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Tukwane

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
tukwane
visual arts technique (en) Fassara da Sana'a
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na crafting (en) Fassara da plastic arts (en) Fassara
Product or material produced or service provided (en) Fassara pottery ware (en) Fassara da ceramic art (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan potter (en) Fassara
Hadawa tare da kawatar da yumbun wuta don samar da kwano.

Tukwane shine tsari da kayayyakin samar da tasoshi masu daukar ruwa da sauran abubuwa ta hanyar sarrafa yumbu da sauran kayan yumbu, waɗanda ake gasa su don ba su nau'i mai ƙarfi da dorewa.[1] Manyan nau'ikan sun haɗa da kayan ƙasa, kayan dutse da ain. Wurin da maginin tukwane yake yin irin waɗannan kayan ana kiransa tukwane (jam'i "tukwane"). Ma'anar tukwane, wanda ASTM International ke amfani da shi, shine "duk kayan aikin yumbu da aka gasa/kona waɗanda ke ɗauke da yumbu lokacin da aka kafa su, ta hanyar fasaha, da kuma A cikin tarihin fasaha da kuma ilmin kimiya na kayan tarihi, musamman ma na zamanin da da kuma zamanin da, "tukwane" sau da yawa yana nufin tasoshin ruwa ne kawai, kuma siffofi masu sassaka na kayan abu ɗaya ana kiran su "terracottas".

Tukwane yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin ƙirƙirar ɗan adam, wanda ya samo asali kafin lokacin Neolithic, tare da kuma abubuwa masu yumbu kamar al'adun Gravettian Venus na Dolní Věstonice figurine wanda aka gano a cikin Jamhuriyar Czech tun daga 29,000-25,000 BC, da tasoshin da aka gano a ciki. Jiangxi, China, wanda ya kasance tun 18,000 BC. An samo kayan tarihi na farko na Neolithic da pre-Neolithic, a cikin Jōmon Japan (10,500 BC), Gabas mai Nisa na Rasha (14,000 BC),.[2] nkin Saharar Afirka (9,400 BC), Kudancin Amurka ( 9,000s-7,000s BC), da Gabas ta Tsakiya (7,000s-6,000s BC).

Ana kuma yin tukwane ta hanyar samar da yumbu (yawanci yumbu) jiki zuwa abubuwan da ake so da dumama su zuwa yanayin zafi (600-1600). °C) a cikin wuta, rami ko kiln kuma yana haifar da halayen da ke haifar da canje-canje na dindindin ciki har da ƙara ƙarfi da rashin ƙarfi na abu. Yawancin tukwane masu amfani ne kawai, amma wasu kuma ana iya ɗaukar su azaman fasahar yumbura. Ana iya yin ado da jikin yumbu kafin ko bayan an gasa shi.

Tukwane na gargajiya, Bangladesh
Kasuwar tukwane a Boubon, Niger

Ana iya raba tukwane da aka yi da yumbu zuwa manyan ƙungiyoyi uku: yumbu, kayan dutse da alin. Waɗannan suna buƙatar ƙarin takamaiman kayan yumbu, da haɓaka yanayin zafi mafi girma. Dukkanin ukun an yi su ne da nau'in glazed da marasa gilashi, don dalilai daban-daban. Hakanan ana iya ƙawata duka ta dabaru daban-daban. A cikin misalai da yawa rukunin da ke cikinsa yana bayyana nan da nan a gani, amma ba koyaushe haka lamarin yake ba. fritware na duniyar Islama ba sa amfani da yumbu, don haka a zahiri faɗuwa waje da waɗannan ƙungiyoyi. Tukwane na tarihi na ire-iren waɗannan nau'ikan galibi ana haɗa su azaman ko dai kayan ''lafiya'', masu tsada da tsada sosai, kuma suna bin ƙayataccen ɗanɗanon al'adun da abin ya shafa, ko kuma "sanannen", "jama'a" ko "kauye" kayayyaki, galibi ba a yi musu ado ba, ko kuma haka kawai, kuma galibi ba su da kyau.

Yin girki a cikin tukwane na yumbu ya na samu ƙasa da farin jini da zarar tukwane na ƙarfe sun samu, amma har yanzu ana amfani da su don yin jita-jita waɗanda suka dogara da halayen dafa abinci, kamar biryani, cassoulet, daube, tagine, jollof rice, kedjenou, cazuela, da gasa. wake . [3]

Manyan ire-ire[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tukwane na ƙasa daga al'adun Neolithic Longshan, China, 3rd Millennium BC

Kayan ƙasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  Siffofin farko na tukwane an yi su ne daga yumbu waɗanda aka gasa a ƙananan zafin jiki, da farko a cikin gobarar rami ko a buɗe wuta. An yi su da hannu kuma ba a yi musu ado ba. Ana iya harba kayan aikin ƙasa ƙasa da 600 °C, kuma yawanci ana yin wuta a ƙasa da 1200 °C. Saboda biscuit earthenware mara glazed yana da ƙura, yana kuma da iyakacin amfani don ajiyar ruwa ko azaman kayan tebur. Koyaya, kayan ƙasa suna da ci gaba da tarihi tun daga lokacin Neolithic zuwa yau. Ana iya yin shi daga nau'ikan yumbu iri-iri, wasu daga cikinsu suna wuta zuwa buff, launin ruwan kasa ko baƙar fata, tare da baƙin ƙarfe a cikin ma'adinan ma'adinai wanda ke haifar da launin ja-launin ruwan kasa. Ana kiran nau'ikan launin ja-jajayen nau'ikan terracotta, musamman lokacin da ba'a sanya gilashi ko amfani da su don sassaka ba. Ci gaban yumbu glaze sanya yumbu mai yuwuwar yuwuwar yuwuwar yuwuwar yuwuwar yuwuwa, haɓaka shahara da amfani da tasoshin tukwane. Ƙarin kayan ado ya samo asali a cikin tarihinsa.

Kayan dutse[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jafananci na ƙarni na 15 tulun ajiya na dutse, tare da ƙyalli na ash

Kayan dutse tukwane ne da aka harba a cikin kiln a matsanancin zafi, daga kusan 1,100. °C zuwa 1,200 °C, kuma ya fi ƙarfi kuma ba mai ƙura ba ga ruwa. [4] Sinawa, wadanda suka kera kayan dutse da wuri, sun ware wannan tare da alin a matsayin kayan harba masu yawa. Sabanin haka, ana iya samar da kayan aikin dutse ne kawai a Turai. Ya kasance ƙwararren Jamus har zuwa Renaissance.

Kayan dutse yana da matukar wahala kuma mai amfani, kuma yawancin sa koyaushe ya kasance mai amfani, don dafa abinci ko ajiya maimakon tebur. Amma "kyakkyawan" dutse yana da mahimmanci a China, Japan da Yamma, kuma ana ci gaba da yin su. Yawancin nau'ikan masu amfani kuma sun zo ana yaba su azaman fasaha.

Layin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Chantilly pocelain teapot, c. 1730, tare da kayan ado na chinoiserie a cikin enamels overglaze

Ana yin tanda ta kayan dumama, gabaɗaya gami da kaolin, a cikin kiln zuwa yanayin zafi tsakanin 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F) . Wannan ya fi yadda ake amfani da shi don sauran nau'ikan, kuma samun waɗannan yanayin zafi ya kasance gwagwarmaya mai tsayi, da kuma fahimtar abubuwan da ake buƙata. Tauri, ƙarfi da translucence na ain, dangane da sauran nau'ikan tukwane, ya taso ne musamman daga vitrification da samuwar mullite ma'adinai a cikin jiki a waɗannan yanayin zafi.

Ko da yake an fara yin sinadirai a kasar Sin, al'adar Sinawa ba sa gane shi a matsayin wani nau'i na musamman, suna hada shi da kayan dutse a matsayin "high-fired", sabanin nau'in kasa na "marasa karfi". Wannan ya rikitar da batun lokacin da aka fara yin shi. Daular Tang (AD 618-906) ta sami digiri na nuna haske da fari, kuma ana fitar da adadi mai yawa. Matsayin fari na zamani bai kai ba sai daga baya, a cikin karni na 14. Har ila yau, an yi amfani da Porcelain a Koriya da Japan daga ƙarshen karni na 16, bayan da aka samo kaolin da ya dace a cikin waɗannan ƙasashe. Ba a yi shi sosai a wajen Gabashin Asiya ba har sai karni na 18. [5]

Archaeology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masanin ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi yana tsaftace wani shingen tukwane na farko daga Chodlik, Poland.

Nazarin tukwane na iya taimakawa wajen ba da haske game da al'adun da suka gabata. Binciken masana'anta (duba sashe da ke ƙasa), wanda aka yi amfani da shi don nazarin masana'anta na tukwane, muhimmin ɓangare na ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi don fahimtar al'adun archaeological na wurin da aka tono ta hanyar nazarin masana'anta na kayan tarihi, irin su amfani da su, tushen kayan aiki, ƙirar kayan ado, launi. na alamu, da dai sauransu. Wannan yana taimakawa wajen fahimtar halaye, ƙwarewa, halaye, fasaha, kayan aiki, kasuwanci, da dai sauransu na mutanen da suka yi da kuma amfani da tukwane. Haɗin gwiwar carbon yana bayyana shekaru. Shafukan da ke da irin nau'in tukwane suna da al'adu iri ɗaya, waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon da ke da halaye daban-daban na al'adu amma tare da wasu ruɗewa suna nuni da musayar al'adu kamar kasuwanci ko zama a kusa ko ci gaba da zama, da sauransu. Misalai sune baƙar fata da ja, kayan ja, al'adun Sothi -Siswal da al'adun Grey Ware fentin . Yadudduka shida na Kalibangan misali ne mai kyau na yin amfani da nazarin masana'anta wajen gano al'adun da suka bambanta wanda a baya aka yi tunanin al'adar wayewar Indus Valley (IVC) ce.

Tukwane yana da ɗorewa, kuma gutsuttsura, aƙalla, galibi suna rayuwa tsawon lokaci bayan da kayan tarihi da aka yi daga kayan da ba su da ƙarfi sun lalace a baya. Haɗe da wasu shaidu, nazarin kayan aikin tukwane yana taimakawa wajen haɓaka ra'ayoyi kan ƙungiya, yanayin tattalin arziki da haɓaka al'adu na al'ummomin da suka samar ko suka sami tukwane. Har ila yau, nazarin tukwane na iya ba da damar yin tsokaci game da rayuwar yau da kullum ta al'ada, addini, zamantakewar zamantakewa, halin maƙwabta, halayen duniyarsu da ma yadda al'ada ta fahimci sararin samaniya.

Tarihi akan tukwane galibi suna da mahimmanci don saduwa da al'adun da ba su da rubutu kuma galibi suna taimakawa wajen saduwa da al'adun tarihi. Binciken abubuwan ganowa, galibi ta hanyar kunnawa neutron, yana ba da damar gano tushen yumbu daidai kuma ana iya amfani da gwajin thermoluminescence don samar da kimanta ranar harbe-harbe na ƙarshe. A binciken da aka harba tukwane tun kafin tarihi, masana kimiyya sun koyi cewa a lokacin harbi mai zafi, kayan ƙarfe a cikin yumbu suna rubuta ainihin yanayin filin maganadisu na duniya a daidai lokacin.

Tushen abu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Binciken masana'anta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

"Jikin yumbu" kuma ana kiransa "manna" ko "fabric", wanda ya ƙunshi abubuwa 2, "matrix na yumbu" - wanda ya ƙunshi hatsi na ƙasa da 0.02. mm hatsi wanda za'a iya gani ta amfani da na'ura mai ƙarfi mai ƙarfi ko na'urar duban microscope na lantarki (SEM), da kuma "haɗin yumbu" - waɗanda manyan hatsi ne na yumbu kuma ana iya gani da ido tsirara ko ƙaramin ƙaramin iko na binocular. Ga masana ilimin ƙasa, nazarin masana'anta na nufin tsarin sararin samaniya na ma'adanai a cikin dutse. Ga masu binciken Archaeologists, "binciken masana'anta" na tukwane ya ƙunshi nazarin matrix na yumbu da haɗawa a cikin jikin yumbu da zafin wuta da yanayi. Ana yin nazari ne don bincika waɗannan 3 dalla-dalla:

  • yadda aka yi tukwane misali kayan aiki, zane kamar sura da salo, da sauransu.
  • kayan adonta, irin su alamu, launuka na alamu, zamewa (glazing) ko kayan ado mara kyau
  • shaidar irin amfani.

Yadudduka shida na Kalibangan misali ne mai kyau na nazarin masana'anta.

Jikin yumbu da abubuwan ma'adinai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shiri na yumbu don tukwane a Indiya

Jiki (ko jikin yumbu) kalma ce don babban nau'in tukwane na yanki, ƙarƙashin kowane kyalli ko kayan ado. Babban sashi na jiki shine yumbu . Akwai abubuwa da yawa waɗanda ake kira yumbu. Abubuwan da ke sa su bambanta sun haɗa da: Plasticity, rashin lafiyar jiki; gwargwadon yadda za su sha ruwa bayan harbe-harbe; da raguwa, girman raguwar girman jiki yayin da ake cire ruwa. Jikin yumbu daban-daban kuma sun bambanta ta hanyar da suke amsawa lokacin da aka harbe su a cikin kiln. Ana iya yin ado da jikin yumbu kafin ko bayan harbi. Kafin wasu matakai na siffa, dole ne a shirya yumbu. Kowane ɗayan waɗannan yumbu daban-daban sun ƙunshi nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan ma'adanai waɗanda ke ƙayyade halayen tukwane da aka samu. Za a iya samun bambance-bambancen yanki a cikin kaddarorin kayan albarkatun da aka yi amfani da su don samar da tukwane, kuma waɗannan na iya haifar da kayayyaki waɗanda ke da alaƙa na musamman ga yanki. Ya zama ruwan dare ga yumbu da sauran kayan da za a haɗa su don samar da jikin yumbu wanda ya dace da takamaiman dalilai. Abun gama gari na jikin yumbu shine kaolinite ma'adinai. Sauran ma'adanai a cikin yumbu, irin su feldspar, suna aiki a matsayin sauye -sauye wanda ke rage yawan zafin jiki na jiki. Anan jerin nau'ikan yumbu daban-daban da ake amfani da su don tukwane.[6]

  • Kaolin, wani lokacin ana kiransa yumbu na china saboda an fara amfani da shi a China. An yi amfani da shi don poselin.
  • Yunbun Ball: Ƙaƙƙarfan filastik, yumɓu mai laushi mai kyau, wanda zai iya ƙunsar wasu kwayoyin halitta. Za a iya ƙara ƙananan kuɗi zuwa jikin ain don ƙara yawan filastik.
  • Laka mai Wuta: Laka mai ɗanɗano ƙananan kaso fiye da kaolin, amma yawanci filastik. Yana da nau'i na yumbu mai jure zafi sosai wanda za'a iya haɗa shi tare da sauran yumbu don ƙara yawan zafin jiki kuma ana iya amfani dashi azaman sinadari don yin nau'in nau'in dutse.
  • Dutsen dutse: Ya dace da ƙirƙirar kayan dutse. Yana da halaye da yawa tsakanin yumbu na wuta da yumbu, yana da hatsi mafi kyau, kamar yumbu na ball amma ya fi jure zafi kamar yumbun wuta.
  • Jajayen yumbu na yau da kullun da yumɓu na shale suna da kayan lambu da ƙazanta na ferric oxide waɗanda ke sa su amfani da bulo, amma gabaɗaya ba su gamsar da tukwane ba sai ƙarƙashin yanayi na musamman na ajiya na musamman. [7]
  • Bentonite: Laka mai mahimmanci na filastik wanda za'a iya ƙarawa a cikin ƙananan yawa zuwa gajeren yumbu don ƙara yawan filastik.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 'Standard Terminology Of Ceramic Whitewares And Related Products.' ASTM C 242–01 (2007.) ASTM International.
  2. Diamond, Jared (June 1998). "Japanese Roots". Discover. Discover Media LLC. Archived from the original on 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-07-10.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :3
  4. Cooper (2010), p. 54
  5. Cooper (2010), pp. 72–79, 160–79
  6. Ruth M. Home, "Ceramics for the Potter", Chas. A. Bennett Co., 1952
  7. Home, 1952, p. 16