Tunani

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Wikidata.svgTunani
Herkulaneischer Meister 002.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na mental process (en) Fassara
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Karatun ta cognitive science (en) Fassara
Yarinya dauke da Littafin José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior

  Tunani (ko tunani ) ya kunshi "kwararar manufa da ra'ayoyi da kungiyoyi wadanda zasu iya haifar da kammalawar gaskiya". Kodayake tunani aiki ne mai kimar rayuwa ga mutane, har yanzu ba a cimma matsaya game da yadda ake bayyana shi ko fahimtarsa ba.

Saboda tunani yana tattare da ayyuka da mu'amala da mutane da yawa, fahimtar asalinsa na zahiri da kuma salon maganarsa da kuma tasirinsa ya kasance babban buri na yawancin fannonin ilimi da suka hada da falsafa, ilimin harshe, ilimin halayyar dan adam, ilimin kwakwalwa, ilimin kere kere, ilimin halittu, ilimin halayyar dan adam, da ilimin kimiya.

Yin tunani yana bawa mutane damar fahimtar ma'anar, fassara, wakilci ko ƙirar duniyar da suka fuskanta, da kuma yin tsinkaya game da waccan duniyar. Saboda haka yana da amfani ga kwayar halitta tare da buƙatu, manufofi, da buƙatu yayin da take yin shiri ko kuma ƙoƙari don cimma waɗancan burin.

Etymology da amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani Lokaci Mai Tsada (1904), na Eugene de Blaas

Kalmar tunani ta fito ne daga Tsohon Ingilishi þoht, ko geþoht, daga tushe na þencan "don ɗaukar ciki a cikin tunani, yi la'akari".

Kalmar "tunani" na iya nufin:

  • samfurin tunani guda ɗaya ko kuma ra'ayi ɗaya ("Abinda na fara tunani shine 'a'a.') )
  • samfurin aikin tunani ("Lissafi babban rukuni ne na tunani." )
  • aiki ko tsarin tunani ("Na kasance cikin rudani daga yawan tunani." )
  • damar tunani, tunani, tunani, da sauransu ("Duk tunaninta ya shafi aikinta." )
  • la'akari ko tunani a kan wani ra'ayi ("Tunanin mutuwa yana bani tsoro." )
  • tunani ko tunani ("Na yi tunani game da yarinta." )
  • rabi-kafa ko niyya mara kyau ("Na dan yi tunanin tafiya." )
  • fata ko fata ("Ba ta da tunanin sake ganinsa." )
  • la'akari, kulawa, kulawa, ko girmamawa ("Bai yi tunanin kamaninsa ba" kuma "Na yi shi ba tare da tunani ba." )
  • hukunci, ra'ayi, ko imani ("Dangane da tunaninsa, gaskiya ita ce mafi kyawun siyasa." )
  • dabarun da ke tattare da wani wuri, aji, ko lokaci ("tunanin Girka")
  • yanayin sane da wani abu ("Ya sa ni tunanin kaka ta." )
  • kula da imani da wani abu, musamman tare da ƙasa da cikakken tabbaci ("Ina tsammanin zai yi ruwan sama, amma ban tabbata ba." )
Huike Thinking, hoton tsohon sarki Chán Dazu Huike ya danganta da zanen karni na 10 Shi Ke

Ma'anoni na iya ko bazai buƙaci wannan tunanin ba

  • faruwa a cikin kwakwalwar ɗan adam (duba ilimin halayyar ɗan adam),
  • faruwa a matsayin wani ɓangare na tsarin halittu masu rai (duba Alan Turing da Kayan Lantarki da Lantarki ),
  • faruwa ne kawai a matakin wayewar kai (duba Ka'idar tunanin hankali ),
  • bukatar harshe,
  • yana da mahimmanci ko ma kawai na fahimta, m ("na al'ada"),
  • Kunshi wasu ra'ayoyi kamar zana kwatankwacinsu, fassara, kimantawa, tunani, tsarawa, da tunowa.

Ma'anar tunani na iya kuma samo asali kai tsaye ko a kaikaice daga ka'idojin tunani.

Ka'idoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • "Bayanin ka'idar tsarin-tunani da injunan tunani" (Caianiello) - hanyoyin tunani da kuma abubuwan da suka shafi tunanin mutum wanda aka tsara ta tsarin lissafin lissafin lissafi
  • Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking (Hofstadter and Sander) - ka'idar da aka gina akan kwatankwacinta
  • Ka'idar Nazarin Harshe da Tunani (Feldman da Lakoff) - tsarin tsarin harshe da alaƙar sararin samaniya
  • Tsarin Tunani - Tsarin, Karfi, da Iyakantaccen Tunani (Baum) - ka’idar da aka ginata akan tsarin tunani
  • Ka'idar Tunanin da ba a sani ba - tunanin da ba shi da hankali
  • Ka'idodin ilimin harshe - Theaukar Tunani ( Steven Pinker, Noam Chomsky ) - Ka’idar ilimin harshe da haƙiƙa wanda tunani ya dogara ne da tsarin komowa cikin harshe na haɗin kai da harshe.
  • Harshen tunani na tunani ( Jerry Fodor ) - Haɗin mahaɗan wakilcin yanayin tunanin mutum - A zahiri, 'Harshen Tunani'.
  • Zai yuwuwar ka'idar yadda da kuma inda a kwakwalwa tunani ya samo asali da kuma yadda ake yada shi kuma wata kwakwalwa ta karba. Rajvanshi, Anil K. (2010), Yanayin Tunanin Mutum ,  .

Falsafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mai Tunani da Rodin (1840-1917), a cikin lambun Musée Rodin

Halin halittu a cikin falsafa ya ga canjin canji a cikin hanyar da muke fahimtar tunani. Nazarin nazarin halittu na Martin Heidegger na wanzuwar tsarin mutum a cikin kasancewa da Lokaci ya ba da sabon haske game da batun tunani, rashin fahimtar al'adun gargajiya ko fassarar hankali na mutum wanda ya shafi yadda muke fahimtar tunani. Tunanin mahimmancin rawar rashin fahimta a cikin fassarar yiwuwar fahimtar batun ta sanar da tattaunawar da ke tattare da ilimin kere kere (AI) a tsakanin shekarun 1970s da 1980s. [1]

Ilimin zamani, ba shine kawai hanyar zuwa tunani a falsafar Yammacin zamani ba. Falsafar tunani wani bangare ne na falsafar da ke nazarin yanayin tunani, abubuwan da suka shafi tunani, ayyukan tunani, halayen kwakwalwa, sani da alakar su da jiki, musamman kwakwalwa. Matsalar hankali-jiki, watau alaƙar tunani da jiki, galibi ana ganinsa azaman tsakiyar batun falsafar tunani, kodayake akwai wasu batutuwa dangane da yanayin hankali waɗanda ba su da alaƙa da zahiri.

Hankali-jiki dichotomy[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsalar hankali-jiki ta shafi bayanin alaƙar da ke tsakanin tunani, ko matakan tunani, da jihohi ko matakai na jiki. Babban manufar masana falsafa da ke aiki a wannan yanki shi ne sanin yanayin tunani da yanayin tunani / tsari, da kuma yadda-ko da kuwa-tunanin ya shafi kuma zai iya shafar jiki.

Kwarewar tunanin ɗan adam ya dogara ne da abubuwan motsa jiki waɗanda suka isa gabobin mutum daban-daban daga duniyar waje kuma waɗannan matsalolin suna haifar da canje-canje a cikin yanayin tunanin mutum, a ƙarshe yana sa mutum ya ji wani abin da yake so, wanda zai iya zama mai daɗi ko mara daɗi. Wani sha'awar wani yanki na pizza, alal misali, zai haifar da wannan mutumin don motsa jikinsa a cikin takamaiman hanya kuma a cikin takamaiman shugabanci don samun abin da yake so. Tambaya, to, ta yaya zai yiwu ga abubuwan masarufi su tashi daga dunƙulen ruwan toka wanda bashi da komai sai kayan lantarki. A related matsala ne don bayanin yadda wani ya ta propositional halaye (misali imani da kuma son zũciyõyinsu) zai iya haifar da cewa mutum neurons zuwa wuta da tsokoki zuwa kwangila a daidai daidai iri. Wadannan sun hada da wasu daga cikin rudanin da ya tunkare masana ilimin harrufa da falsafa na hankali daga aƙalla lokacin René Descartes .

Aikin aiki vs. aiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke sama suna nuna fasali na al'ada, bayanin aikin yadda muke aiki azaman fahimta, tsarin tunani. Koyaya, an bayyana cewa za a shawo kan matsalar jiki da ba za a iya warwarewa ba, kuma an wuce ta, ta hanyar dabarun sanin abubuwa, tare da tushenta a cikin aikin Heidegger, Piaget, Vygotsky, Merleau-Ponty da kuma pragmatist John Dewey .

Wannan hanyar tana nuna cewa hanyar gargajiya ta raba hankali da nazarin ayyukan ta batattu ne: a maimakon haka, ya kamata mu ga cewa hankali, ayyukan wakili da ke ciki, da kuma yanayin da yake fahimta da hangen nesa, dukkansu bangarori ne baki daya wadanda ke tantance kowannensu wasu. Sabili da haka, nazarin aiki na hankali shi kadai zai bar mu koyaushe tare da matsalar-tunanin jiki wanda ba za a iya warware shi ba.

Biology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A neuron (wanda kuma aka sani a matsayin mai neurone ko jijiya cell) ne excitable cell a cikin juyayi tsarin da matakai da kuma watsa bayanai da electrochemical yi sigina . Neurons ne core gyara na kwakwalwa, da vertebrate laka, da invertebrate ventral jijiya igiyar da kuma na gefe jijiyoyi. Da yawan nau'ikan nau'ikan jijiyoyi na musamman sun wanzu: jijiyoyin jijiyoyin jiki sun amsa ga tabawa, sauti, haske da wasu abubuwa masu yawa da suka shafi kwayayen sassan jijiyoyi wadanda suke aika sakonni zuwa ga kashin baya da kwakwalwa. Neuwayoyi masu motsi suna karɓar sigina daga kwakwalwa da layin baya wanda ke haifar da raunin tsoka da tasiri gland . Interneurons suna haɗa jijiyoyi zuwa wasu jijiyoyi a cikin kwakwalwa da laka. Neurons suna amsawa ga motsa jiki, kuma suna sadar da kasancewar abubuwan motsa jiki zuwa ga tsarin juyayi na tsakiya, wanda ke aiwatar da wannan bayanin da aika martani ga wasu sassan jiki don aiki. Neurons ba su je ta mitosis kuma yawanci ba za a iya maye gurbinsu, bayan da aka hallaka, ko da yake astrocytes an lura ya juya zuwa neurons, kamar yadda su ne wani lokacin pluripotent .

Ilimin halin dan Adam[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutum yana tunanin tafiya jirgin kasa
Rubuta rubutu a bango: "don 'yi wa kaina tunani' ya zama ba mai kyau ba ne"

Masana halayyar dan adam sun maida hankali kan tunani azaman aikin hankali da nufin neman amsar wata tambaya ko maganin matsalar a aikace. Ilimin sanin halayyar dan adam wani yanki ne na ilimin halayyar dan adam wanda ke bincikar ayyukan cikin gida kamar warware matsaloli, tunatarwa, da yare. Makarantar tunani da ta samo asali daga wannan hanyar ana kiranta da cognitivism, wanda ke da sha'awar yadda mutane suke wakiltar sarrafa bayanai. Tana da tushe a cikin ilimin Gestalt psychology na Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, da Kurt Koffka, kuma a cikin aikin Jean Piaget, wanda ya ba da ka'idar matakai / matakai wanda ke bayanin ci gaban ilimin yara.

Fahimi Psychologists amfani psychophysical da kuma gwaji ta halarci fahimta, gane asali, da kuma warware matsaloli, a kan rãyukansu da shafi tunanin mutum da matakai da sasanta tsakanin kara kuzari da kuma mayar da martani. Suna nazarin bangarori daban-daban na tunani, gami da ilimin tunani, da yadda mutane ke yanke shawara da zaɓe, warware matsaloli, tare da shiga cikin ƙirƙirar kirkira da tunanin kirkirarrun tunani. Ka'idar fahimta ta nuna cewa mafita ga matsaloli ko dai suna daukar nau'ikan algorithms ne : ka'idojin da ba lallai bane a fahimtarsu amma sun yi alkawarin warwarewa, ko kuma na abubuwan tarihi : dokokin da aka fahimta amma ba koyaushe suke tabbatar da mafita ba. Kimiyyar fahimta ta banbanta da ilimin sanin halayyar dan adam a cikin wadannan algorithms wadanda ake niyyar kwaikwayon halayyar dan adam ana aiwatar dasu ko aiwatar dasu a kwamfuta. A wasu halaye, ana iya samun mafita ta hanyar fahimta, sanin wayewar kai ba zato ba tsammani.

A cikin ilimin halayyar ci gaban mutum, Jean Piaget ya kasance jagora a cikin binciken ci gaban tunani tun daga haihuwa zuwa balaga. A cikin ka'idarsa na ci gaban fahimi, tunani yana dogara ne akan ayyuka akan yanayin. Wato, Piaget yana ba da shawara cewa ana fahimtar yanayin ta hanyar haɗuwa da abubuwa a cikin ƙirar makircin aiki kuma waɗannan suna dacewa da abubuwan har zuwa yadda makircin da ake da shi ya gaza bukatun. A sakamakon wannan tsaka-tsakin tsakanin assimilation da masauki, tunani yana tasowa ta hanyar jerin matakai wadanda suka banbanta daga juna a yanayin wakilci da rikitarwa na fahimta da fahimta. Wato, tunani yana canzawa daga kasancewa bisa ga tsinkaye da ayyuka a matakan haska bayanai a cikin shekaru biyu na farkon rayuwa zuwa wakilcin cikin gida tun lokacin ƙuruciya. Bayan haka, sannu a hankali ana tsara wakilci zuwa tsari na hankali wanda ya fara aiki a kan kayan zahiri na zahiri, a cikin matakan aiwatar da kankare, sannan kuma ya yi aiki a kan ƙa'idodi marasa amfani waɗanda ke tsara kaddarorin ƙasa, a cikin matakan gudanar da aiki na yau da kullun. [2] A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, tunanin Piagetian na tunani an haɗa shi da tunanin sarrafa bayanai. Don haka, ana ɗaukar tunani azaman sakamakon hanyoyin da ke da alhakin wakilci da sarrafa bayanai. A cikin wannan tunanin, saurin aiki, sarrafa hankali, da ƙwaƙwalwar aiki sune manyan ayyuka waɗanda ke tushen tunani. A cikin cigaban neo-Piagetian theories na ci gaban fahimi, ci gaban tunani ana daukarta ya zo ne daga karuwar saurin sarrafawa, ingantaccen sarrafa hankali, da kuma kara karfin aiki.

Ingantaccen ilimin halayyar dan Adam ya jaddada kyawawan halaye na ilimin halin dan Adam kamar yadda yake da mahimmanci kamar yadda ake mai da hankali kan rikicewar yanayi da sauran alamu marasa kyau. A cikin ractarfin ractarfi da Virabi'a, Peterson da Seligman sun lissafa jerin kyawawan halaye. Ba a tsammanin mutum ɗaya yana da kowane ƙarfi, kuma ba a nufin su cika wannan halayyar gaba ɗaya. Jerin yana karfafa tunani mai kyau wanda yake gina kan karfin mutum, maimakon yadda za'a "gyara" alamomin su.

Nazarin kwakwalwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Id", "son kai" da "super-ego" su ne bangarori uku na " kayan aikin ruhi " wanda aka bayyana a cikin tsarin tsarin Sigmund Freud na psyche; su ne ka'idodi guda uku dangane da ayyukan da ma'amalarsu da rayuwar su. Dangane da wannan ƙirar, abubuwan da ba a haɗe ba na ilhami sun haɗu da "id", ɓangaren haƙiƙa na ruhi shine "son kai", kuma aiki mai mahimmanci, halin ɗabi'a shine "super-ego".

Don nazarin halayyar dan adam, sume bai hada da duk abin da bashi da hankali ba, a'a kawai abinda yake danniya sosai daga tunani na tunani ko kuma abin da mutum yake kin sani da sani. A wata ma'anar wannan ra'ayi yana sanya kai cikin dangantaka da sumewa a matsayin abokin gaba, yana yaƙi da kansa don ɓoye abin da sume ya ɓoye. Idan mutum ya ji zafi, abin da kawai zai iya tunani shi ne rage radadin. Duk wani sha'awar sa, don kawar da ciwo ko jin daɗin wani abu, umurtar hankali da abin da za ayi. Ga Freud, sume ya kasance ma'aji ne na ra'ayoyin da ba za a yarda da su ba, buri ko buƙatu, abubuwan da ke damun su, da motsin rai mai zafi waɗanda aka kawar da su ta hanyar tunanin danniya . Koyaya, abubuwan da ke ciki ba lallai bane su zama marasa kyau kawai. A cikin tunanin kwakwalwa, rashin sani karfi ne wanda za a iya gane shi kawai ta hanyar tasirinsa-yana bayyana kansa a cikin alamar .

" Bubban tunani " kwatanci ne wanda yake nuna tunani.

Ilimin halin dan adam shine nazarin yadda mutane da kungiyoyi suke mu'amala. Masana a cikin wannan yanki na rikice-rikice yawanci ko dai masu ilimin halayyar ɗan adam ko masu ilimin halayyar ɗan adam, kodayake duk masu ilimin zamantakewar zamantakewar al'umma suna amfani da mutum da ƙungiyar a matsayin ɓangarorin nazarin su .

Duk da kamanceceniyarsu, masu binciken halayyar dan adam da halayyar zaman jama'a sun sha bamban da manufofin su, hanyoyin su, hanyoyin su, da kalmomin su. Hakanan suna fifita litattafan ilimi daban-daban da ƙungiyoyin ƙwararru . Mafi girman lokacin hadin kai tsakanin masana halayyar dan adam da halayyar dan adam shine a cikin shekarun da suka biyo bayan yakin duniya na biyu . [3] Kodayake ana ci gaba da keɓancewa da ƙwarewa a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, wani ɗan tasirin juyi da tasiri ya kasance tsakanin ɓangarorin biyu.

A na gama sume, wani lokacin da aka sani da na gama tunaninsu da lamirinsu, shi ne wani lokaci na hikimar tantance Psychology, buga ta Carl Jung . Aangare ne na rashin sani, wanda al'umma, mutane, ko kuma dukkan bil'adama suka raba shi, a cikin tsarin haɗin kai wanda ya samo asali ne daga dukkan abubuwan yau da kullun kuma yana ƙunshe da ra'ayoyi kamar kimiyya, addini, da ɗabi'a . Duk da yake Freud bai bambanta tsakanin "mutum Psychology" da "gama tunani", Jung bambanta da na gama sume daga na sirri tunaninsu da lamirinsu musamman ga kowane mutum. Hakanan sanannen sanannen sanannen sananne ne a matsayin "tafki na abubuwan da suka shafi jinsinmu". [4]

A cikin "Ma'anar" babi na Jung's seminal work Psychological Types, Psychological, a karkashin ma'anar "gama gari" Jung nassoshi wakilcin gama kai, ajalin da Lucien Lévy-Bruhl ya kirkira a littafinsa na 1910 How Natives Think . Jung ya ce wannan shi ne abin da ya bayyana a matsayin gama gari. Freud, a gefe guda, bai yarda da ra'ayin gama gari ba a sume.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Halin dabba
  • Shafin tunani - itacen bishiya wanda ke gano nau'ikan tunani da yawa, nau'ikan tunani, bangarorin tunani, fagage masu alaƙa, da ƙari
  • Bayani na hankalin mutum - itace take gabatar da halaye, karfinsa, salo, da kuma fagagen binciken dan adam, da sauransu
  • Sake tunani

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bayne, Tim (21 Satumba 2013), "Tunani", Sabon Masanin Kimiyyar . Shafin fasali na 7-shafi akan batun.
  • Filaye, R. Douglas, "Brain yana Koyo ta Hanyoyin da Ba A Yi tsammani ba: Masana ilimin kimiyar jijiyoyin jijiyoyi sun gano wasu nau'ikan hanyoyin salula wadanda ba a san su ba don yin tunanin sabo", American Scientific, vol. 322, a'a. 3 (Maris 2020), shafi na 74-79. " Myelin, wanda aka daɗe yana ɗaukar rufin asiri a kan axons, yanzu ana ganin yana ba da gudummawa ga ilmantarwa ta hanyar sarrafa saurin alamun da ke tafiya tare da igiyoyin neural." (shafi na 79. )
  • Rajvanshi, Anil K. (2010), Yanayin Tunanin Mutum ,  .
  • Simon, Herbert, Misalan Tunani, juzu'i na, 1979,  ; Vol II, 1989, , Jami'ar Yale Press.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • The dictionary definition of think at Wiktionary</img>
  • Media related to Thinking at Wikimedia Commons</img>

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Dreyfus, Hubert. Dreyfus, Stuart. Mind Over Machine. Macmillan, 1987
  2. Piaget, J. (1951). Psychology of Intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  3. Sewell, W.H. (1989). Some reflections on the golden age of interdisciplinary social psychology. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 15.
  4. Jensen, Peter S., Mrazek, David, Knapp, Penelope K., Steinberg, Laurence, Pfeffer, Cynthia, Schowalter, John, & Shapiro, Theodore. (Dec 1997) "Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: ADHD as a disorder of adaptation. (attention-deficit hyperactivity syndrome)". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 36. p. 1672. (10). July 14, 2007.