shekarar 1806 a lokacin Yaƙin Napoleon.

Daular Roma

Daga hawan Otto I a shekara ta 962 har zuwa karni na sha biyu, daular ita ce mafi karfin sarauta a Turai. Andrew Holt ya siffanta ta a matsayin "watakila mafi iko a Turai a middle ages". Ayyukan gwamnati ya dogara ne akan haɗin kai na jituwa (wanda Bernd Schneidmüller ya yi wa lakabi da sarautar yarjejeniya ) tsakanin sarki da vassals amma wannan jituwa ta rikice a lokacin Salian. Daular ta kai kololuwar fadada yanki da iko a karkashin gidan Hohenstaufen a tsakiyar karni na sha uku, amma wuce gona da iri ya haifar da rugujewar wani bangare. [1]

A ranar 25 ga watan Disamba 800, Paparoma Leo III ya nada Sarkin Faransa Charlemagne a matsayin sarki, ya sake farfado da take a Yammacin Turai, fiye da ƙarni uku bayan faduwar tsohuwar Daular Roma ta Yamma a 476. A ka'idar da diflomasiyya, an ɗauki sarakunan primus interpares, wanda ake ganin su na farko a tsakanin sauran sarakunan Katolika a fadin Turai. [2] Taken ya ci gaba a cikin dangin Carolingian har zuwa 888 kuma daga 896 zuwa 899, bayan haka sarakunan Italiya sun yi hamayya da shi a cikin jerin yaƙe-yaƙe har zuwa mutuwar ɗan Italiya na ƙarshe, Berengar I, a cikin shekarar 924. An sake farfado da taken a cikin shekarar 962 lokacin da Otto I, Sarkin Jamus, ya nada sarauta ta Paparoma John XII, ya naɗa kansa a matsayin magajin Charlemagne [3] kuma ya fara ci gaba da wanzuwar daular sama da ƙarni takwas. [4] [lower-alpha 5] Wasu masana tarihi suna magana akan naɗin sarautar Charlemagne a matsayin asalin daular, [5] [6] yayin da wasu suka fi son naɗin sarauta na Otto I a matsayin farkonsa. [4] [7] Henry the Fowler, wanda ya kafa gwamnatin Jamus ta tsakiya (ta yi mulki 919-936), [8] wani lokaci ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin wanda ya kafa Daular kuma. Ra'ayin zamani yana son Otto a matsayin wanda ya kafa gaskiya. Malamai gabaɗaya sun yi ittifaki a kan batun juyin halitta na cibiyoyi da ƙa'idodin da suka ƙunshi daular, suna kwatanta ɗaukan take a hankali da rawar daular. [9] [5]

Ba a yi amfani da ainihin kalmar "Daular Roma Mai Tsarki" ba har sai karni na 13, [10] amma halaccin Sarkin Koyaushe ya ta'allaka ne akan ra'ayin translatio imperii, cewa yana da iko mafi girma da ya gada daga tsoffin sarakunan Roma. [9] Ofishin daular ya kasance bisa al'ada zaɓaɓɓu ta hanyar mafi yawan masu zaɓen yariman Jamus.

Daular Roma

A lokacin ƙarshe na mulkin Emperor Frederick III (wanda ya yi mulki 1452-1493), Canjin Mulki ya fara. Gyaran zai kasance mafi yawa a lokacin mulkin Maximilian I (daga 1486 a matsayin Sarkin Romawa, daga 1493 a matsayin mai mulki kawai, kuma daga 1508 a matsayin Sarkin Roma Mai Tsarki, har zuwa mutuwarsa a 1519). Daular ta rikide zuwa Daular Roma mai tsarki ta al'ummar Jamus. A wannan lokacin ne daular ta sami mafi yawan cibiyoyinta da suka dawwama har zuwa karshenta a karni na sha tara. [11] [12] Thomas Brady Jr. ra'ayin cewa gyara na Imperial ya yi nasara, ko da yake watakila a kashe kuɗin sake fasalin Ikilisiya, wani ɓangare saboda Maximilian ba shi da mahimmanci game da batun addini. [12]

A cewar Brady Jr., Daular, bayan juyin mulkin Imperial, wani tsarin siyasa ne na tsawon rai da kwanciyar hankali, kuma "ya yi kama da wasu bangarori na tsarin mulkin sarauta na Turai ta yammacin Turai, a wasu kuma masu sassaucin ra'ayi, za ~ e na Gabas ta Tsakiya. Turai." Sabuwar kamfani ta Jamus, maimakon yin biyayya kawai ga sarki, ta yi shawarwari da shi. [12] [13] A ranar 6 ga watan Agusta 1806, Sarkin sarakuna Francis II ya narkar da daular bayan ƙirƙirar ƙungiyar Rhine da Sarkin Napoleon na Faransa ya yi a watan da ya gabata.

Gaggafa mai kai biyu tare da riguna na makamai na jihohi ɗaya, alamar Daular Roma Mai Tsarki (zane daga 1510)



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Wilson 1999.
  2. Breverton 2014.
  3. Cantor 1993.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Davies 1996.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bryce 1899.
  6. Heer 1967.
  7. Kleinhenz 2004.
  8. Pavlac & Lott 2019.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Whaley 2012a.
  10. Garipzanov 2008.
  11. Wilson 2016b.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Brady 2009.
  13. Johnson 1996.