Tsarin Littafin Taswira

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Wikidata.svgTsarin Littafin Taswira
literary genre (en) Fassara da genre (en) Fassara
Banduri, Covens et Mortier and Lisle. Imperii Orientalis et Circumjacentium Regionum.1742.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na reference work (en) Fassara, taswira da littafi
Suna saboda Atlas of Mauretania (en) Fassara
Gaban farko na atlas na Mercator

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Taswirar duniya Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ( Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Orb na Duniya ) na Abraham Ortelius, 1570
Shafin shafi na Speculum Orbis Terrae, na Cornelis de Jode . Cornelis dan Gerard de Jode ne . Lokacin da mahaifinsa ya mutu a 1591, Cornelis de Jode ya karɓi aikin aikin mahaifinsa wanda ba a kammala ba ( Speculum Orbis Terrarum, wanda aka fara bugawa a 1578), wanda a karshe ya buga shi a 1593.
Taswirar duniya ta Blaeu, wacce Joan Blaeu ya shirya don Atlas Maior na farko, wanda aka buga a littafin farko na Atlas Van Loon (1664).
Imperii Orientalis et Circumjacentium Regionum na Guillaume Delisle (1742)

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Atlas Ya kasan ce wani tarin taswira ne ; galibi tarin taswirar Duniya ne ko yankin Duniya .

Atlases a al'adance ana ɗaure su ne a cikin sigar littafi, amma a yau atlass da yawa suna cikin sifofin multimedia . Bugu da kari ya gabatar da yanayin siffofin da kuma siyasa iyaka, da yawa atlases sau da yawa kunshi geopolitical, zamantakewa, addini da kuma tattalin arziki statistics . Suna kuma da bayanai game da taswira da wuraren da ke ciki.

Bayanin Lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tunanin atlas a wajan tunaninta na zamani da kuma nau'ikan atlas a yadda ya dace sune aka kirkira kuma daga cikin gudummawar farko na masu zane-zanen Netherlandish na zamani, masu ilimin kasa da kasa ; [1] galibi Gerardus Mercator (wanda ya fara amfani da kalmar 'atlas' don tarin taswira) [2] da kuma Abraham Ortelius (wanda galibi aka san shi a matsayin mahaliccin atlas na farko na gaskiya a yanayin zamani ). [3] Amfani da kalmar "atlas" a cikin mahallin yanki ya faro ne daga 1595 lokacin da Bajamushe-Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator ya buga Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura ( Atlas ko canjin yanayin duniya game da halittar duniya, da kuma duniya kamar yadda halitta ).Wannan taken yana ba da ma'anar kalmar Mercator a matsayin kwatancin halitta da sifar dukkan duniya,ba wai kawai a matsayin tarin taswira ba. Thearar da aka buga bayan mutuwar shekara guda bayan mutuwarsa rubutu ne mai fadi amma amma, yayin da bugu suka samo asali,ya zama kawai tarin taswira kuma a cikin wannan ma'anar ne aka yi amfani da kalmar daga tsakiyar karni na sha bakwai. Addinin neologism wanda Mercator ya kirkira alama ce ta girmamawa ga Titan, Atlas, "Sarkin Mauritania", wanda yake ganin shine babban masanin kasa.

Tarihin atlases[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ya yi Aikin sa na farko wanda ya ƙunshi tsararren taswirori masu girman tsari iri ɗaya wanda yake wakiltar atlas na farko na zamani an shirya shi ta mai zane mai zane na Italiya Pietro Coppo a farkon ƙarni na 16, amma ba a buga shi a lokacin ba saboda haka ba a la'akari da atlas na farko. Maimakon haka, an ba da wannan take ga tarin taswirar Theatrum Orbis Terrarum ta mai ɗaukar hoto na Brabantian Abraham Ortelius wanda aka buga a 1570. Akwai, duk da haka, akwai bambanci sosai akan yadda aka buga atlases a ƙarni na 16 zuwa 19 kuma a zamanin yau. Sabanin yanzu yawancin atlass ba a ɗaure suke ba kuma a shirye suke don abokin ciniki ya saya, amma abubuwan da suke iya yiwuwa an ajiye su daban. Abokin ciniki na iya canza abin da ke ciki zuwa yadda suke so, sanya taswirar launi / haske ko ba haka ba kuma bayan mai bugawa da abokin ciniki sun yarda an ɗaura atlas. Saboda haka yana iya yiwuwa atlas ɗin da aka fara bugawa tare da shafi iri ɗaya suna iya zama daban-daban cikin abubuwan ciki. [4]

Nau'in atlases[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana yin atlas ɗin tafiya don sauƙin amfani yayin tafiye-tafiye, kuma galibi yana da alaƙa ta karkace don haka za a iya ninka shi ƙasa (misali Kamfanin Taswira na AZ sanannen A-Z atlases). Yana da taswira a babban zuƙowa don haka za'a iya sake duba taswirar a sauƙaƙe. Hakanan ana iya kiran taswirar tafiya azaman taswirar hanya .

Atlas na tebur an yi kama da littafin tunani. Yana iya zama a cikin tsari ko takarda.

Akwai atlases na sauran duniyoyin (da tauraron dan adam dinsu) a cikin Tsarin Rana .

Atlases na anatomy ya wanzu, zana taswira daga gabobin jikin mutum ko wasu kwayoyin.

Zaɓaɓɓun atlases[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu zane-zane masu mahimmanci ko kasuwanci sun haɗa da masu zuwa:

17th karni na baya
  • Atlas Sive Cosmographicae (Mercator, Duisburg, a cikin ƙasar yau ta Jamus, 1595)
  • Atlas Novus (Blaeu, Netherlands, 1635-1658)
  • Atlas Maior (Blaeu, Netherlands, 1662-1667)
  • Cartes générales de toutes les jam'iyyun du monde (Faransa, 1658-1676)
  • Dell'Arcano del Mare (Ingila / Italia, 1645-1661)
  • Taswirar Piri Reis (Daular Ottoman, 1570-1612)
  • Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Ortelius, Netherlands, 1570-1612)
  • Klencke Atlas (1660; ɗayan manyan littattafai a duniya)
  • Burtaniya ( John Ogilby, 1670-1676).
18th karni
  • Atlas Nouveau (Amsterdam, 1742)
  • Britannia Depicta (London, 1720)
  • Sabon Ingilishi na Ingilishi na Cary da Ingantacce (London, 1787)
19th karni
  • Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas (Jamus, 1881-1939; a Burtaniya kamar Times Atlas of the World, 1895)
  • Rand McNally Atlas (Amurka, 1881 – yanzu)
  • Stielers Handatlas (Jamus, 1817-1944)
  • Times Atlas na Duniya (United Kingdom, 1895 – present)
20th karni
  • Atlante Internazionale del Touring Club Italiano (Italia, 1927-1978)
  • Atlas Linguisticus (Austria, 1934)
  • Atlas Mira (Tarayyar Soviet / Rasha, 1937 zuwa yanzu)
  • Masana ilimin geographers 'A-Z Street Atlas (United Kingdom, 1938 – present)
  • Gran Atlas Aguilar (Spain, 1969/1970)
  • Atlas na Tarihi na Sin (China)
  • National Geographic Atlas na Duniya (Amurka, 1963 –a yanzu)
  • Pergamon Duniya Atlas (1962/1968)
21st karni
  • Arewacin Amurka Atlas.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Including notable contributors like Gerardus Mercator, Abraham Ortelius, Gerard de Jode, Cornelis de Jode, Lucas Waghenaer, Jodocus Hondius, Henricus Hondius, Johannes Janssonius, Willem Blaeu, Johannes Blaeu, Claes Visscher, Andreas Cellarius, Frederik de Wit. Also, some atlases published by Netherlandish cartographers such as Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the Orb of the World), Speculum Orbis Terrarum, Speculum Orbis Terrae (Mirror of the World), Spieghel der Zeevaerdt (Mariner's Mirror), Mercator-Hondius Atlas, Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem, Atlas Maior, Atlas van Loon, Klencke Atlas, and Harmonia Macrocosmica are considered masterpieces in the history of mapmaking.
  2. Van der Krogt, Peter (2015), 'Chapter 6: Gerhard Mercator and his Cosmography: How the 'Atlas' became an Atlas,'; in: Gerhard Holzer, et al. (eds.), A World of Innovation: Cartography in the Time of Gerhard Mercator. (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015), pp. 112–130
  3. Binding, Paul: Imagined Corners: Exploring the World's First Atlas. (London: Headline Book Publishing, 2003)
  4. Jan Smits, Todd Fell (2011). Early printed atlases: shaping Plato's 'Forms' into bibliographic descriptions. In: Journal of map & geography libraries : advances in geospatial information, collections & archives, (ISSN 1542-0353), 7(2011)2, p. 184-210.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiya
Atlases na kan layi
Tarihin atlases
Atlases na Tarihi akan layi
Sauran hanyoyin