Tushen Soyayya a Mahangar Halitta

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

An binciko ka'idar tushen soyayya ta irin waɗannan ilimomi na halitta kamar ilimin kimiyyar juyin halitta, ilimin halin ɗan adam da kuma neuroscience . Ana nazarin takamaiman sinadarai irin su oxytocin a cikin mahallin rawar da suke takawa wajen samar da gogewar ɗan adam da halayen da ke da alaƙa da soyayya

Ilimin Juyin Halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ilimin halayyar juyin halitta ya gabatar da bayanai da yawa don soyayya. Jarirai na biri da yara sun daɗe suna dogara ga taimakon iyaye. Don haka ana ganin soyayya a matsayin wata hanya ta inganta taimakon iyaye na yara na tsawon lokaci. Wani kuma shi ne cewa cututtukan da ake ɗauka ta hanyar jima'i na iya haifar da, a tsakanin sauran tasirin, rage yawan haihuwa na dindindin, rauni ga tayin, da ƙara haɗari yayin haihuwa . Wannan zai ba da damar keɓantaccen dangantaka na dogon lokaci rage haɗarin kamuwa da STD. [1]

Daga mahangar ilimin kimiyyar juyin halitta za a iya yin bincike kan gogewa da halayen da ke da alaƙa da soyayya dangane da yadda juyin halittar ɗan adam ya siffata su. [2] Misali, an ba da shawarar cewa an zaɓi harshen ɗan adam a lokacin juyin halitta a matsayin nau'in "siginar jima'i" wanda ke ba da damar ma'aurata damar yin hukunci game da lafiyar haihuwa. [3] Miller ya bayyana ilimin kimiyyar juyin halitta a matsayin wurin farawa don ƙarin bincike: “Kwararren ilimin ƙwaƙwalwa na iya ƙoƙarin gano abubuwan da suka dace da zawarcinsu a cikin kwakwalwa. Mafi mahimmanci, muna buƙatar mafi kyawun abubuwan lura game da zawarcin ɗan adam ta zahiri, gami da abubuwan da za a iya aunawa na zawarcin da ke yin tasiri ga zaɓin abokin aure, sakamakon haihuwa (ko aƙalla jima'i) sakamakon bambancin mutum a waɗannan bangarorin, da hanyoyin fahimtar zamantakewa da tunani. na soyayya." Tun a zamanin Darwin aka yi irin wannan hasashe game da sauye-sauyen sha'awar ɗan adam a cikin kiɗa kuma a matsayin tsarin sigina mai yuwuwa don jawowa da yin la'akari da dacewar abokan zama. [4] An ba da shawarar cewa ƙarfin ɗan adam don samun ƙauna ya samo asali ne a matsayin wata alama ga abokan aure da za su iya cewa abokin tarayya zai kasance iyaye nagari kuma yana iya taimakawa wajen yada kwayoyin halitta zuwa al'ummomi masu zuwa. [5] Masanin ilimin halitta Jeremy Griffith ya bayyana soyayya a matsayin 'rashin son kai mara sharadi', [6] yana ba da shawarar ilhami na haɗin kai da aka samu a cikin kakan ɗan adam na zamani, Australopithecus . Nazarin bonobos (babban biri a baya ana magana da shi a matsayin pygmy chimpanzee ) akai-akai don tallafawa abubuwan haɗin gwiwa a baya a cikin mutane. [7]

Bode da Kushnick sun gudanar da cikakken nazari game da soyayyar soyayya ta hanyar nazarin halittu a cikin 2021. [8] Sun yi la'akari da ilimin halin ɗan adam na soyayyar soyayya, tsarin sa, ci gaba a tsawon rayuwa, ayyuka, da tarihin juyin halitta. Dangane da abin da ke cikin wancan bita, sun ba da shawarar ma'anar rayuwa ta soyayya ta soyayya:

Ilimin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haɓaka hanyoyin zamantakewa na zamantakewa don bayyana soyayya don taimakawa ƙarin bayani game da abubuwan da ke tattare da soyayya. Daya daga cikin fitattun ra'ayoyin da suka shafi soyayya Robert J. Sternberg ne ya gabatar da shi wanda aka fi sani da " Ka'idar soyayya ta Triangular ". An gabatar da shi a cikin wannan ka'idar, soyayya tana bin motsi mai kusurwa uku, yana gudana tare da haɗuwa na matakai daban-daban a cikin bangarori uku na triangle. Bangarorin guda uku su ne Ƙaunar Zumunci, Ƙaunar Zuciya, da Ƙulla. [9] A cikin waɗannan ɓangarori uku na triangle, haɗuwa tsakanin biyu na iya haifar da wasu nau'ikan soyayya da ƙauna. Misali, Zumunci da Sha'awa yana haifar da soyayyar soyayya yayin da zumunci da sadaukarwa ke haifar da soyayya mai tausayi. Adadin adadin soyayyar da aka saka an bayyana shi ta girman girman da kuma gaba ɗaya nau'in triangle. Ka'idojin triangular ba kawai sun shafi dangantakar mutum ta yanzu ba, ana iya nufin su don bayyana ma'anar ma'anar ma'anar ma'anar ma'auni / sha'awar / sadaukarwa a cikin triangle mara daidaituwa, ko ma ƙayyade alwatika na soyayya don fifikon dangantaka

Neurochemistry[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ra'ayi na al'ada a ilmin halitta shine cewa akwai manyan abubuwan motsa jiki guda uku cikin soyayya – libido, abin da aka makala, da fifikon abokin tarayya . [10] [11] Na farko neurochemicals ( neurotransmitters, jima'i hormones, da neuropeptides ) da ke mulkin wadannan tafiyarwa su ne testosterone, estrogen, dopamine, oxytocin, da kuma vasopressin . [10] [12]

Hanyoyin dopamine na tsakiya suna daidaita halayyar fifikon abokin tarayya, yayin da vasopressin a cikin pallidum na ventral da oxytocin a cikin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da ƙananan hypothalamic tsakiya na tsakiya suna daidaita fifikon abokin tarayya da halayen haɗin kai. [13] [14] Yin jima'i yana canzawa da farko ta hanyar aiki a cikin hanyar mesolimbic dopamine ( yankin ventral tegmental da tsakiya accumbens ). [13] Trace amines (misali, phenethylamine da tyramine ) suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen daidaita ayyukan neuronal a cikin hanyoyin dopaminergic na tsarin juyayi na tsakiya . [15]

Testosterone da estrogen suna ba da gudummawa ga waɗannan abubuwan motsa jiki ta hanyar daidaita ayyukan a cikin hanyoyin dopamine. [16] Isassun matakan ƙwayoyin testosterone suna da mahimmanci ga halayen jima'i na mutum da na mace. [17] Norepinephrine da serotonin suna da ƙarancin mahimmanci, suna ba da gudummawa ta hanyar tasirin neuromodulatory akan dopamine da sakin oxytocin a wasu hanyoyi. [16]

Sinadaran da suka jawo waɗanda ke da alhakin soyayya mai daɗi da ƙauna na dogon lokaci da alama sun fi dacewa da ayyukan da mutane biyu ke shiga a ciki maimakon yanayin takamaiman mutanen da abin ya shafa. [18] Mutanen da suka fada cikin soyayya kwanan nan suna nuna matakan cortisol mafi girma. [19]

Matsayin tsarin limbic[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

James Papez ne ya fara bayanin rawar tsarin limbic a cikin motsin rai a cikin 1937 a cikin takardarsa mai taken "Hanyar da aka ba da shawarar." Ana kiran samfurin da kewayen Papez. Da'irar Papez ta nuna kasancewar hanyoyin neuronal tsakanin tsarin vestibular da tsarin limbic. [20] Na'urar vestibular tana cikin kunnen ciki wannan na'urar tana daidaita daidaiton jiki da motsi. wannan yana buƙatar sadarwar neuronal mai yawa. Ƙarfafawar vestibular na iya haifar da canje-canje a yanayi da motsin rai. Ƙarfafawar vestibular ta hanyar rinjayar hypothalamus na iya yin tasiri ga motsin rai ko dai da kansa ko a matsayin wani ɓangare na cibiyoyin sadarwa na gabaɗaya. Waɗannan motsin rai na iya haɗawa da matsananciyar wuce gona da iri, asarar tuƙi / motsa jiki, yawan ci da sha, da fushi da ɗabi'a na tashin hankali. [20] Nazarin ya nuna Soyayyar Soyayya tana amfani da lada da tsarin ƙarfafawa don mai da hankali kan takamaiman mutum. Yankunan limbic cortical suna aiwatar da abubuwan motsin rai. [21]

A cikin Babban Ka'idar Ƙauna , malaman farfesa guda uku daga UCSF sun ba da cikakken bayani game da ka'idodin kimiyya da binciken da suka danganci rawar da tsarin limbic a cikin soyayya, haɗin kai da zamantakewa. Suna ci gaba da hasashe cewa tsarin jijiyoyinmu ba su da kashin kansu, amma a zahiri sun dace da na kusa da mu da waɗanda muka fi kusanci da su. Wannan tausayi, wanda suke kira limbic resonance, shine damar da muke rabawa, tare da halayen halayen halayen limbic na kwakwalwa, tare da duk sauran dabbobi masu shayarwa. [22] Ayyukansu sun gina a kan nazarin da suka gabata na mahimmancin hulɗar jiki da ƙauna a cikin ci gaban zamantakewa da fahimta, irin su gwaje-gwajen da Harry Harlow ya yi a kan birai rhesus, wanda ya fara kafa sakamakon nazarin halittu na kadaici.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 14, Commitment, Love, and Mate Retention by Lorne Campbell B. and Bruce J. Ellis.
  2. "Evolutionary psychology: the emperor's new paradigm" by D. J. Buller in Trends Cogn. Sci. (2005) Volume 9 pages 277-283.
  3. The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature Error in Webarchive template: Empty url. by Geoffrey F. Miller in Psycoloquy (2001) 12,#8.[page needed]
  4. Evolution of human music through sexual selection by G. F. Miller in N. L. Wallin, B. Merker, & S. Brown (Eds.), The origins of music, MIT Press, (2000). pp. 329-360.
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  6. Griffith J. 2011. What is Love?. In The Book of Real Answers to Everything 08033994793.ABA. http://www.worldtransformation.com/what-is-love/
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  11. Slater, Lauren (February 2006). "Love". National Geographic. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
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  18. Slater, Lauren (February 2006). "Love". National Geographic. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
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