Sana'a

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Sana'a
Geigenbauer.jpg
subclass ofactivity Gyara
practiced byartisan Gyara

Sana'a - finely handcrafted samar dogara ne a kan yin amfani da hannun kayayyakin aiki, na sirri basira ma'aikata don tabbatar da samar da kayayyaki masu matular inganci.

Sana'a tashi da farkon mutum masana'antu aiki, da ya zo da dogon tarihi hanyar raya kasa, shan daban-daban siffofin: a) na gida sana'a - a cikin wani arziki tattalin arziki. b) handicraft yi odan - cikin sharuddan bazuwar na halitta tattalin arziki. c) da sana'a kasuwa. Tare da zargin sana'a da aka yi da kuma musamman a kasuwa domin bayyanar da cigaban birane a matsayin sana'a da kuma shopping cibiyoyin. Na gida crafts sau da yawa ake kira m masana'antu (watau samar da wadanda ba na aikin gona da kayayyakin), sana'a da aka yi da kuma kasuwa - da handicraft masana'antu. A Rasha wallafe-wallafe sau da yawa na ilimin kididdiga duk yan sana'a XIX-xx ƙarni. da ake kira sana'a.

Na gida crafts tartsatsi a ko'ina cikin tarihin kafin zuwan jari hujja jama'a. A yankunan karkara yawan ta samar da mafi yawansu ba su cinye handicrafts. A hankali ya fara taka rawa a manyan sana'a da kuma kasuwa domin. A zamanin d Girka, zamanin d Roma, a zamanin d Gabas akwai wani gagarumin yawan yan sana'a, da manyan m tattalin arziki da ƙera al'ada da aka yi da kayayyakin ko kasuwa.

Zama masu sana'a sana'a, musamman a birane, ya haddasa Ana zargin sabon wuraren samar da sabon zaman jama'a Layer - birane yan sana'a. Ana zargin ci-gaba siffofin kungiyar (guilds), kare da bukatun wannan Layer, halitta musamman sharadi gwargwado ga ci gaban birane crafts a tsakiyar zamanai. Manyan sassa na birane crafts kasance suknodelie, yi daga karfe kayayyakin, da gilashi kayayyakin da sauransu. A lokacin masana'antu juyin juya halin (tsakiyar karni XVIII. - Na farko da rabi na XIX karni.) masana'antu bisa yin amfani da inji, ƙwace sana'a.Sana'a (a kan tsari da kuma a kasuwa) an kiyaye su a cikin masana'antu alaka da sabis da bukatun mutum abokin ciniki ko samar da tsada art kayayyakin - gina tukwane, sakar gidansa, sassaƙi, da sauransu. D.

To babban har da sana'a zauna a cikin underdeveloped kasashen. Duk da haka, a nan shi ne ta korar ma'aikata masana'antu a sakamakon masana'antu a cikin wadannan kasashe. Kiyaye su mutãne crafts, sabis da alaka yawon shakatawa da kuma fitar.

An dade dan Adam nayin crafts kamar:

  • kira
  • tukwane
  • sassaƙa
  • joinery
  • dinki
  • sakar gidansa
  • kadi
  • furrier ta
  • saddlery
  • yin burodi
  • hada takalmi
  • wutar makera
  • fata
  • kayan ado

da kuma sauran jama'a.