The Holocaust

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentThe Holocaust
Mass Grave at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp - Fritz Klein - IWM BU4260.jpg
Iri genocide (en) Fassara
ethnic violence (en) Fassara
Bangare na persecution of Jews (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 1933 –  1945
Wuri German-occupied Europe (en) Fassara
Nazi Germany (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Nazi Germany (en) Fassara
Participant (en) Fassara
Adadin waɗanda suka rasu 6,000,000
Defendant (en) Fassara
Has part(s) (en) Fassara
Holocaust in the Netherlands (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Italian Libya (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Norway (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Italy (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in East Upper Silesia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Greece (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Estonia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Serbia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Austria (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Slovakia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Ukraine (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in the Sudetenland (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in the Lublin District (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Yugoslavia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Czechoslovakia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Bulgaria (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Latvia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Germany (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Lithuania (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in France (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Poland (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Bohemia and Moravia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Belgium (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Luxembourg (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Belarus (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Russia (en) Fassara
The Holocaust in Albania (en) Fassara
the Holocaust in Hungary (en) Fassara
Jews outside Europe under Axis occupation (en) Fassara

Holocaust, wanda kuma aka sani da Shoah, [lower-alpha 1] shine kisan kiyashin da Yahudawan Turai suka yi a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu. [lower-alpha 2] Tsakanin 1941 zuwa 1945, Jamus na Nazi da masu haɗin gwiwa sun kashe kusan Yahudawa miliyan shida a duk faɗin Turai da Jamus ta mamaye. [lower-alpha 3] kusan kashi biyu bisa uku na yawan Yahudawan Turai. [lower-alpha 2] An yi kisan ne a cikin pogroms da harbin jama'a (Mass shootings); ta hanyar manufar halaka ta hanyar aiki a sansanonin taro; da kuma a dakunan gas da motocin iskar gas a sansanonin kawar da Jamusawa, musamman Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, da Treblinka a Poland da ta mamaye.

Jamus ta aiwatar da zalunci a matakai. Bayan naɗin Adolf Hitler a matsayin shugabar gwamnati a ranar 30 ga watan Janairun 1933, gwamnatin ta gina cibiyar sadarwa ta sansanonin tarurruka a Jamus don abokan adawar siyasa da kuma wadanda ake ganin "undesirable", tun daga Dachau a ranar 22 ga watan Maris 1933. [2] Bayan zartar da dokar ba da izini a ranar 24 ga watan Maris, [3] wadda ta ba wa Hitler ikon mulkin kama-karya, gwamnati ta fara ware Yahudawa daga ƙungiyoyin farar hula; wannan ya haɗa da ƙauracewa kasuwancin Yahudawa a cikin watan Afrilu 1933 da aiwatar da Dokokin Nuremberg a cikin watan Satumba 1935. A ranar 9-10 ga watan Nuwamba 1938, watanni takwas bayan da Jamus ta mamaye Ostiriya, an lalata kasuwancin Yahudawa da wasu gine-gine ko kuma aka kunna wuta a ko'ina cikin Jamus da Austriya a kan abin da aka sani da Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass"). Bayan da Jamus ta mamaye Poland a watan Satumba na 1939, wanda ya haifar da yakin duniya na biyu, gwamnatin ta kafa ghettos don ware Yahudawa. A ƙarshe, an kafa dubban sansanoni da sauran wuraren tsare mutane a cikin ƙasashen Turai da Jamus ta mamaye.

Rarraba Yahudawa a cikin ghettos ya ƙare a cikin manufar kawar da Nazis da ake kira Solution na Ƙarshe ga Tambayar Yahudawa, wanda manyan jami'an gwamnati suka tattauna a taron Wannsee a Berlin a cikin watan Janairu 1942. Yayin da sojojin Jamus suka kame yankuna a Gabas, duk matakan adawa da Yahudawa sun kasance masu tsattsauran ra'ayi. Ƙarƙashin haɗin kai na SS, tare da kwatance daga mafi girman jagorancin jam'iyyar Nazi, an yi kisan gilla a cikin Jamus, a cikin dukan Turai da ta mamaye, da kuma cikin yankunan da ke karkashin ikon abokan Jamus. Rundunar 'yan sanda da ake kira Einsatzgruppen, tare da hadin gwiwar sojojin Jamus da masu haɗin gwiwar gida, sun kashe kusan 1.3. Yahudawa miliyan a cikin yawan harbe-harbe da pogroms daga lokacin rani na 1941. A tsakiyar 1942, ana korar wadanda abin ya shafa daga ghettos a fadin Turai a cikin jiragen kasa na jigilar kaya zuwa sansanonin kawar da su, inda, idan sun tsira daga tafiya, an yi musu iskar gas, aiki ko duka har su mutu, ko kashe su ta hanyar cututtuka, yunwa, sanyi, gwaje-gwajen likita. ko a lokacin tattakin mutuwa. An ci gaba da kashe-kashen har zuwa karshen yakin duniya na biyu a Turai a watan Mayun 1945.

An fahimci Holocaust a matsayin kisan kare dangi na Yahudawa, amma a lokacin Holocaust [4] (1933-1945), kisan gilla na sauran ƙungiyoyin jama'a ya faru. Waɗannan sun haɗa da Romawa, Poles, Ukrainians, fararen hula na Soviet da fursunonin yaƙi, da sauran al'ummomin da aka yi niyya. Ƙungiyoyin ƙanana kuma sun fuskanci tsanantawa mai tsanani na Nazi, kamar su Shaidun Jehovah, Baƙar fata Jamus, naƙasassu, ’yan gurguzu, da ’yan luwadi. [5] [4]

Terminology and scope[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  An yi amfani da kalmar Holocaust na farko a cikin ma'anarta ta zamani a cikin shekarar 1895 ta The New York Times don kwatanta kisan kiyashin da sojojin Ottoman suka yi wa Kiristocin Armeniya. [6] Kalmar ta fito daga Greek: ὁλόκαυστος; ὅλος hólos, "whole" + καυστός kaustós, "hadaya ta ƙonawa". [lower-alpha 3] Kalmar Littafi Mai Tsarki shoah (Hebrew: שׁוֹאָה‎), ma'ana "calamity" (kuma ana amfani da ita don nufin "destruction" tun tsakiyar zamanai), ya zama daidaitaccen kalmar Ibrananci don kisan Yahudawan Turai. A cewar Haaretz, marubucin Yehuda Erez na iya zama farkon wanda ya bayyana abubuwan da suka faru a Jamus a matsayin shoah. Davar da kuma daga baya Haaretz duka sun yi amfani da kalmar a cikin watan Satumba 1939. [lower-alpha 4]

A ranar 3 ga watan Oktoba 1941 Ibrananci na Amurka ya yi amfani da kalmar "kafin Holocaust", a fili don komawa ga halin da ake ciki a Faransa, [9] da kuma a cikin watan Mayu 1943 New York Times, yana tattauna taron Bermuda, yana magana da "dubban daruruwan Yahudawan Turai har yanzu suna tsira daga Holocaust na Nazi". A cikin shekarar 1968 ɗakin karatu na Majalisa ya ƙirƙiri sabon nau'in, "Holocaust, Bayahude (1939-1945)". [10]

Wannan kalmar ta shahara a cikin Amurka ta hanyar NBC mini-series <i id="mwog">Holocaust</i> (1978) game da dangin almara na Yahudawan Jamus, [11] kuma a cikin watan Nuwamba waccan shekarar an kafa Kwamitin Shugaban Kasa kan Holocaust. [12] Yayin da ƙungiyoyin da ba na Yahudawa suka fara haɗa kansu a matsayin waɗanda aka kashe Holocaust, Yahudawa da yawa sun zaɓi su yi amfani da kalmomin Ibrananci Shoah ko Churban. [9] [lower-alpha 5] Nazis sun yi amfani da kalmar "Final solution to the Jewish question" (German). [14]

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana tarihi na Holocaust yawanci suna bayyana Holocaust a matsayin kisan kare dangi na Yahudawa na Turai da Nazi Jamus da masu haɗin gwiwa suka yi tsakanin 1941 da 1945. [lower-alpha 6] Donald Niewyk da Francis Nicosia, a cikin The Columbia Guide to Holocaust (2000), sun yarda da ma'anar. wanda ya haɗa da Yahudawa, Romawa, da nakasassu: "Kisan tsarin da gwamnati ta yi na dukan ƙungiyoyin da aka ƙaddara bisa ga gado". [23] [lower-alpha 7]

Sauran kungiyoyin da aka yi niyya bayan Hitler ya zama Chancellor na Jamus a cikin watan Janairu 1933 [26] sun haɗa da waɗanda Nazis ke kallon su a matsayin marasa ƙarfi (wasu mutanen Slavic, musamman Poles da Rashawa, Romawa, da nakasassu), da waɗanda aka yi niyya saboda imaninsu ko halayensu (kamar Shaidun Jehobah, ’yan gurguzu, da ’yan luwadi). [4] Peter Hayes ya rubuta cewa zaluncin wadannan kungiyoyi bai kai na Yahudawa ba. Misali, mu’amalar da ‘yan Nazi suka yi wa ’yan Slavs sun kunshi “bautar da kai da tauyewa a hankali”, yayin da wasu Slavs suka sami tagomashi; Hayes ya lissafa 'yan Bulgaria, Croats, Slovaks, da wasu 'yan Ukrain. [27] Sabanin haka, a cewar ɗan tarihi Dan Stone, Hitler ya ɗauki Yahudawa a matsayin " Gegenrasse : 'ƙirar tseren' ... ba dan adam bane kwata-kwata." [5]




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hebrew: Template:Script/Hebrew, HaShoah (haŠōʾā) 'the catastrophe'
  2. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: "According to the American Jewish Yearbook, the Jewish population of Europe was about 9.5 million in 1933. ... By 1945, most European Jews—two out of every three—had been killed."[1]
  3. Oxford Dictionaries (2017): "from Old French holocauste, via late Latin from Greek holokauston, from holos 'whole' + kaustos 'burnt' (from kaiein 'burn')".[7]
  4. The term shoah was used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin ("Sho'ah of Polish Jews"), published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland.[8]
  5. The Hebrew word churban is mostly used by Orthodox Jews to refer to the Holocaust.[13]
  6. Matt Brosnan (Imperial War Museum, 2018): "The Holocaust was the systematic murder of Europe's Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators during the Second World War."[15]Template:Pb Jack R. Fischel (Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust, 2020): "The Holocaust refers to the Nazi objective of annihilating every Jewish man, woman, and child who fell under their control. By the end of World War II, approximately six million Jews had been murdered by the Nazis and their collaborators."[16]Template:Pb Raul Hilberg (The Destruction of the European Jews, 2003 [1961]): "Little by little, some documents were gathered and books were written, and after about two decades the annihilation of the Jews was given a name: Holocaust."[17]Template:Pb Ronnie S. Landau (The Nazi Holocaust: Its History and Meaning, 1992): "The Holocaust involved the deliberate, systematic murder of approximately 6 million Jews in Nazi-dominated Europe between 1941 and 1945."[18]Template:Pb Timothy D. Snyder (Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, 2010): "In this book, Holocaust means the murder of the Jews in Europe, as carried out by the Germans by guns and gas between 1941 and 1945."[19]Template:Pb Dan Stone (Histories of the Holocaust, 2010): "'Holocaust' ... refers to the genocide of the Jews, which by no means excludes an understanding that other groups—notably Romanies and Slavs—were victims of genocide."[20]Template:Pb United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Holocaust Encyclopedia, 2017): "The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators."[21]Template:Pb Yad Vashem (undated): "The Holocaust was the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators. Between the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941 and the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Nazi Germany and its accomplices strove to murder every Jew under their domination."[22]
  7. Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education,[24] offers three definitions of the Holocaust: (a) "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which includes Kristallnacht in 1938; (b) "the systematic mass murder of the Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945," which recognizes the German policy shift in 1941 toward extermination; and (c) "the persecution and murder of various groups by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945," which fails to recognize that the European Jews were targeted for annihilation.[25]
  1. "Remaining Jewish Population of Europe in 1945". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018.
  2. For the date, see Marcuse 2001.
  3. Stackelberg & Winkle 2002.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Gray 2015.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Stone 2010.
  6. Crowe 2008.
  7. "Holocaust". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  8. Crowe 2008, p. 1; "Holocaust" (PDF). Yad Vashem. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2018.Template:Pb "The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion". Yad Vashem. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Fischel 2020.
  10. Lustigman & Lustigman 1994.
  11. Black 2016.
  12. Hilberg 2003.
  13. Fischel 1998, p. 46.
  14. Berenbaum 2006.
  15. Brosnan, Matt (12 June 2018). "What Was The Holocaust?". Imperial War Museum. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  16. Fischel 2020, p. 151.
  17. Hilberg 2003, p. 1133.
  18. Landau 2016, p. 3.
  19. Snyder 2010, p. 412.
  20. Stone 2010, pp. 1–3.
  21. "Introduction to the Holocaust". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  22. "What was the Holocaust?". Yad Vashem. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016.
  23. Niewyk & Nicosia 2000.
  24. "Senior Management Team: Dr. Michael Gray, Academic and Universities Director". Harrow School. Archived from the original on 27 March 2018.
  25. Gray 2015, p. 8.
  26. Gray 2015; "What was the Holocaust?"
  27. Hayes 2015.