Sana'a

Daga Wikipedia
A tsallaka zuwa: Shawagi, nema

Sana'a - finely handcrafted samar dogara ne a kan yin amfani da hannun kayayyakin aiki, na sirri basira ma'aikata don tabbatar da samar da high quality, sau da yawa sosai m kayayyakin.

Sana'a tashi da farkon mutum masana'antu aiki, da ya zo da dogon tarihi hanyar raya kasa, shan daban-daban siffofin: a) na gida sana'a - a cikin wani arziki tattalin arziki. b) handicraft yi odan - cikin sharuddan bazuwar na halitta tattalin arziki. c) da sana'a kasuwa. Tare da zargin sana'a da aka yi da kuma musamman a kasuwa domin bayyanar da cigaban birane a matsayin sana'a da kuma shopping cibiyoyin. Na gida crafts sau da yawa ake kira m masana'antu (watau samar da wadanda ba na aikin gona da kayayyakin), sana'a da aka yi da kuma kasuwa - da handicraft masana'antu. A Rasha wallafe-wallafe sau da yawa na ilimin kididdiga duk yan sana'a XIX-xx ƙarni. da ake kira sana'a.

Na gida crafts tartsatsi a ko'ina cikin tarihin pre-jari hujja jama'a. A yankunan karkara yawan ta samar da mafi yawansu ba su cinye handicrafts. A hankali ya fara taka rawa a manyan sana'a da kuma kasuwa domin. A zamanin d Girka, zamanin d Roma, a zamanin d Gabas akwai wani gagarumin yawan yan sana'a, da manyan m tattalin arziki da ƙera al'ada da aka yi da kayayyakin ko kasuwa.

Zama masu sana'a sana'a, musamman a birane, ya haddasa Ana zargin sabon wuraren samar da sabon zaman jama'a Layer - birane yan sana'a. Ana zargin ci-gaba siffofin kungiyar (guilds), kare da bukatun wannan Layer, halitta musamman sharadi gwargwado ga ci gaban birane crafts a tsakiyar zamanai. Manyan sassa na birane crafts kasance suknodelie, yi daga karfe kayayyakin, da gilashi kayayyakin da sauransu. A lokacin masana'antu juyin juya halin (tsakiyar karni XVIII. - Na farko da rabi na XIX karni.) Factory masana'antu bisa yin amfani da inji, ƙwace sana'a.Sana'a (a kan tsari da kuma a kasuwa) an kiyaye su a cikin masana'antu alaka da sabis da bukatun mutum abokin ciniki ko samar da tsada art kayayyakin - gina tukwane, sakar gidansa, sassaƙi, da sauransu. D.

To babban har da sana'a zauna a cikin underdeveloped kasashen. Duk da haka, a nan shi ne ta korar ma'aikata masana'antu a sakamakon masana'antu a cikin wadannan kasashe. Kiyaye su mutãne crafts, sabis da alaka yawon shakatawa da kuma fitar.

An dade an Adam san crafts kamar:

  • Blacksmithing
  • tukwane
  • sassaƙa
  • joinery
  • dinki
  • sakar gidansa
  • kadi
  • furrier ta
  • saddlery
  • yin burodi
  • shoemaking
  • wutar makera
  • fata
  • kayan ado

da kuma sauran jama'a.