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Tarihin Antarctica

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Tarihin Antarctica
aspect of history (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na Tarihi
Facet of (en) Fassara Antatika
Wuri
Map
 69°21′28″S 2°14′50″W / 69.3578°S 2.2472°W / -69.3578; -2.2472

Tarihin Antarctica ya fito ne daga farkon ka'idodin Yammacin Turai a yankin nahiya, wanda aka sani da Terra Australis, wanda aka yi imanin ya wanzu a kudu mai nisa na duniya. Kalmar Antarctic, tana nufin kishiyar Arctic Circle, Marinus na Tyre ne ya kirkiro shi a karni na 2 AD.[1]

Antarctica

Zagayen Cape of Good Hope da Cape Horn a ƙarni na 15 da na 16 sun tabbatar da cewa Terra Australis Incognita ("Unknown southern land"), idan ta wanzu, nahiya ce mai zaman kanta. A cikin shekarar 1773, James Cook da ma'aikatansa sun ketare Antarctic Circle a karon farko; duk da haka, duk da cewa sun gano tsibiran da ke kusa da su, ba su ga Antarctica da kanta ba. An yi imanin cewa tana kusa da 240 kilometres (150 mi) daga kasar.[2]

A ranar 27 ga watan Janairun 1820, wani balaguron Rasha da Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen da Mikhail Lazarev suka jagoranta ya gano wani rumbun kankara a gabar tekun Gimbiya Martha wanda daga baya aka san shi da Fimbul Ice Shelf. Bellingshausen da Lazarev sun zama masu bincike na farko da suka gani da kuma gano ƙasar nahiyar Antarctica a hukumance. Bayan kwana uku, a ranar 30 ga watan Janairun 1820, wani balaguron Biritaniya wanda ɗan Irishman Edward Bransfield ya jagoranta ya hango Triniti Peninsula, kuma bayan watanni goma wani ɗan ƙasar Amurka Nathaniel Palmer ya hango Antarctica a ranar 17 ga watan Nuwamba 1820. Saukowar farko ta kasance fiye da shekara guda bayan haka lokacin da Kyaftin Ba'amurke John Davis sealer, ya sa ƙafar kan kankara.[3]

Balaguro da yawa sun yi ƙoƙarin isa Pole ta Kudu a farkon karni na 20, a lokacin "Jarumin Zamanin Binciken Antarctic". Da yawa sun yi sanadin rauni da mutuwa. A ƙarshe Roald Amundsen na Norwegian ya isa Pole a ranar 14 ga watan Disamba 1911, bayan tseren ban mamaki tare da ɗan Burtaniya Robert Falcon Scott.


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1570 wani taswira mai mahimmanci na Ortelius ya nuna alaƙar da aka yi tsammani tsakanin nahiyar Antarctica da aka tsara na Amurka ta Kudu. Lura kuma da shirin da aka tsara na filayen da ke kewaye da Pole ta Arewa.
Taswirar gundumar Spain ta Terra Australis (1539-1555), daga baya an shigar da ita cikin Gwamnar Chile.
Taswira daga 1771, yana nuna alamar "Terres Australes" ba tare da wani yanki da aka tsara ba.
  1. Meteorologica Book II 5
  2. Wehi, Priscilla M.; Scott, Nigel J.; Beckwith, Jacinta; Pryor Rodgers, Rata; Gillies, Tasman; Van Uitregt, Vincent; Krushil, Watene (2021). "A short scan of Māori journeys to Antarctica". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand: 1–12. doi:10.1080/03036758.2021.1917633.
  3. Laura Geggel (15 June 2021). "Antarctica was likely discovered 1 100 years before Westerners 'found' it". Live Science. Retrieved 28 December 2021.