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Rubutun Italiyanci

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Rubutun Italiyanci
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Rubuce-rubucen Italiyanci ( waɗanda aka yi amfani da su wajen rubuta Italiyanci) suna amfani da haruffa 21 na haruffan Latin haruffa 26 don rubuta harshen Italiyanci . Wannan labarin yana mai da hankali kan rubutun Standard Italiyanci, bisa tarihi akan yaren Florentine, [1] kuma ba sauran yarukan Italiyanci ba.

Rubuce-rubucen Italiyanci na yau da kullun kuma kusan gabaɗayan sauti ne – samun kusan wasiƙa ɗaya zuwa ɗaya tsakanin haruffa (ko jerin haruffa) da sautuna (ko jerin sauti). Babban abubuwan da ke da ban sha'awa shine cewa sanya damuwa da ingancin wasali (na ⟨ e ⟩ da ⟨ o ⟩ ) ba a lura da su ba, ⟨ s ⟩ da ⟨ ⟩ ana iya yin surutu ko a'a, ⟨ i ⟩ da ⟨ u ⟩ na iya wakiltar wasula ko wasula. kuma ana amfani da shiru ⟨ h ⟩ a wasu lokuta kadan ban da digraphs ⟨ ch ⟩ da ⟨ gh ⟩ (ana yin amfani da shi ga mai wuya ⟨ c ⟩ da ⟨ g ⟩ sauti kafin ⟨ ⟩ da ⟨ ⟩ ).

Harafin tushe ya ƙunshi haruffa 21: wasula biyar (A, E, I, O, U) da baƙaƙe 16. Haruffa J, K, W, X da Y ba sa cikin ingantattun haruffa, kuma suna bayyana ne kawai a cikin kalmomin lamuni (misali "jeans", "karshen mako"), sunaye na waje, kuma a cikin ƴan kalmomi na asali - irin waɗannan. kamar yadda sunayen Kalsa, Jesolo, Bettino Craxi, da Cybo, waɗanda duk suka samo asali daga harsunan yanki . Bugu da kari, kabari da manyan lafuzza na iya canza haruffan wasali; Ƙwaƙwalwar lafazin ya fi nakasa kuma ana samunsa a cikin tsofaffin matani.

Tsarin madannai na kwamfuta na Italiyanci
Rubutun rubutun hannu na Italiyanci, wanda aka koyar a makarantar firamare
Wasika Suna IPA Littattafai
A, a a [ ˈa ] /a / a
B, ba bi [ ˈbi ] /b /
C, c ci [ ˈtʃi ] /k / ko /tʃ /
D, d di [ ˈdi ] /d /
E, e e [ ˈe ] /e / ko /e / yi, e
F, f effe [ ˈɛffe ] /f /
G, g gi [ ˈdʒi ] /ɡ / ko /dʒ /
H, h acca [ ˈaka ] shiru
I, i i [ ˈi ] /i / ko /j / i, yi, [i]
L, l elle [ ˈɛlle ] /l /
M, m emme [ ˈɛmme ] /m /
N, n enne [ ˈɛnne ] /n /
O, ba o [ ˈɔ ] /o / ko /o / ku, o
P, p pi [ ˈpi ] /p /
Ku, q cu ( qu ) [ ˈku ] /k /
R, ba erre [ ˈɛrre ] /r /
S, ku esse [ ˈɛsse ] /s / ko /z /
T, t ti [ ˈti ] /t /
ku, ku u [ ˈu ] /ku / ko /w / ku, u
V, ku vi [ ˈvi ], vu [ ˈvu ] /v /
Z, za zeta [ ˈdzɛːta ] /ts / ko /dz /

Baƙaƙe biyu suna wakiltar geminates na gaskiya kuma ana kiran su kamar haka: anno</link> "shekara", furta [ ˈanno ]</link> (cf. Turanci te n ails ). Bambancin gajere-dogon tsayin sauti ne, misali ritto</link> [ ˈritto ]</link> "daidai" vs. rito</link> [ ˈriːto ]</link> "Tsabar, al'ada", carro</link> [ ˈkarro ]</link> "cart, wagon" vs. caro</link> [ ˈkaːro ]</link> "masoyi, tsada".

Harafin Italiyanci yana da haruffa biyar, ⟨ ⟩ . Daga cikin waɗannan, kawai ⟨ a ⟩ yana wakiltar ƙimar sauti ɗaya, yayin da sauran duka suna da biyu. Bugu da ƙari, ⟨ e ⟩ da ⟨ i ⟩ suna nuna wani lafazin daban-daban na ⟨ c ⟩ ko ⟨ ⟩ (duba ƙasa).

A cikin maɗaukakin maɗaukaki, ⟨ e ⟩ yana wakiltar duka buɗaɗɗen /ɛ/</link> kuma kusa /e/</link> . Hakazalika, ⟨ o ⟩ yana wakiltar duka bude /ɔ/</link> kuma kusa /o/</link> (duba ilimin sauti na Italiyanci don ƙarin cikakkun bayanai kan waɗannan sautunan). Yawanci babu bambanci tsakanin sautin buɗewa da na kusa da ake wakilta, kodayake ana amfani da alamar lafazin a wasu lokuta (duba ƙasa ). Akwai wasu ƙananan nau'i-nau'i, da ake kira heteronyms, inda ake amfani da haruffa iri ɗaya don kalmomi daban-daban tare da sautin wasali daban-daban. A cikin kalmomin da ba a danne su ba, kawai bambance-bambancen da ke faruwa.

Baya ga wakiltar wasulan /i/</link> kuma /u/</link> , ⟨ i ⟩ da ⟨ u ⟩ suma yawanci suna wakiltar wasulan wasali /j/</link> da /w/</link> , lokacin rashin damuwa da faruwa a gaban wani wasali. Akwai keɓanta da yawa (misali attuale</link> , deciduo</link> , deviare</link> , dioscuro</link> , fatuo</link> , iato</link> , inebriare</link> , ingenuo</link> , liana</link> , proficuo</link> , riarso</link> , viaggio</link> ). An ⟨ i ⟩ na iya nuna cewa ⟨ ⟩ ko ⟨ g ⟩ da ya gabata yana "laushi" ( ciao</link> ).

Haruffa ⟨ c ⟩ da ⟨ ⟩ suna wakiltan plosives /k/</link> da /ɡ/</link> kafin ⟨ r ⟩ da ⟩ ⟨ ⟨ ⟩ ⟩ ⟨ Suna wakiltar ƙasashen /tʃ/</link> da /dʒ/</link> idan suka gabaci wasalin gaba ( ⟨ i ⟩ ko ⟨ e ⟩ ).

Harafin ⟨ i ⟩ Hakanan yana iya aiki a cikin digraphs (haruffa biyu masu wakiltar sauti ɗaya) ⟨ ci ⟩ da ⟨ gi ⟩ don nuna "laushi" (affricate) /tʃ/</link> ko /dʒ/</link> kafin wani wasali. A cikin waɗannan lokuta, wasalin da ke biye da digraph yana damuwa, kuma ⟨ i ⟩ yana wakiltar ba sautin wasali: ciò</link> ( /tʃɔ/</link> ), giù</link> ( /dʒu/</link> ). Wani abu kamar CIA " CIA ", furta /ˈtʃi.a/</link> da /i/</link> damuwa, bai ƙunshi digraph ba.

Don kalmomi fiye da ɗaya, dole ne a san matsayi na damuwa don bambanta tsakanin digraph ⟨ ci ⟩ ko ⟨ gi ⟩ wanda ba shi da ainihin wasalin sauti /i/</link> da jerin haɗin gwiwa da damuwa /i/</link> . Misali, kalmomin camicia</link> "shirt" da farmacia</link> "Pharmacy" raba rubutun ⟨ -cia ⟩, amma bambanci a cikin cewa kawai na farko ⟨ i ⟩ yana damuwa a camicia</link> , haka ⟨ -cia ⟩ wakiltar /tʃa/</link> ba /i/</link> sauti (haka ma, grigio ya ƙare a /dʒo/</link> da sunayen Gianni</link> da Gianna</link> ya ƙunshi ainihin wasula guda biyu kawai: /ˈdʒanni/</link> , /ˈdʒanna/</link> ). A cikin farmacia</link> /i/</link> ana damuwa, ta yadda ⟨ ci ⟩ ba digraph ba ne, amma yana wakiltar biyu daga cikin abubuwa uku na /ˈtʃi.a/</link> .

Lokacin da "hard" (plosive) pronunciation /k/</link> ko /ɡ/</link> ya zo kafin wasalin gaba ⟨ i ⟩ ko ⟨ ⟩, digraphs ⟨ ch ⟩ da ⟨ gh ⟩ a yi amfani da su, ta yadda ⟨ che ⟩ wakiltar /ke/</link> /kɛ/</link> kuma ⟨ chi ⟩ wakiltar /ki/</link> ko /kj/</link> . Wannan ka'ida ta shafi ⟨ ⟩ : ⟨ ⟩ da ⟨ ghi ⟩ wakiltar /ɡe/</link> ko /ɡɛ/</link> da /ɡi/</link> ko /ɡj/</link> .

A cikin juyin halitta daga Latin zuwa Italiyanci, postalveolar affricates /tʃ/</link> da /dʒ/</link> sun kasance bambance-bambancen mahallin mahallin ma'anar baƙar fata /k/</link> da /ɡ/</link> . A ƙarshe sun zama cikakkun sautin wayoyi, kuma an gabatar da gyare-gyaren rubutu don bambanta su. Za'a iya nuna girman sautin ƴan afficate da ƙaramin nau'i-nau'i :

M Haɗin kai
Kafin ⟨ ⟩ , ⟨ e ⟩ ch china /ˈkina/ " Indiya tawada " c Cina /ˈtʃina/ " China "
gh ku ghiro /ˈɡiro/ " dormouse " g giro /ˈdʒiro/ "Lap", "yawon shakatawa"
Wani wuri c caramella /karaˈmɛlla/ " alewa " ci ciaramella /tʃaraˈmɛlla/ " sham "
g gallo /ˈɡallo/ " zakara " gi giallo /ˈdʒallo/ " rawaya "

Ana amfani da trigraphs ⟨ cch ⟩ da ⟨ ggh ⟩ don nuna geminate /kk/</link> da /ɡɡ/</link> , idan sun faru kafin ⟨ i ⟩ ko ⟨ ⟩ ; misali occhi</link> /ˈɔkki/</link> "ido", agghindare</link> /aɡɡinˈdare/</link> "don yin ado". Haruffa biyu ⟨ cc ⟩ da ⟨ gg ⟩ kafin ⟨ ⟩ ko ⟨ e ⟩ da ⟨ cci ⟩ da ⟨ ggi ⟩ kafin sauran wasula suna wakiltar 'yan afficates /ttʃ/</link> da /ddʒ/</link> , misali riccio</link> "bushiya", peggio</link> "mafi muni".

⟨g⟩ joins with ⟨l⟩ to form a digraph representing palatal /ʎ/ before ⟨i⟩ (before other vowels, the trigraph ⟨gli⟩ is used), and with ⟨n⟩ to represent /ɲ/ with any vowel following. Between vowels these are pronounced phonetically long, as in /ˈaʎʎo/ aglio "garlic", /ˈoɲɲi/ ogni "each". By way of exception, ⟨gl⟩ before ⟨i⟩ represents /ɡl/ in some words derived from Greek, such as glicine "wisteria", from learned Latin, such as negligente "negligent", and in a few adaptations from other languages such as glissando /ɡlisˈsando/, partially italianised from French glissant. ⟨gl⟩ before vowels other than ⟨i⟩ represents straightforward /ɡl/.

Ana kuma amfani da digraph ⟨ sc ⟩ kafin ⟨ e ⟩ da ⟨ ⟩ don wakiltar /ʃ/</link> ; kafin sauran wasula, ⟨ sci ⟩ ana amfani dashi don /ʃ/</link> . In ba haka ba, ⟨ sc ⟩ wakiltar /sk/</link> , ⟨ c ⟩ wanda ke bin ka'idojin rubutu na yau da kullun da aka yi bayani a sama.

/sk/ /ʃ/
Before ⟨i e⟩ sch scherno /ˈskɛrno/ sc scerno /ˈʃɛrno/
Elsewhere sc scalo /ˈskalo/ sci scialo /ˈʃalo/

Intervocalic /ʎ/</link> , /ɲ/</link> , da /ʃ/</link> kullum ana geminated kuma ba a yi wani bambance-bambancen orthographic nuna wannan. [1]

Ana rubuta wasu kalmomi da ⟨ cie ⟩, ⟨ ⟩, da ⟨ ⟩ . A tarihi, haruffa ⟨ watau ⟩ a cikin waɗannan haɗe-haɗe suna wakiltar diphthong, amma a cikin lafuzzan zamani waɗannan haɗuwa ba su bambanta da ⟨ ce ⟩, ⟨ ge ⟩, da ⟨ sce ⟩ . Sanannen misalai: cieco</link> /ˈtʃɛko/</link> "makafi" (mai kama da ceco</link> "Czech"), cielo</link> /ˈtʃɛlo/</link> "sky" (mai kama da celo</link> "Na boye"), scienza</link> /ˈʃɛntsa/</link> "kimiyya".

Jam'in kalmomin da suka ƙare cikin - ⟨ ⟩, - ⟨ ⟩ ana rubuta su da - ⟨ cie ⟩, - ⟨ gie ⟩ idan an riga an yi wasali ( camicia</link> "skirt" → camicie</link> "Skirts", valigia</link> "akwati" → {{lang|it|valigie "akwatuna") ko tare da - ⟨ ce ⟩, - ⟨ ge ⟩ idan an riga an gabatar da wani baƙon ( provincia .</link> "lardi" → province</link> "Larduna"). An kafa wannan doka tun shekarun 1950; kafin wannan, ƙayyadaddun kalmomi kamar valige</link> da provincie</link> an yi amfani da su.

Haɗin harafin ⟨ gnia ⟩ ana kiransa dai-dai da ⟨ gna ⟩ kuma yana faruwa lokacin ƙarewa -iamo</link> (Mutum na farko jam'i na yanzu nuni da na 1st mutum jam'i ba subjunctive) ko -iate</link> (Mutum na biyu jam'i ba subjunctive) yana haɗe zuwa wani tushe mai ƙarewa a cikin ⟨ gn ⟩ : sognare</link> "mafarki" → sogniamo</link> "muna mafarki" -iamo -iate⟨gn⟩: sognare" → sogniamo

A al'ada /kw/</link> ana wakilta shi da ⟨ ⟩, amma ana wakilta shi da ⟨ cu ⟩ a wasu kalmomi, kamar cuoco</link> , cuoio</link> , cuore</link> , scuola</link> , scuotere</link> da percuotere</link> . Waɗannan kalmomi duka sun ƙunshi /kwɔ/</link> jerin da aka samo daga asali /kɔ/</link> wanda daga baya diphthongized . Jerin /kkw/</link> ko da yaushe ana rubuta ⟨ cqu ⟩ (misali acqua</link> ), tare da wasu abubuwan da aka rubuta ⟨ qqu ⟩ a cikin kalmomin soqquadro</link> , samuwar sa soqquadrare</link> , da beqquadro</link> da biqquadro</link> , biyu madadin siffofin bequadro</link> ko biquadro</link> . [1]

⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ are ambiguous to voicing.

⟨s⟩ represents a dental sibilant consonant, either /s/ or /z/. However, these two phonemes are in complementary distribution everywhere except between two vowels in the same word and, even with such words, there are very few minimal pairs.

  • Marasa murya /s/</link> yana faruwa:
    • A farkon kalma kafin wasali (misali S ara</link> /ˈsara/</link> ) ko baƙar murya mara murya (misali s</link> /spunˈtare/</link> )
    • Bayan kowane baƙo (misali trans itare</link> /transiˈtare/</link> )
    • Kafin baƙar magana mara murya (misali ras pa</link> /ˈraspa/</link> )
    • A farkon kashi na biyu na kalmar hadaddun (misali affittas i, di otto, giras ole, pros egue, ris aputo, reggis eno ). Ana ƙirƙirar waɗannan kalmomi ta ƙara prefix zuwa kalmar da ta fara da /s/
  • Mai sauti /z/</link> yana faruwa kafin baƙon murya (misali s branare</link> /zbraˈnare/</link> ).
  • Yana iya zama ko dai mara murya ko murya ( /s/</link> ko /z/</link> ) tsakanin wasali; a dai-daitaccen furci na tushen Tuscany ana furta wasu kalmomi da /s/</link> tsakanin wasula (misali cas a</link> , cos a</link> , cos ì</link> , me e</link> , nasa</link> , pe zo</link> , cinee</link> , piemontes e</link> , golos o</link> ), amma yawancin kalmomi ana furta su da /z/</link> (misali bis ogno</link> , ros a</link> , cis alpino</link> , medes imo</link> , invas o</link> ); a Arewacin Italiya (da kuma ƙarawa a Tuscany) ⟨ s ⟩ tsakanin wasulan ana kiran su da /z/ koyaushe.</link> alhali a Kudancin Italiya ⟨ s ⟩ tsakanin wasulan ana kiran su /s/ ko da yaushe.</link> .

Kullum yana wakiltar /ss/ mara murya: grosso /ˈɡrɔsso/, Nasara /sutˈtʃɛsso/ , da dai sauransu.

Wannan yana wakiltar ma'anar ma'anar hakora; ko dai /dz/ (zanzara /dzanˈdzara/) ko /ts/ (canzone /kanˈtsone/), dangane da mahallin, kodayake akwai ƙananan nau'i-nau'i.; either /dz/ (zanzara /dzanˈdzara/ (canzone /kanˈtsone/

  • Ba shi da murya /ts/</link> : [2]
    • A farkon kalma a cikin sa na biyu na farawa da baƙar murya mara murya ( z ampa</link> /ˈtsampa/</link> , z kwakwa</link> /ˈtsɔkkolo/</link> , z</link> /ˈtsufolo/</link> )
      • Banbance (saboda asalinsu na Girka ne): z affiro, z efiro, z otico, z ina, z afara, Z acin
    • Lokacin da ⟨ i ⟩ ya biyo bayansa, bi da bi, da wani wasali (misali z io.</link> /ˈtsi.o/</link> , agenzo</link> /adʒenˈtsi.a/</link> , graz da</link> /ˈɡrattsje/</link> )
      • Banda: az ienda</link> /adˈdzjɛnda/</link> , duk kalmomin da aka samo daga kalmomin biyayya ga wasu dokoki (misali romanz iere</link> /romanˈdzjɛre/</link> , wanda aka samo daga romanzo</link> )
    • Bayan harafin ⟨ ⟩ (misali alz su ne</link> /alˈtsare/</link> )
      • Banda: elz eviro /eldzeˈviro/ da Belebù /beldzeˈbu/
    • A cikin suffixes -anza, -enza da -onzolo (misali usanz a</link> /uˈzantsa/</link> , credenz a</link> /kreˈdɛntsa/</link> , ballonz olo</link> /balˈlontsolo/</link> )
  • A al'ada ana yin sauti /dz/</link> :
    • A farkon kalma wadda sila ta biyu ke farawa da sautin murya ko harafin ⟨ z ⟩ kanta (misali z ebra).</link> /ˈdzɛbra/</link> , z uzzurellone</link> /dzuddzurelˈlone/</link> )
      • Banda: z anna /ˈtsanna/, z ina /tsiˈɡano/
    • A farkon kalma lokacin da wasula biyu ke bi (misali z aino</link> /ˈdzaino/</link> )
      • Banda: z io</link> da sharuddan da aka samu (duba sama)
    • Idan guda ɗaya ne (ba a ninka ninki biyu ba) da tsakanin wasula guda biyu (misali az alea</link> /addzaˈlɛa/</link> )
      • Banda: naz ismo</link> /natˈtsizmo/</link> (daga lafazin Jamusanci na ⟨ ⟩ )

Tsakanin wasula da/ko ƙaramin wasali ( /j/</link> da /w/</link> ), ⟨ z ⟩ ana furtawa kamar an ninka su ( /tts/</link> ko /ddz/</link> , misali vizo</link> /ˈvittsjo/</link> , poliza</link> /politˈtsi.a/</link> ). Gabaɗaya, intervocalic z ana rubuta shi sau biyu, to amma an rubuta shi guda ɗaya a yawancin kalmomi inda ya gabaci ⟨ i ⟩ sai kowane wasali da wasu kalmomin da aka koya.

⟨zz⟩ may represent either a voiceless alveolar affricate /tts/ or its voiced counterpart /ddz/:[3] voiceless in e.g. pazzo /ˈpattso/, ragazzo /raˈɡattso/, pizza /ˈpittsa/, grandezza /ɡranˈdettsa/, voiced in razzo /ˈraddzo/, mezzo /ˈmɛddzo/, azzardo /adˈdzardo/, azzurro /adˈdzurro/, orizzonte /oridˈdzonte/, zizzania /dzidˈdzanja/. Most words are consistently pronounced with /tts/ or /ddz/ throughout Italy in the standard language (e.g. gazza /ˈɡaddza/ "magpie", tazza /ˈtattsa/ "mug"), but a few words, such as frizzare "effervesce, sting", exist in both voiced and voiceless forms, differing by register or by geographic area, while others have different meanings depending on whether they are pronounced in voiced or voiceless form (e.g. razza: /ˈrattsa/ (race, breed) or /ˈraddza/ (ray, skate)).[4][5] The verbal ending -izzare from Greek -ίζειν is always pronounced /ddz/ (e.g. organizzare /orɡanidˈdzare/), maintained in both inflected forms and derivations: organizzo /orɡaˈniddzo/ "I organise", organizzazione /orɡaniddzatˈtsjone/ "organisation". Like frizzare above, however, not all verbs ending in -izzare continue suffixed Greek -ίζειν, having instead -izz- as part of the verb stem. Indirizzare, for example, of Latin origin reconstructed as *INDIRECTIARE, has /tts/ in all forms containing the root indirizz-.

Bugu da ƙari, ana amfani da su don nuna taurin ⟨ c ⟩ ko ⟨ g ⟩ gabanin wasali na gaba (duba sama), ⟨ h ⟩ ana amfani da shi don bambance ho</link> , hai</link> , ha</link> , hanno</link> ( mai nunin avere</link> , "don samun") daga o</link> ("ko"), ai</link> ("zuwa", m. pl.), a</link> ("zuwa"), anno</link> ("shekara"); tunda ⟨ h ⟩ kullum shiru yakeyi, babu wani banbanci a cikin lafuzzan irin waɗannan kalmomi. Harafin ⟨ h ⟩ kuma ana amfani da shi a wasu saɓani, inda koyaushe yana zuwa nan da nan bayan wasalin farko a cikin kalmar (misali eh</link> , boh</link> , ahi</link> , ahimè</link> ). A cikin filler kalmomi ehm</link> kuma uhm</link> duka ⟨h⟩ da wasalin da ya gabata sun yi shiru. Ana amfani da ⟨h⟩ a wasu kalmomin lamuni, wanda ya zuwa yanzu mafi yawansu shine hotel</link> , [1] amma kuma nakasu, wurin zama, hardware, zauren "lobby, foyer" , hamburger, tsoro, sha'awa. [6] Silent ⟨ h ⟩ kuma ana samunsa a cikin wasu kalmomin Italiyanci: Chorio, Dho, Hano, Mathi, Noha, Proh, Rho, Roghudi, Santhià, Tharros, Thiene, Thiesi, Thurio, Vho ; da sunayensu: Dahò, Dehò, De Bartholomaeis, De Thomasis, Matthey, Rahò, Rhodio, Tha, Thei, Theodoli, Thieghi, Thiella, Thiglia, Tholosano, Thomatis, Thorel, Thovez . [7]

J, K, W, X da Y

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harafin ⟨ ⟩ ( I lunga</link> "dogon I") ba a ɗaukarsa wani ɓangare na daidaitattun haruffan Italiyanci; duk da haka, ana amfani da shi a wasu kalmomin Latin, a cikin sunaye masu kyau (irin su Jesi, Letojanni, Juventus, da dai sauransu), a cikin kalmomin da aka aro daga harsunan waje (mafi yawan: jeans, amma kuma jazz, jet, jeep, banjo ), [8] kuma a cikin rubutun Italiyanci na archaic.

Har zuwa ƙarni na 19, an yi amfani da ⟨ j ⟩ a cikin Italiyanci maimakon ⟨ i ⟩ a cikin kalma-farko mai tasowa diphthongs, a matsayin maye gurbin ƙarshe - ⟨ ii ⟩, kuma tsakanin wasula (kamar a cikin Savoja .</link> ); wannan doka ta kasance mai tsauri a rubuce-rubucen hukuma. Savoja

Harafin ⟨ ⟩ yana wakiltar /j/</link> a cikin Latin da Italiyanci da kalmomin yare kamar su Romanesco yaren ajo /ˈajjo/</link> ("tafarnuwa"; cf. Italiyanci aglio</link> /ˈaʎʎo/</link> ); yana wakiltar /dʒ / a cikin aro daga Ingilishi (ciki har da judo, aro daga Jafananci ta Ingilishi); da /ʒ / a cikin aro daga Faransanci ( julienne, bijou ).

Haruffa ⟨ ⟩ ( cappa</link> ⟨ w ⟩ ( V doppia</link> ko doppia V</link> , "biyu V"), ⟨ x ⟩ ( ics</link> ) da ⟨ y ⟩ ( ipsilon</link> ko I greca</link> "Greek I") ba sa cikin daidaitattun haruffan Italiyanci kuma ana amfani da su ne kawai a cikin kalmomin lamunin da ba a siffata su ba ko kuma wani ɓangare.

Ana amfani da harafin ⟨ k ⟩ a cikin karma, kayak, kiwi, kamikaze, [9] da sauransu; kullum ana fa'da shi /k/</link> . Yawancin lokaci ana amfani da shi ba bisa ka'ida ba a tsakanin matasa a matsayin maye gurbin ⟨ ch ⟩, daidai da amfani da ⟨ k ⟩ a Turanci (misali, ke maimakon che ).

Ana amfani da harafin ⟨ w ⟩ a yanar gizo, whiskey, ruwa "water closet / toilet", yammacin "Fim din Yamma", watt, [10] da sauransu; ana kiransa a madadin haka /w/</link> (a cikin yanar gizo, whiskey, yamma ) ko /v/</link> (a cikin ruwa, watt ). Ana amfani da babban birni ⟨ W ⟩ azaman gajeriyar viva</link> ko evviva</link> ("Rayuwa mai tsawo"). Kodayake ⟨ ⟩ ana kiranta V doppia</link> ko doppia V</link> , a cikin kalmomin farko kamar B. M. W., T. W. A., W. W. F., W. C., www</link> yawanci ana karanta shi azaman vu</link> .

Harafin ⟨ x ⟩ yana wakiltar ko dai /ks/</link> , kamar yadda a cikin extra</link> , uxorio</link> , xilofono</link> , ko /ɡz/</link> idan aka gabace shi da ⟨ e ⟩ sai kuma wasali, misali exoterico</link> . A yawancin kalmomi, ana iya maye gurbinsa da ⟨ s ⟩ ko ⟨ ss ⟩ (tare da lafuzza daban-daban: xilofono .</link> / silofono</link> , taxi</link> / tassì</link> ) ko, da wuya, ta ⟨ cs ⟩ (tare da lafuzza iri ɗaya: claxon</link> / Clacson ). A wasu harsunan Italiya, tana wakiltar /z/</link> ( Venia ), /ʃ/</link> ( Sicilian ), ko /ʒ/</link> ( Sardiniya dan Ligurian ).

Ana amfani da harafin ⟨ ⟩ a yoga, yogurt, jirgin ruwa, Uruguay, da sauransu. Wannan wasiƙar wani lokaci ana maye gurbinsa da ⟨ i ⟩ a wasu kalmomi kamar yoga/ioga da yogurt/iogurt, amma rubutun da ⟨ y ⟩ sun fi yawa. .

Littattafai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Harafin Î a cikin ainihin sigar Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Jamhuriyar Italiya a cikin taken Principî Fondamentali.

Ana iya amfani da lafazin m (´) akan ⟨ é ⟩ da ⟨ ó ⟩ don wakiltar wasulan kusa-tsakiyar damuwa. Wannan amfani da lafazin gabaɗaya wajibi ne don nuna damuwa akan wasalin kalma-ƙarshe; A wani wuri, ana samun Ƙarin magana gabaɗaya a cikin ƙamus. Tunda ⟨ o ⟩ na ƙarshe da kyar ya kasance kusa-tsakiyar, ⟨ ó ⟩ ba kasafai ake haduwa da shi cikin rubuce-rubucen Italiyanci ba (misali metró .</link> "Metro", daga asalin lafazin Faransanci na métro</link> tare da matsi na ƙarshe /o / ).

Ana samun lafazin kabari (`) akan ⟨ ⟩, ⟨ ⟩, ⟨ ⟩, ⟨ ò ⟩, ⟨ ù ⟩ . Ana iya amfani da shi akan ⟨ è ⟩ da ⟨ ò ⟩ lokacin da suke wakiltar wasula masu buɗewa . Hakanan ana iya amfani da lafuzzan don bambance ƙananan nau'i-nau'i a cikin Italiyanci (misali pèsca</link> "peach" vs. pésca</link> "kamun kifi"), amma a aikace wannan yana iyakance ga rubutun didactic. A cikin yanayin ƙarshe ⟨ ì ⟩ da ⟨ ù ⟩, an ci karo da lafuzzan duka biyun. Ya zuwa yanzu zaɓin da aka fi sani shine lafazin kabari, ⟨ ì ⟩ da ⟨ ù ⟩, ko da yake wannan yana iya kasancewa saboda ƙarancin lafazin m don wakiltar damuwa; madadin yin aiki da m, ⟨ í ⟩ da ⟨ ú ⟩, a aikace an iyakance shi ga rubutun rudite, amma ana iya barata saboda duka wasulan suna da girma (kamar a cikin Catalan ). Duk da haka, tun da babu wasu ƙananan ƙananan (ko lax) masu dacewa da za su bambanta da a cikin Italiyanci, zaɓin biyu daidai suke da karɓa.

Za a iya amfani da lafazin dawafi (ˆ) don yin alamar takurewar wasula biyu mara nauyi /ii/ kawo ƙarshen kalma, wanda aka saba furtawa [i], ta yadda jam'in studio</link> "nazari, ofis" ana iya rubutawa ⟨ studi ⟩, ⟨ studii ⟩ ko ⟨ studî ⟩ . Ana samun nau'i mai da'ira musamman a cikin tsofaffin matani, kodayake yana iya fitowa a cikin mahallin da rashin fahimta zai iya tasowa daga homography . Misali, ana iya amfani da shi don bambance kalmomi kamar geni</link> ("genes", jam'i na gene</link> ) da genî</link> ("masu hazaka", jam'i na genio</link> ) ko principi</link> ("sarakuna", jam'i na principe</link> ) da principî</link> ("principles", jam'i na principio</link> ). Gabaɗaya, amfani na yanzu yakan fi son guda ⟨ ⟩ maimakon sau biyu ⟨ ii ⟩ ko ⟨ î ⟩ tare da kewaye. [1]

Kalmomin monosyllabic gabaɗaya ba su da lafazi (misali ho</link> , me</link> ). An rubuta lafazin, duk da haka, idan akwai ⟨ i ⟩ ko ⟨ u ⟩ gaban wani wasali ( più</link> , può</link> ). Wannan ya shafi ko da ⟨ i ⟩ ya "shiru", watau wani ɓangare na digraphs ⟨ ci ⟩ ko ⟨ gi ⟩ wakiltar /tʃ/ da /dʒ/ ( ciò</link> , giù</link> ). Ba ya aiki, duk da haka, idan kalmar ta fara da ⟨ ⟩ ( qua</link> , qui</link> ). Yawancin kalmomin monosyllabic ana rubuta su da lafazi don guje wa rashin fahimta da wasu kalmomi (misali là .</link> , lì</link> vs la</link> , li</link> ). Ana kiran wannan da accento distintivo</link> kuma yana faruwa a cikin wasu yarukan Romance (misali Spanish tilde diacrítica</link> ).

Misalin rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

"Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita</br> mi ritrovai per una selva oscura</br> ché la diritta via era smarrita."

Layi na 1-3 na Canto 1 na Inferno, Sashe na 1 na Divina Commedia na Dante Alighieri, waƙa mai tasiri sosai. Fassara (Longfellow): "Tsakiya kan tafiyar rayuwarmu \ Na tsinci kaina a cikin wani duhun itace \ domin hanya madaidaiciya ta ɓace."

  • Gian Giorgio Trissino, ɗan adam wanda ya ba da shawarar rubutun rubutu a cikin 1524. An dauki wasu daga cikin shawarwarinsa.
  • Claudio Tolomei, ɗan adam wanda ya ba da shawarar rubutun rubutu a cikin 1525.

Bayanan kula

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Maiden & Robustelli 2014.
  2. Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia.
  3. "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia". Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2024-03-08.
  4. "Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia". Archived from the original on 2021-10-01. Retrieved 2024-03-08.
  5. Dizionario di pronuncia italiana online.
  6. Google Books Ngram Viewer
  7. The surname Pamphili is pronounced as Panfili.
  8. Google Books Ngram Viewer
  9. Google Books Ngram Viewer
  10. Google Books Ngram Viewer
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Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Language orthographies