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Roald Amundsen

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Roald Amundsen
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen
Haihuwa Borge Municipality (en) Fassara, 16 ga Yuli, 1872
ƙasa Norway
Mazauni Roald Amundsen's house in Uranienborg (en) Fassara
Oslo
Fredrikstad Municipality (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Arctic Ocean (en) Fassara da Bear Island (en) Fassara, 18 ga Yuni, 1928
Makwanci Barents Sea (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa accidental death (en) Fassara (aviation accident (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Jens Amundsen
Abokiyar zama Not married
Ahali Leon Amundsen (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Norwegian (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a mabudi, marubuci, sailor (en) Fassara, researcher (en) Fassara, polar explorer (en) Fassara, Matukin jirgin sama, traveler (en) Fassara, naval aviator (en) Fassara da darakta
Kyaututtuka
IMDb nm0025468
hoton roald

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen ɗan ƙasar Norway ne mai binciken yankunan polar. Ya kasance babban jigo na lokacin da aka sani da Heroic Age of Antarctica Exploration.[1] An haife shi a Borge, Østfold, Norway, Amundsen ya fara aikinsa a matsayin mai binciken polar a matsayin abokin farko a Balaguron Antarctica na Belgian Adrien de Gerlache na 1897-1899. Daga 1903 zuwa 1906, ya jagoranci balaguron farko don samun nasarar ratsa hanyar Arewa maso Yamma akan sloop Gjøa. A cikin shekarar 1909, Amundsen ya fara shirin balaguron Pole ta Kudu. Ya bar Norway a watan Yuni 1910 a jirgin Fram kuma ya isa Antarctica a cikin watan Janairu 1911. Jam'iyyarsa ta kafa sansanin a Bay of Whales da kuma jerin kayan da aka samar a kan Barrier (wanda ake kira Ross Ice Shelf) kafin ya tashi zuwa sandar a watan Oktoba. Jam'iyyar biyar, karkashin jagorancin Amundsen, ta zama ta farko da ta samu nasarar isa Pole ta Kudu a ranar 14 ga watan Disamba 1911.[2]

Inda gawar Borge Ronald take kenan

Bayan yunƙurin da bai yi nasara ba a cikin shekarar 1918 don isa Pole Arewa ta hanyar wucewa ta Arewa maso Gabas a kan jirgin Maud, Amundsen ya fara shirin balaguron jirgin sama maimakon.[3] A ranar 12 ga watan Mayu 1926, Amundsen da wasu mutane 15 a cikin jirgin ruwan Norge sun zama masu binciken farko da aka tabbatar sun isa Pole ta Arewa. Amundsen ya bace a watan Yuni 1928 yayin da yake tafiya a kan aikin ceto don jirgin Italia na jirgin sama a cikin Arctic. Tun a watan Satumba na wannan shekarar ne dai aka dakatar da neman gawar sa, wanda ba a gano gawarsa ba.[4]

Ƙuruciya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amundsen an haife shi ne a cikin dangin masu mallakin jiragen ruwa na Norway da kyaftin a Borge, tsakanin garuruwan Fredrikstad da Sarpsborg. Iyayensa sune Jens Amundsen da Hanna Sahlqvist. Roald shine ɗa na huɗu a gidan. Mahaifiyarsa ta so ya guje wa cinikin teku na iyali kuma ta ƙarfafa shi ya zama likita, alƙawarin da Amundsen ya yi har mahaifiyarsa ta rasu yana da shekaru 21. Nan da nan ya bar jami'a don rayuwarsa a cikin teku.[5] Lokacin da yake ɗan shekara goma sha biyar, Amundsen ya ji daɗin karanta labaran Sir John Franklin na balaguron da ya yi a ƙasar Arctic. Amundsen ya rubuta "Na karanta su da ban sha'awa mai ban sha'awa wanda ya tsara dukkan tsarin rayuwata".[6]

Tafiya ta Polar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Balaguron Antarctic na Belgium[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

RV Belgica ta daskare a cikin kankara, 1898

Amundsen ya shiga Balaguron Antarctic na Belgium a matsayin abokin farko yana da shekaru 25 a 1897. Wannan balaguron, wanda Adrien de Gerlache ya jagoranta ta amfani da jirgin RV Belgica, ya zama balaguron farko da ya mamaye Antarctica. Belgica, ko bisa kuskure ko ƙira, ya kasance kulle a cikin kankara na teku a 70°30′S kusa da tsibirin Alexander, yamma da tsibirin Antarctic. Ma'aikatan jirgin sun jimre lokacin sanyi wanda ba a shirya su sosai ba. Ta hanyar kimar Amundsen, likita don balaguron, Ba'amurke Frederick Cook, mai yiwuwa ya ceci ma'aikatan daga scurvy ta hanyar farautar dabbobi da ciyar da ma'aikatan sabon nama. A cikin yanayin da 'ya'yan itacen citrus suka rasa, naman da ba a dafa shi ba musamman na dabba daga dabbobi sukan ƙunshi isasshen bitamin don hana scurvy har ma da wani sashi.[7] Wannan wani muhimmin darasi ne ga balaguron balaguro na gaba na Amundsen. Amundsen da Cook daga baya sun karbi jagorancin jirgin lokacin da De Gerlache ya yi rashin lafiya mai tsanani.

Hanyar Arewa maso Yamma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amundsen c. 1908

A cikin shekarar 1903, Amundsen ya jagoranci balaguron farko don samun nasarar ratsa iyakar Kanada ta Arewa maso Yamma tsakanin Tekun Atlantika da Pacific. Ya shirya wani karamin balaguro na maza shida a cikin jirgin kamun kifi mai tan 45-ton, Gjøa, domin samun sassauci. Jirgin nasa yana da daftarin da ba shi da zurfi. Dabararsa ita ce amfani da ƙaramin jirgi da rungumar bakin teku. Amundsen yana sanye da jirgin da ƙananan 13 Injin dizal paraffin (dizal). Sun yi tafiya ta Baffin Bay, tashar Parry sannan kuma ta kudu ta hanyar Peel Sound, James Ross Strait, Simpson Strait da Rae Strait. Sun yi lokacin sanyi biyu a tsibirin King William, a tashar jiragen ruwa na abin da ke a yau Gjoa Haven.[8] A wannan lokacin, Amundsen da ma'aikatan jirgin sun koya daga Netsilik Inuit na gida game da dabarun rayuwa na Arctic, wanda ya sami mahimmanci a cikin balaguron da ya yi zuwa Pole ta Kudu. Alal misali, ya koyi yin amfani da karnukan sling don safarar kayayyaki da kuma sanya fatun dabbobi maimakon wuraren shakatawa masu nauyi, ulun, waɗanda ba sa iya hana sanyi sa’ad da aka jika.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Østfold county, Borge in Borge, Parish register (official) nr. I 6 (1861–1874), Birth and baptism records 1872, page 114" . Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  2. "Amundsen, Roald" (US) and "Amundsen, Roald" . Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Archived from the original on 7 November 2021.
  3. Tierney, John (7 September 2009). "Who Was First at the North Pole?" . The New York Times . Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  4. Holland, Eva (18 August 2017). "Flying to the North Pole in an Airship Was Easy. Returning Wouldn't Be So Easy" . Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  5. Thomas, Henry; Dana Lee Thomas (1972). Living Adventures in Science . Ayer Publishing. pp. 196–201. ISBN 978-0-8369-2573-9
  6. Amundsen, Roald (1927). My Life as an Explorer . Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & company.
  7. The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. 2003. pp. 43, 1696. ISBN 978-0-618-25210-7
  8. Derry, Thomas Kingston (1979). A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland . University of Minnesota Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-8166-3799-7