Safiyya bint Huyayy

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Safiyya bint Huyayy
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Rayuwa
Haihuwa Madinah, 610
Mutuwa Madinah, 670
Makwanci Al-Baqi'
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Huyayy ibn Akhtab
Mahaifiya Barra binte Samawal
Abokiyar zama Sallam ibn Mishkam (en) Fassara
Kenana ibn al-Rabi (en) Fassara
Muhammad  (629 (Gregorian) -  632 (Gregorian))
Sana'a
Imani
Addini Judaism (en) Fassara

Safiyyah bint Huyayy (Larabci: صفية بنت حيي, c. 612–670) tana daya daga cikin matan Annabi Muhammadu (S A W).[1] Ta kasance tare da dukkan sauran matan Manzon Allah (S A W), Waɗanda aka sani da suna (Ummahatul-Mu'mineen) ko kuma Iyayen Muminai haka idan ita kadaice sai dai ace (Ummul-Mu'mineen) ko kuma Uwa Muminai.[2]

Bayan rasuwar Annabi Muhammadu, ta shiga cikin siyasar kasuwar al'ummar musulmin farko, kuma ta sami babban tasiri a lokacin rasuwarta.[3]

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Safiyya a garin Madina kuma diya ce ga Huyayy ibn Akhtab, shugaban kabilar Yahudawan Banu Nadir. Mahaifiyarta, Barra bint Samawal, ta fito daga kabilar Banu Qurayza. Ita jikar Samaw'al bn Adiya ce daga kabilar Banu Harith. A cewar wata majiya, an aurar da ita ga Sallam ibn Mishkam, wanda daga baya ya sake ta.[3]

Lokacin da aka kori Banu Nadir daga Madina a shekara ta 625, iyalinta suka zauna a Khaybar, wani wurin ruwa kusa da Madina.[3] Mahaifinta da ɗan'uwanta sun tafi daga Khaybar don shiga cikin sojojin Makka da na Badawiyya da suka kewaye Annabi Muhammad a Madina a lokacin Yaƙin gwalalo. Lokacin da mutanen Makka suka janye Annabi Muhammad suka kewaye Banu Qurayza. Bayan shan kayen Banu Qurayza a shekara ta 627 mahaifin Safiyya, wanda ya dade yana adawa da Annabi Muhammad, Musulmai sun kama shi suka kashe shi.[4]

A shekarar 627 ko farkon 628, Safiyya ta auri Kenana ibn al-Rabi, ma'ajin Banu Nadir; tana da kimanin shekara 17 a lokacin.[3] A cewar majiyoyin musulmi, an ce Safiyya ta sanar da Kenana mafarkin da ta yi wanda wata ya fado daga sama zuwa cinyarta. Kenana ya fassara shi da son auren Annabi Muhammadu kuma ya buge ta a fuska, yana barin alamar da har yanzu ake iya gani lokacin da ta fara hulɗa da Annabi Muhammad.[5][2]

Yakin Khaybar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Mayu na shekarar 628 AZ, Musulmai sun ci kabilun Yahudawa da yawa (gami da Banu Nadir) a Yaƙin Khaybar. Yahudawan sun mika wuya, kuma an ba su damar ci gaba da zama a Khaybar bisa tanadin da za su bayar na rabin abin da suke samarwa na shekara -shekara ga Musulmai.[6] Wannan yarjejeniya, Stillman ya ce, bai mika ga kabilar Banu Nadir ba, wadanda ba a ba su kwata-kwata.[7] An kashe mijin Safiyya na farko, Kenana ibn al-Rabi, bayan da aka azabtar da shi saboda kin bayyana inda taskar take.[8]

Auren Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muhammad ya zauna na kwana uku tsakanin Khaybar da Madina, inda ya kammala auren sa da Safiyya. Sahabbansa sun yi mamakin ko za a ɗauke ta bawa (Larabci: ma malakat aymanukum) ko matar aure. Na farko ya yi hasashen cewa za su dauki Safiyya a matsayin matar Muhammad, don haka “Uwayen Muminai”.

Muhammad ya ba da shawarar Safiyya ta musulunta, ta amince kuma ta zama matar Muhammad.[9] Safiyya ba ta haifa wa Muhammad ko daya ba.[10]

Dangane da zuriyar yahudawa Safiyya, Muhammad ya taba gaya wa matarsa ​​cewa idan wasu mata suka zage ta saboda “al'adun Yahudawa” kuma suka yi kishi saboda kyawun ta, sai ta amsa da cewa, “Haruna mahaifina ne, Musa baffana, kuma Muhammad mijina."[11]

Gada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 656, Safiyya ta goyi bayan halifa Uthman ibn Affan, kuma ta kare shi a ganawarsa ta ƙarshe da Ali, Aisha, da Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. A lokacin da aka yiwa khalifa kawanya a gidansa, Safiyya ba ta yi nasara ba ta isa wurinsa, kuma ta ba shi abinci da ruwa ta hanyar jirgin da aka sanya tsakanin gidan ta da nasa.[3]

Safiyya ta rasu a shekara ta 670 ko 672, a lokacin mulkin Mu'awiyah, kuma aka binne ta a makabartar Jannatul Baqi.[12] Ta bar dukiya ta dirhami 100,000 a ƙasa da kaya, kashi ɗaya bisa uku na abin da ta yi wasiyya ga ɗan ƙanwarta, wanda ya bi addinin Yahudanci. Muawiya ya sayi gidanta a Madina akan dirhami 180,000.[3]

An fassara mafarkinta a matsayin mu'ujiza, kuma wahalar da ta sha da kuma kuka don ta sami matsayi a ayyukan Sufanci. An ambace ta a cikin duk manyan littattafan hadisi don danganta wasu al'adun gargajiya da abubuwa da yawa a rayuwarta suna zama abin koyi na doka.[3]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Safiyya bint Huyay, Fatima az-Zahra by Ahmad Thompson
  2. 2.0 2.1 Stowasser, Barbara. The Mothers of the Believers in the Hadith. The Muslim World, Volume 82, Issue 1-2: 1-36.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Vacca, V (1995). "Safiyya". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. 8 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 817. ISBN 9004098348. ISSN 1573-3912.
  4. Guillaume, A. The Life of Muhammad: Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah.
  5. "It is related that she bore the mark of a bruise upon her eye; when the Prophet (Peace be upon him) asked her tenderly the cause, she told him that, being yet Kenāna's bride, she saw in a dream as if the moon had fallen from the heavens into her lap; and that when she told it to Kenāna, he struck her violently, saying: 'What is this thy dream but that thou covetest the new king of the Ḥijāz, the Prophet, for thy husband!' The mark of the blow was the same which Moḥammad saw." cf. Muir (1912) pp. 378-379
  6. Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  7. Stillman (1979) p. 18
  8. Ibn Hisham. Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (The Life of The Prophet). English translation in Guillame (1955), pp. 145–146
  9. Ibn Saad, al-Tabaqat, pp.120-123.
  10. Peters, F. E., Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, State University of New York Press, 1994, pp.179, 08033994793.ABA. "At Medina he also married Umar's daughter Hafsa, Hind, Zaynab daughter of Jahsh, 16 Umm Salama, Juwayriyya, Ramla or Umm Habiba, Safiyya, and Maymuna. None of them bore him children, however, though he had a son, Ibrahim, by his Coptic concubine Maria. Ibrahim died an infant."
  11. W.M. Watt, "Companion to the Qur'an, based on the Arberry translation", p. 237.
  12. Al-Shati', 1971, p. 181

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Awde, Nicholas Women in Islam: An Anthology from the Qur'an and Hadits, Routledge (UK) 2000, 08033994793.ABA
  • John Esposito and Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Oxford University Press, 1997, 08033994793.ABA
  • Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical roots of a modern debate, Yale University Press, 1992
  • Valentine Moghadam (ed), Gender and National Identity.
  • Karen Armstrong, "The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam", London, HarperCollins/Routledge, 2001